The american revolution


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The american revolution

  1. 1. The American Revolution SS8H3 – The student will analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolution
  2. 2. Causes of the Revolution • There are several factors that lead to the American Revolution: – The French & Indian War – The Proclamation of 1763 – The Stamp Act – The Intolerable Acts
  3. 3. The French & Indian War • 1754-1763 • Who fought whom? – Great Britain was on one • The war was caused side because of tension – The French became (problems) between allies (friends) with the Great Britain and France Native Americans
  4. 4. Outcome of the French & Indian War • Great Britain won the war • The war had several positive results for Georgia: – Georgia grew! The Mississippi River became Georgia’s new western border – Georgia was more secure! Great Britain gained control of Florida, meaning the colonists in Georgia didn’t have to worry about the Spanish anymore • Great Britain incurred lots of debt (owed money to other countries)
  5. 5. The Proclamation of 1763 • Because Great Britain incurred a lot of debt fighting for the colonists, King George III thought that he and Parliament (GB’s legislative branch) should have more of a say in what happened in the colonies  the King ended the practice of salutary neglect (letting the colonies govern themselves)
  6. 6. The Proclamation of 1763 • The Proclamation of 1763 did two things: –Created 4 new colonies –Prohibited American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains (King George did this to help make peace with the Native Americans)
  7. 7. The Proclamation of 1763 • How did the colonists react to the Proclamation of 1763? – The colonists thought that the Proclamation of 1763 was unfair because it limited their personal freedoms and economic opportunities (a chance to make more money)
  8. 8. The Stamp Act • After the French & Indian War, Great Britain needed to make money to pay off its debts • The most common way that governments raise revenue (income) is to tax their citizens • The Stamp Act was passed in 1765 • It placed a tax (money that an individual must pay to the government) on all legal documents, newspapers, licenses, and other things necessary to do business
  9. 9. Look at the political cartoon on the right. What do you think was the colonists’ opinion of the Stamp Act? These are examples of what a Royal Stamp would have looked like. A political cartoon showing the colonists’ reaction to the Stamp Act.
  10. 10. Effects of the Stamp Act • Many colonies selected delegates to represent them at the Stamp Act Congress  Georgia did not because its assembly was not in session • The Stamp Act Congress decided that each colony should boycott (refuse to buy) any good that required a government stamp • Georgia was the only American colony to ever sell any stamps  a few were sold in Savannah • Parliament eventually repealed (did away with) the Stamp Act
  11. 11. The Intolerable Acts • After the Stamp Act, Great Britain issued a tax on tea  In 1773, a group of Bostonians (people from Boston) dumped a lot of tea into Boston Harbor in protest against the Tea Act • As a result of the Boston Tea Party, King George III and Parliament passed several new laws in 1774: – – – – Placed a military governor in charge of Massachusetts Closed Boston Harbor Took away land from several colonies Enacted (made a law) the Quartering Act
  12. 12. The Quartering Act • The Quartering Act forced all of the colonists to house (give shelter to) any British soldier if the soldier asked • The owner of the house had to pay for all of the soldiers expenses out of his own pocket • This upset all of the colonies, including Georgia
  13. 13. Effects of the Intolerable Acts • The colonies created the First Continental Congress  Georgia was the only colony that did not send delegates (representatives) • The First Continental Congress sent a message to the King that the colonists believed they should live by their own laws because they weren’t represented in Parliament
  14. 14. What about Georgia? • Georgia was the youngest of the American colonies, and still depended very heavily on aid from Great Britain • They didn’t want to do anything to upset the King
  15. 15. “Join, or Die” by Benjamin Franklin 1. 2. 3. What do you know about Benjamin Franklin? What colony is missing from the snake? What do you think Franklin meant by “Join, or Die?”
  16. 16. Declaration of Independence • Signed on July 4, 1776 by the Second Continental Congress • Georgia only sent 1 unofficial delegate (representative) to the start of the congress  Abraham Baldwin • Georgia sent 2 more delegates for a total of 3  William Few, and Button Gwinnett
  17. 17. The Revolutionary War • The war was fought between Great Britain and the American Colonists • Patriots were colonists who were opposed to (against) Great Britain • Tories were colonists who were loyal to (on the same side as) Great Britain • The American Revolution lasted from 17751781
  18. 18. The War in Georgia • Georgia was the site of 2 major battles during the American Revolution: – The Battle of Kettle Creek – The Siege of Savannah This historical marker marks the site of the Battle of Kettle Creek
  19. 19. The Battle of Kettle Creek • February 1779 • Colonel Elijah Clarke led Georgia’s militia (soldiers who only fight during a war) to a victory over 700 British soldiers • The Patriots got weapons and supplies from the defeated British • The victory lifted the morale (good feelings) of the patriots in Georgia
  20. 20. Austin Dabney • Slave who fought in his master’s place • Wounded during the Battle of Kettle Creek • Awarded freedom and land for his service during the Revolutionary War Nancy Hart • Was a Patriot spy during the Revolutionary War • Sometimes dressed like a man and went into loyalist (Tory) camps to get information • One legend says that she held a group of Tories at gunpoint until help arrived
  21. 21. The Siege of Savannah • Fall 1779 • 1,500 Patriots and 4,000 French troops tried to recapture Savannah from the Tories • On October 9, the Patriots and French attacked the British • The Patriots were defeated
  22. 22. The War Ends! General Lord Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington on October 19, 1781. The Treaty of Paris officially ended the war 2 years later in 1783.
  24. 24. GA’s Constitution of 1777 • Based on the ideas of natural rights (rights that were given to humans from birth) and governments having power by the consent of the governed (the people being ruled give power to the rulers) • Created three branches of government in Georgia  Executive Branch (Governor); Legislative Branch (unicameral, or “one house”, Assembly; Judicial Branch (state courts) • Because the people of Georgia did not want one person to have too much power, the Constitution gave most of the power to the Legislative Branch
  25. 25. The Articles of Confederation • Ratified (voted on and approved) in 1781 • The Articles gave the individual States too much power, and did not give the Federal (National) government enough power • Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation: – States could print their own money – Federal government could not levy (create) taxes  had to ask the States for money – Federal government could not have a standing army or navy – Federal government could not pass laws unless 9 out of 13 States agreed with the law
  26. 26. The Constitutional Convention • Georgia sent 2 delegates to the convention  Abraham Baldwin and William Few • During the Convention, 2 versions of the Constitution were created  The Virginia Plan (favored large Southern States) and The New Jersey Plan (favored small Northern States) • The delegates voted on the