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Using ADDIE Model to Design Second Life activities for Online Learners

Using ADDIE Model to Design Second Life activities for Online Learners



This presentation examines the nature of a virtual learning environment – Second Life--, and introduces several Second Life learning examples to help readers who never used Second Life understand ...

This presentation examines the nature of a virtual learning environment – Second Life--, and introduces several Second Life learning examples to help readers who never used Second Life understand its merits and setback on teaching and learning.



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    Using ADDIE Model to Design Second Life activities for Online Learners Using ADDIE Model to Design Second Life activities for Online Learners Presentation Transcript

    • Using ADDIE Model to Design Second Life activities for Online Learners Shiang-Kwei Wang, Ph.D. Hui-Yin Hsu, Ph.D. New York Institute of Technology 2008 e-Learning
    • Introduction
      • Second Life ( http://www.secondlife.com )
        • A 3D multi-user virtual environment (MUVE)
        • Is imaged, maintained, and developed by its own users.
        • Over six millions users from over 100 countries
        • Non-profit and profit organizations, academic, and schools
    • Why use SL in Online Learning?
      • Issues of online learning
        • Social presence
        • Communication
        • Motivation
    • Why use SL in Online Learning?
      • Enriched Learning Experience
        • play with the scientific objects such as lunar landing module
        • experience the simulation of tsunami and observe the process of glacier retreat
        • replicate the real world event in the SL
        • Virtual trip
      • Strengthen Sense of Social Presence
        • Missing sense of social presence (Garrison, Cleveland_Innes & Fung, 2004; Ocker & Yaverbaum, 1999).
        • Strong sense of community is needed (Hill & Raven, 2000; Lally & Barrett, 1999).
        • Avatar
          • Jung (2008)
          • Pence (2007)
      • Enable Multi-levels of Interaction
        • Online interaction(Moore, 1989; Northrup & Rasmussen, 2000).
          • between students and content (Blackboard)
          • between instructors and students,
          • among students
        • SL supports verbal and non-verbal interaction (Robbins, 2007).
        • Near real-life interaction
        • Open environment
      • Promoting constructivism
        • Dalgarno (2001)
          • each person forms their own representation of knowledge,
          • learning occurs when the learner’s exploration uncovers an inconsistency between their current knowledge representation and their experience, and
          • learning occurs within a social context, and that interaction between learners and their peers is a necessary part of the learning process. (p. 184)
      • SL supports the 3 principles
        • each learner has the freedom to discover information relevant to his or her interests
        • simulation results derived from different combinations of parameters.
        • Communication tools (voice chat, text chat) facilitate learner-to-learner social interaction,
      • Enriched multimedia resources
        • text, images, 3D objects, audio and video,
        • Enable two-way voice chat,
        • connects with hyperlinked materials on the web.
        • capture 2D-image SL snapshots or record video clips to document activities and interactions.
        • The legitimate members of an island can create and build 3D models and can design interaction through the SL programming scripts.
    • Challenge of using SL
      • high-end hardware requirements.
      • occupies the network bandwidth.
      • Distraction in the open environment
      • Difficult to guide text chat
      • Difficult to give individual attention
    • Overcome challenges
      • adopt voice-chat tools rather than use text chat
      • learners be required to prepare necessary equipment
      • if instructors cannot access a private meeting room, they should conduct a group discussion at a site like “Place to Meet” island (http://www.secondlife.crowneplaza.com).
    • Use ID to Amplify SL learning
      • ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation)
    • Analysis
      • instructional technology graduate program at a four-year university in New York
      • Prepare trainers
      • part-time students, trainers, or trainers-to-be;
      • No prior SL experience
      • Needs:
        • Strengthen sense of community
        • Improve students’ knowledge of using SL
      • Objectives
        • to know basic SL operations,
        • to understand the pros and cons of using SL in teaching and learning, and
        • to know about exemplifying cases of SL use in K-12 settings, higher education, and corporations.
    • Analysis
      • The instructor should determine the needs by conducting a needs analysis relative to the target learners.
      • Online survey (determine the students’ background knowledge, learning motivation and goals)
    • Design
      • Determine learning objectives and design learning activities, assessments, and methods to present the content.
      • Activities have to be able to:
        • help familiarize the learners with SL operations,
        • support collaboration and negotiation through SL’s multi-level interaction,
        • supporting the construction of the learners’ knowledge and experience regarding how SL can support online teaching
    • Activity 1 (warm up)
      • Students create an SL account, to edit their own avatars’ appearance
      • add their peers to the “friends list.”
      • showed students the way to Orientation Island Public to practice basic SL operations.
      • Assessment: required students to take a snapshot of themselves playing ball on the island and to post the pictures on Blackboard.
    • Activity 2 (readings)
      • Students reviewed the assigned SL papers and presentation slides
      • Assessment:
        • respond to questions posted by the instructor on Blackboard.
        • students exchanged their thoughts to demonstrate their understandings of SL’s possible applications
    • Activity 3 (exploration)
      • used the teleport function to visit several designated landmarks
      • explore how non-profit museums and schools were using SL
      • Assessment:
        • post the SLURL of a landmark that they could adopt in their organizations.
        • Exchange thoughts with peers on good idea regarding SL use in their area of expertise
    • Activity 4 (Group interaction)
      • The entire class met with the instructor in SL for two sessions and visited islands that could facilitate teaching and learning.
      • Assessment:
        • Students led the group to observe the islands they found
        • Instructor should lead discussion, observed each avatar’s participation and reaction, and facilitated the interaction among group members.
    • Activity 5 (reflection)
      • Students wrote a 2,000-word paper to discuss the pros, the cons, the concepts, and the potential of using SL in teaching and learning, following the
      • Assessment: evaluate by a rubric
    • Development
      • the instructor should construct and deliver materials required for the sessions.
        • constructed a web page to help deliver all activities and to list deadlines corresponding to the assignments on Blackboard
        • scrutinized the SL islands to make sure that all activities were designed well
        • Directed students to complete the five activities and all assessments.
        • used the snapshot and video recording features to set up visual examples
    • Implementation
      • Implementation concerns the actual launching of the course.
    • Evaluation
      • The evaluation helped the instructor determine whether or not the curriculum was successful and how it could be improved for the next implementation phase.
      • Formative: external evaluator, participants’ interaction in SL, feedback, questions, emails, and responses to the assignments
      • Summative: Participants’ SL reports
    • Conclusion
      • consider the pros and cons of using SL and what it can do to help engage online learners,
      • design tasks that motivate students to participate in SL
      • Avoid “throwing” learners into the SL environment without first giving them specific instructions or meaningful tasks.
      • ADDIE constituted a systematic method ensure SL’s function as a tool assisting teaching and learning
      • instructor should
      • explore SL first to realize what an SL user can do in the virtual environment,
      • explore how SL activities can relate to the course topic,
      • then introduce these SL activities to the students.
    • Resource
      • http://secondlifeforme.blogspot.com
      • (Second Life for Me)