The study of the compound of carbon is called organic chemistry.
Groups of carbon compounds with the same functional group are called homologous series
Organic compounds are named according to their longest carbon chain.
Hex- Pent- But- Pro- Eth- Meth- Prefix 6 5 4 3 2 1 Number of C atoms
Nomenclature -oate Esters -oic C n H 2n CO 2 H Carboxylic Acids C=O -one Ketones -al Aldehyde – OH -ol C n H 2n+1 OH Alcohols – Cl or –Br chloro -, bromo- etc Haloalkanes C=C -ene C n H 2n Alkenes C –H -ane C n H 2n+2 Alkanes Functional group Name General Formula Homologous Series – C O H – C O O–C – C O OH
Alkenes are unsaturated. This means that they do not have the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms.
The double bond in in alkenes is comprised of a covalent bond and a pi bond. The pi bond has electron density above and below the covalent bond and is weaker than a covalent bond.
Because of the weaker second bond alkenes are more reactive than alkanes.
There is no rotation around the double bond, this causes alkenes to have a planar shape.
Reactions of Alkenes +H 2 catalyst Heat & pressure +Br 2 +HCl +steam & catalyst n Catalyst & heat Remember in the presence of alkenes bromine water decolourises H H – C –C – H H Br Br – C –C – H Cl – C –C – H OH – C –C – alkane C=C