we are pleased to introduce you to the mudra media fact-book for 2008. the objective of the book is to list & report the performance & key trends in the media industry.
the information has been sought from various established industry sources, wherever possible (including the census, irs, adex, ficci among others). we have also applied our discretion based on the wealth of knowledge and experience within mudra wherever required.
the indian industry has been growing at a healthy rate in the last few years and the trend is expected to be positive overall going into the next year as well. the television industry continues to witness an on flux of new channels every year. the distribution platform is also changing with dth gaining momentum & iptv & mobile tv joining the fray. radio is booming with more than 270 private fm radio stations across the country and growing at a brisk pace, though facing the challenge of differentiation of content. print media also continued to flourish with newer editions being launched by dailies & a slew of new magazines being launched in 2008.the multiplex juggernaut continues to roll beyond the metro cities.
overall, the media industry has witnessed a healthy positive growth in 2008. the growth rate is due to several reasons notably – a healthy growth in gdp, entry of large global conglomerates, expansion plans by indian media houses, entry of many a large indian business corporate into the media business, an increase in disposable income amongst indian consumers, government de-regulations & technological advancements.
all india population 84.29 cr all india literacy rate (68%) media penetration 60% population 57.87 cr rural literates (61%) media penetration 55% urban population 26.41cr urban literates (83%) media penetration 81% all india urban rural source: irs r2 2008 (individuals, 12+ yrs) penetration of media: all india & urban-rural
exposure of number of media – aggregated individuals on an average exposed to the various medium type source: irs r2 2008 (individuals, 12+ yrs) exposure & overlap in media
television: characteristics clutter high production cost high absolute cost short message life low selectivity favorable image attention getting low cost per exposure high prestige impact of sight, sound & motion high reach advantages disadvantages mass coverage
tv ownership tv hh – all india 7.9 cr (40%) 8.7 cr (42%) 9.2 cr (43%) 9.7 cr. ( 44%) 10.3 cr. (46%) source: irs r2 2008 (households) figs in (cr)
television channels: growth in numbers & advertising 29% 33% 29% 35% 34% growth in no of spots #channels #spots source: adex data as on 27 th dec 2008 22%
up until a few years back, 80% of the total prime and non prime time programs on dd used to be marketed by private producers in all the kendra's including dd1 nnw. but after 2006-2007 dd has decided to market all the programs themselves and mainly in dd1 nnw which contributes around 60% of the total dd revenue. due to non existence of private producers the scope of negotiations is negated as dd mainly operates on a rate card/fixed package rate for all the programs marketed by them. in the language kendra's like dd16 lucknow, dd7 bangla, dd6 oriya, dd jallandhar, dd rajasthan, dd mp the major programs are still marketed by various private producers.
dd1 nnw is the main revenue earning channel amongst all channels in the dd bouquet. in all the other regional kendra's dd5 tamil, dd8 telugu and dd9 kannada have lost their share in terms of viewership and revenue due to increase in satellite penetration these states.
dd earlier use to advocate a volume discount scheme for the clients on an annual basis spends commitment in the beginning of the year. the vds format till year 2005-2006 is as follows which is now due for change post dialogues with advertisers and the media agencies. the earlier volume discount slab was as under:
channel shares: by genres hindi channels gec movie news music business news english channels gec movie news business news regional channels tamil nadu karnataka kerala andhra pradesh maharashtra west bengal other channels devotional lifestyle infotainment kids sports
lifestyle source: tam tg: cs 4+ yrs market: 6 metros day part: all days 0200 hrs to 25:59 hrs data available till 27 th dec 2008
infotainment source: tam tg: cs 4+ yrs market: 6 metros day part: all days 0200 hrs to 25:59 hrs data available till 27 th dec 2008
kids source: tam tg: cs 4+ yrs market: all india day part: all days 0200 hrs to 25:59 hrs data available till 27 th dec 2008
sports source: tam tg: cs 4+ yrs market: all india day part: all days 0200 hrs to 25:59 hrs data available till 27 th dec 2008 ind vs aus test series & hero honda cup ind vs eng ind vs aus test series ind/ aus/ sl tri series ind/sl idea cup ind/pak/b’desh kitply cup asia cup
devotional source: tam tg: cs 4+ yrs market: all india day part: all days 0200 hrs to 25:59 hrs data available till 27 th dec 2008
newspaper: characteristics selective reader exposure poor reproduction quality low attention getting high clutter short life can be used for coupons reader controls exposure timely (current ads) ads can be placed in section of interest short lead time for placing ads low cpt high coverage advantages disadvantages
magazine: characteristics lack of flexibility visual only long lead time for ad placement multiple readers longevity high information content quality reproduction segmentation potential advantages disadvantages
readership – claimed & average issue all india rural urban air: average issue r’ship cr: claimed r’ship source: irs (individuals, 12+ yrs)
radio: characteristics fleeting message low attention getting clutter audio only well-segmented audience low production cost flexible high frequency low cost local coverage advantages disadvantages
Performance of Radio: listenership & time spent Source: IRS R2 2008 (Individuals, 12+ yrs)
sms alerts – user opts in for specific alerts like news, cricket etc brand message can be incorporated in the form of text footer
sms pull – short code driven response activity, which can be used for offers, contest etc.
wap advertising – mobile web (or wap) allows subscribers to access various web sites, it allows banner space on the mobile site
sms 2.0 is an upgrade to the consumer’s default cellphone sms (messaging) application. sms 2.0 has converged messaging, content and advertising into one seamless application.
sms 2.0 is different from other formats of mobile marketing as it treats the handset like any other popular mass media — that is, the subscriber uses a wide spectrum of the media to create contextual advertising opportunities.
the user defines the mobile content by opting for advertisers in his or her area of interest. so instead of all advertisers targetting all users, the user will benefit by having only the advertiser of his choice
interactive voice response, also known as audio text, is the automated processing of inbound & outbound phone calls. ads can be placed when the consumer dials the number.
an advertising format that transfers values of sponsored gaming environment to the brand itself, and is the most prevalent form of advertising experience within games. branded games can be created for users to download for their gaming experience
currently the penetration of gprs enabled handsets are close to 26% in india. of the total mobile subscribers in india 65 million possess gprs-enabled handsets. of all those who posses gprs enabled handsets only 20-25% of them have got the gprs activated and only about 15% use it
3g networks are wide area cellular telephone networks which have evolved to incorporate high-speed internet access and video telephony. 3g technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency. services include wide-area wireless voice telephony and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment
person to person sms, the most common form of mobile communication apart from voice. in the indian market, p2p is so well integrated into the offering that some of the operators refuse to consider p2p sms as part of mvas.
this is inclusive of monotones, polytones, true tones and also includes crbt (caller ring back tones).
p2a & a2p: p2a (person to application) sms
are the messages sent by end users for contest participation (as in paanchvi paas) or voting in talent shows (e.g. indian idol) & for seeking other information like news & updates
(a2p)application to person sms
comprise of service push by enterprise service providers and is part of mobile marketing
games include download of games offered primarily by mobile operators and content developers. the games are downloaded using gprs connectivity for e.g. hanuman. in some cases, handset manufacturers tie up with production houses to launch new games e.g. nokia tie up with om shanti om to launch a game on shahrukh khan.
a marketing platforms allows two-way transfers of data to/form mobile devices on proximity of such mobile devices to a blue cast server. it is typically supported with out of home media, promoting the consumer to activate his blue tooth device and push branded message to the consumer with their permission
fees advertisers pay internet companies to list and/or link their company site or domain name to a specific search word or phrase (includes paid search revenues). search categories include:
paid listings: text links appears at the top of the site of search results for specific keywords. the more a marketer pays, the higher the position it gets. marketers only pay when a user clicks on the text links.
contextual links: text links appear in an article based on the context of the content, instead of user-submitted keyword. payments occur only when keyboard
paid inclusion: guarantees that the marketer’s url is indexed by the search engine. the listing is determined by the engine’s search algorithms
search engine marketing (sem):
a form of internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in the search engine result pages
advertising woven into editorial content or placed in a contextual envelope, also known as ‘web advertorial’
the scheduling whereby an ad network positions ads across the sites it represents as its own discretion, according to available inventory.
the scheduling whereby an ad network positions ads across the entire sites, often at a lower cost to the advertiser than the purchase of specific site sub-sections
in print, the number of copies of a vehicle distributed based on an average of a number of issues. in broadcast, the number of television or radio households that tune in to a station a minimum number of times within a specified time period (such as once a week or once a day).
a method of scheduling advertising so that audiences have an opportunity to see ads at regular intervals. there are many patterns that could be used, from advertising once each day of the year to once a month.
the participation of two or more sponsors in a single broadcast program where each advertiser pays a proportionate share of the cost.
excessive amounts of advertising carried by media vehicles, both print and broadcast. term refers to both the total amount of advertising time and space and to its scheduling long strings of consecutive commercials for broadcasting and solid banks of advertisements in print.
combination rate -
a discounted rate offered to encourage use of two or more stations, newspapers, magazines, etc, having common ownership. occasionally, an advertiser has no choice but to buy the combination as space/time may not be sold separately.
cost efficiency -
the effectiveness of media as measured by a comparison of audience, either potential or actual, with cost and expressed as a cost per thousand.
cost per thousand (cpt) -
a figure used in comparing or evaluating the cost efficiency of media vehicles. (cpt is the cost to deliver 1000 people and is calculated by dividing the cost by the audience delivery and multiplying the quotient by 1000).
cpt = -------------- x 1000
cumulative audience -
the net unduplicated audience of a campaign, either in one medium or a combination of media.
proportion of viewers of a particular channel to viewers of any channel.
a part of the broadcast day, so designated for analytical purposes. in tv, the day parts are usually day time (morning and afternoon), early fringe, prime time, and ate fringe. in radio, they are morning, daytime, afternoon, evening.
day-after recall -
probably the most common method used to test television commercials. test commercials are shown on the air in the normal fashion. approximately twenty-four hours later people are phoned and asked about their previous day's viewing. only those who viewed the program carrying the test commercial are further questioned. the test score consists of that proportion of the commercial audience who are able to provide specific correct audio or video details from the test commercial
the number or percentage of people in one vehicle's audience who also are exposed to another vehicle. also audiences who are counted more than once in measurements, such as those who view the same tv program more than once
effective reach/frequency -
the reach of a medium or media schedule at a predetermined level of frequency (as opposed to total reach).
freedom from competing advertising within a given communications medium enjoyed by one advertiser; requires major space or time purchases
the introduction of an advertisement to the target audience. it is generally expressed as opportunity to see (ots) or even frequency.
fixed position -
a specific period / space of station / channel / publication reserved for an advertiser and sold at a premium rate.
a method of scheduling advertising for a period of time, followed by a period of no advertising, followed by a resumption of advertising. floating periodical advertising, to run an advertisement within a space which is larger than the ad.
gross audience -
the combined audience of a combination of media or a campaign in a single medium. to go from gross audience to net audience, one must subtract all duplicated audiences
gross impressions -
the sum of audiences of all vehicles used in a media plan. this number represents the message weight of a media plan.
a measure of the total gross weight delivered by a vehicle (or vehicles). it is the sum of the ratings for the individual announcements or programs. gross rating points are duplicated ratings. also, reach times frequency equals grps .
a period of time during which there is no advertising activity.
a special page printed on superior or different paper stock by the advertiser and forwarded to the publisher to be bound into the publication or to be inserted loose.
an advertisement in a print medium. integrated commercial- a commercial that features more than one product or service in the form of a single commercial message
island position -
a newspaper or magazine advertisement entirely surrounded by editorial matter or margin.
an announcement or advertisement run as a replacement for one that was scheduled but did not run, or that ran incorrectly.
media weight -
the total impact of advertising campaign in terms of number of commercials, insertions, reach and frequency, advertising monies, etc.
any media class used to convey an advertising message to the public, such as newspapers, magazines, direct mail, radio, television and billboards
an electronic device that measures viewership of a given programme / time band.
a term that describes consumers or audience members on the basis of some psychological trait, characteristic of behavior, or life-style.
a media scheduling technique which produces alternating periods of heavy activity followed by lower activity periods
is concerned with understanding the processes, which underlie various behavioural patterns. "qualitative research" is primarily concerned with "why”. qualitative research usually involves group discussions or in-depth interviews.
the estimated percentage of people exposed to particular print or broadcast vehicle in the survey area. for tv, this is measured using the peoplemeter and the diary methods.
the number of different persons or homes exposed to a specific media vehicle or schedule at least once. usually measured over a specific period of time. also know as cume, cumulative, unduplicated, or net audience.
run of schedule (ros) -
a broadcast commercial for which a definite time is not specified. for example, a nighttime commercial during prime time may be run at any time during this period.
a strategically planned distribution of advertising across various media over time.
share of voice -
the brand’s share of advertising returns as compared to other products in the same category
socio economic class-
a market segmentation system which classifies the population according to the certain social and economic parameters.
socio economic class (sec rural)-
as originally conceptualised and classified by irs, rural sec is categorised into 4 groups based on the education and type of household viz. r1, r2, r3 and r4. r1 denotes the upper-most rural sec and r4 the lowest sec.
socio economic class (sec urban)-
the market research society of india (mrsi) classification categorized eight socio-economic groups based on the occupation and education of the chief wage earner of the household in urban india viz a1, a2, b1, b2, c, d, e1 and e2. a1 denotes the upper-most sec and e2 the lowest sec.
television rating points-
a percentage of the target audience watching a single program or a commercial or a slot at a given point in time. expressed as % by default.
viewers at a given time
tvr = --------------------------------- x 100
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