Using ADDIE Model to Design Second Life activities for Online Learners


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This presentation examines the nature of a virtual learning environment – Second Life--, and introduces several Second Life learning examples to help readers who never used Second Life understand its merits and setback on teaching and learning.

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Using ADDIE Model to Design Second Life activities for Online Learners

  1. 1. Using ADDIE Model to Design Second Life activities for Online Learners Shiang-Kwei Wang, Ph.D. Hui-Yin Hsu, Ph.D. New York Institute of Technology 2008 e-Learning
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Second Life ( ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 3D multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is imaged, maintained, and developed by its own users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over six millions users from over 100 countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-profit and profit organizations, academic, and schools </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Why use SL in Online Learning? <ul><li>Issues of online learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why use SL in Online Learning? <ul><li>Enriched Learning Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>play with the scientific objects such as lunar landing module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experience the simulation of tsunami and observe the process of glacier retreat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>replicate the real world event in the SL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual trip </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Strengthen Sense of Social Presence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing sense of social presence (Garrison, Cleveland_Innes & Fung, 2004; Ocker & Yaverbaum, 1999). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong sense of community is needed (Hill & Raven, 2000; Lally & Barrett, 1999). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avatar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jung (2008) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pence (2007) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Enable Multi-levels of Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online interaction(Moore, 1989; Northrup & Rasmussen, 2000). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>between students and content (Blackboard) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>between instructors and students, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>among students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SL supports verbal and non-verbal interaction (Robbins, 2007). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near real-life interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open environment </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Promoting constructivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dalgarno (2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each person forms their own representation of knowledge, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning occurs when the learner’s exploration uncovers an inconsistency between their current knowledge representation and their experience, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning occurs within a social context, and that interaction between learners and their peers is a necessary part of the learning process. (p. 184) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>SL supports the 3 principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each learner has the freedom to discover information relevant to his or her interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simulation results derived from different combinations of parameters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication tools (voice chat, text chat) facilitate learner-to-learner social interaction, </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Enriched multimedia resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>text, images, 3D objects, audio and video, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable two-way voice chat, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connects with hyperlinked materials on the web. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capture 2D-image SL snapshots or record video clips to document activities and interactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The legitimate members of an island can create and build 3D models and can design interaction through the SL programming scripts. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Challenge of using SL <ul><li>high-end hardware requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>occupies the network bandwidth. </li></ul><ul><li>Distraction in the open environment </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to guide text chat </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to give individual attention </li></ul>
  11. 11. Overcome challenges <ul><li>adopt voice-chat tools rather than use text chat </li></ul><ul><li>learners be required to prepare necessary equipment </li></ul><ul><li>if instructors cannot access a private meeting room, they should conduct a group discussion at a site like “Place to Meet” island ( </li></ul>
  12. 12. Use ID to Amplify SL learning <ul><li>ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Analysis <ul><li>instructional technology graduate program at a four-year university in New York </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare trainers </li></ul><ul><li>part-time students, trainers, or trainers-to-be; </li></ul><ul><li>No prior SL experience </li></ul><ul><li>Needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen sense of community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve students’ knowledge of using SL </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to know basic SL operations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to understand the pros and cons of using SL in teaching and learning, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to know about exemplifying cases of SL use in K-12 settings, higher education, and corporations. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Analysis <ul><li>The instructor should determine the needs by conducting a needs analysis relative to the target learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Online survey (determine the students’ background knowledge, learning motivation and goals) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Design <ul><li>Determine learning objectives and design learning activities, assessments, and methods to present the content. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities have to be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>help familiarize the learners with SL operations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support collaboration and negotiation through SL’s multi-level interaction, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supporting the construction of the learners’ knowledge and experience regarding how SL can support online teaching </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Activity 1 (warm up) <ul><li>Students create an SL account, to edit their own avatars’ appearance </li></ul><ul><li>add their peers to the “friends list.” </li></ul><ul><li>showed students the way to Orientation Island Public to practice basic SL operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment: required students to take a snapshot of themselves playing ball on the island and to post the pictures on Blackboard. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Activity 2 (readings) <ul><li>Students reviewed the assigned SL papers and presentation slides </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respond to questions posted by the instructor on Blackboard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students exchanged their thoughts to demonstrate their understandings of SL’s possible applications </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Activity 3 (exploration) <ul><li>used the teleport function to visit several designated landmarks </li></ul><ul><li>explore how non-profit museums and schools were using SL </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>post the SLURL of a landmark that they could adopt in their organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange thoughts with peers on good idea regarding SL use in their area of expertise </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Activity 4 (Group interaction) <ul><li>The entire class met with the instructor in SL for two sessions and visited islands that could facilitate teaching and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students led the group to observe the islands they found </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructor should lead discussion, observed each avatar’s participation and reaction, and facilitated the interaction among group members. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Activity 5 (reflection) <ul><li>Students wrote a 2,000-word paper to discuss the pros, the cons, the concepts, and the potential of using SL in teaching and learning, following the </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment: evaluate by a rubric </li></ul>
  22. 22. Development <ul><li>the instructor should construct and deliver materials required for the sessions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>constructed a web page to help deliver all activities and to list deadlines corresponding to the assignments on Blackboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scrutinized the SL islands to make sure that all activities were designed well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed students to complete the five activities and all assessments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used the snapshot and video recording features to set up visual examples </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Implementation <ul><li>Implementation concerns the actual launching of the course. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Evaluation <ul><li>The evaluation helped the instructor determine whether or not the curriculum was successful and how it could be improved for the next implementation phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Formative: external evaluator, participants’ interaction in SL, feedback, questions, emails, and responses to the assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Summative: Participants’ SL reports </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conclusion <ul><li>consider the pros and cons of using SL and what it can do to help engage online learners, </li></ul><ul><li>design tasks that motivate students to participate in SL </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid “throwing” learners into the SL environment without first giving them specific instructions or meaningful tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>ADDIE constituted a systematic method ensure SL’s function as a tool assisting teaching and learning </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>instructor should </li></ul><ul><li>explore SL first to realize what an SL user can do in the virtual environment, </li></ul><ul><li>explore how SL activities can relate to the course topic, </li></ul><ul><li>then introduce these SL activities to the students. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Resource <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>(Second Life for Me) </li></ul>