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• 1. Market ResearchConclusive Research Design S. Kumaravel, Alumni-DOMS 1
• 2. CONTENTS1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 2
• 3. CONCEPT OF CAUSALITY&#x2022; Experimentation is commonly used to infer causal relationships. The scientific concept of causality is complex.&#x2022; &#x201C;Causality&#x201D; means something very different to the average person on the street than it does to a scientist.&#x2022; A statement such as &#x201C;X causes Y&#x201D; will have many meanings 3
• 4. CONCEPT OF CAUSALITY Ordinary Meeting Scientific Meeting&#x2022; X is the only cause &#x2022; X is the only one of a number of Y. of possible causes of Y.&#x2022; X must always lead &#x2022; The occurrence of X makes to Y (X is a the occurrence of Y more deterministic cause probable (X is a probabilistic of Y) cause of Y)&#x2022; It is possible to &#x2022; We can never prove that X is prove that X is a a cause of Y. At best, we can cause of Y infer that X is a cause of Y. 4
• 5. CONDITIONS FOR CAUSALITYBefore making causal inferences or assuming causality, 3 conditions must be satisfied:3. Concomitant Variation4. Time order of occurrence of variables5. Elimination of other possible causal factors 5
• 6. CONCOMITANT VARIATIONCV is the extent to which a cause X and an effect Y occur together or vary together in the way predicted by hypothesis. Qualitative &amp; QuantitativeEvidence of Concomitant Variation between Purchaseof Fashion Clothing &amp; Education Purchase of Fashion Clothing` High Low 73% 27% 64% 36% 6
• 7. Time Order of Occurrence of VariablesStates that the causing event must occur either before or simultaneously with the effect.Variation between in-store service &amp; sales (Chennai Silks &amp; Pothys&#x2019;) In-store service High Low 73% 27% 36% 64% 7
• 8. Absence of other possible causal factorsAbsence of other possible causal factors means that the factor or variable being investigated should be the only possible causal explanation.Better in-store service may be a cause of increased sales if we can be sure that changes in all other factors affecting sales, pricing, advertising, level of distribution, product quality, competition and so on were held constant or otherwise controlled. 8
• 9. DEFINITIONS &amp; CONCEPTSIndependent Variables : Variables are manipulated by the researcher and whose effects are measured and compared. (in-store radio advtg)Test Units: Individuals, organisations etc whose response to independent variables being studiedDependent variables: 9
• 10. VALIDITY IN EXPERIMENTATION1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 10
• 11. EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 11
• 12. CLASSIFICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 12
• 13. PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 13
• 14. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS 1. Research Design - Definition 2. Research Design &#x2013; Components 3. Research Design - Classification 4. Exploratory Research 5. Conclusive Research 6. Descriptive Research 7. Six Ws 8. Casual Research 9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling 10. Market Research Proposal 14
• 15. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 15
• 16. STATISTICAL DESIGNS1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 16
• 17. LAB VS FIELD EXPERIMENTS 1. Research Design - Definition 2. Research Design &#x2013; Components 3. Research Design - Classification 4. Exploratory Research 5. Conclusive Research 6. Descriptive Research 7. Six Ws 8. Casual Research 9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling 10. Market Research Proposal 17
• 18. EXPERIMENTAL VS NON EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 18
• 19. LIMITATIONS OF EXPERIMENTATION1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 19
• 20. APPLICATION : TEST MARKETING1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 20
• 21. DETERMINING A TEST MARKETING STRATEGY1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 21
• 22. CONCEPT OF CAUSALITY1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 22
• 23. CONCEPT OF CAUSALITY1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 23
• 24. CONCEPT OF CAUSALITY1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 24
• 25. CONDITIONS FOR CAUSALITY1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 25
• 26. CONDITIONS FOR CAUSALITY1. Research Design - Definition2. Research Design &#x2013; Components3. Research Design - Classification4. Exploratory Research5. Conclusive Research6. Descriptive Research7. Six Ws8. Casual Research9. Budgeting &amp; Scheduling10. Market Research Proposal 26
• 27. Types of Research Research TypesExploratory Conclusive Descriptive Causal Experimental Observational 27
• 28. Conclusive Research&#x2022; Conclusive research tends to be quantitative research&#x2022; It can further be sub-divided into two major categories: descriptive and causal. 28
• 29. Conclusive ResearchDescriptive Research&#x2022; Provides data (usually quantitative) about the population being studied.&#x2022; It can only describe the situation, not what caused it. 29
• 30. Conclusive ResearchCausal Research&#x2022; To determine whether there is a cause and effect relationship between variables&#x2022; To determine whether a specific independent variable is producing an effect on another dependent variable. 30
• 31. Causal ResearchThere are two types of causal research:&#x2022; Experimental&#x2022; Observational (quasi-experimental) 31
• 32. Causal ResearchThere are two types of causal research:&#x2022; Experimental&#x2022; Observational (quasi-experimental)Experimental and observational studies try to demonstrate a causal relationship between two variables. 32
• 33. Causal Research&#x2022; Experimental Research: In experimental studies, units (people, etc.) are put into control or exposure groups by the researcher. 33
• 34. Causal ResearchObservational Research:&#x2022; In an observational study, members of the control group are pre-determined. They can be matched according to demographic information to a member of the exposure group. 34
• 35. Causal ResearchThink of some examples of causal research. Are they experimental or observational? 35
• 36. Causal ResearchExamples of causal research:&#x2022; A drug trial for a new medication that has not yet been approved by the FDA.&#x2022; A study testing the long-term health effects of exposure to high levels of radiation.&#x2022; A study comparing asthma rates among children who live on farms with those living in urban areas. 36
• 37. Types of Research Research TypesExploratory Conclusive Descriptive Causal Experimental Observational 37
• 38. Differences Between Exploratory and Conclusive Research&#x2022; Research Project Components: Research Purpose &#x2013; Exploratory Research &#x2022; General: To generate insights about a situation &#x2013; Conclusive Research &#x2022; Specific: To verify insights and aid in selecting a course of action
• 39. Differences Between Exploratory and Conclusive Research (Cont&#x2019;d)&#x2022; Research Project Components: Data needs &#x2013; Exploratory Research &#x2022; Vague &#x2013; Conclusive Research &#x2022; Clear
• 40. Differences Between Exploratory and Conclusive Research (Cont&#x2019;d)&#x2022; Research Project Components: Data sources &#x2013; Exploratory Research &#x2022; Ill-defined &#x2013; Conclusive Research &#x2022; Well-defined
• 41. Differences Between Exploratory and Conclusive Research (Cont&#x2019;d)&#x2022; Research Project Components: Data collection form &#x2013; Exploratory Research &#x2022; Open-ended, rough &#x2013; Conclusive Research &#x2022; Usually structured
• 42. Differences Between Exploratory and Conclusive Research (Cont&#x2019;d)&#x2022; Research Project Components: Sample &#x2013; Exploratory Research &#x2022; Relatively small; subjectively selected to maximize generalization of useful insights &#x2013; Conclusive Research &#x2022; Relatively large; objectively selected to permit generalization of findings
• 43. Differences Between Exploratory and Conclusive Research (Cont&#x2019;d)&#x2022; Research Project Components: Data collection &#x2013; Exploratory Research &#x2022; Flexible; no set procedure &#x2013; Conclusive Research &#x2022; Rigid; well-laid-out procedure
• 44. Differences Between Exploratory and Conclusive Research (Cont&#x2019;d)&#x2022; Research Project Components: Data analysis &#x2013; Exploratory Research &#x2022; Informal; typically non-quantitative &#x2013; Conclusive Research &#x2022; Formal; typically quantitative
• 45. Differences Between Exploratory and Conclusive Research (Cont&#x2019;d)&#x2022; Research Project Components: Inferences/recommendations &#x2013; Exploratory Research &#x2022; More tentative than final &#x2013; Conclusive Research &#x2022; More final than tentative
• 46. Experimental (Cont&#x2019;d)Multi-group Design Units All variables stay the same Change one variable Control Experimental Group Group Measure the differences.
• 47. &#xA0; Exploratory and Conclusive Research EXPLORATORY CONCLUSIVE Objectives To&#xA0;provide&#xA0;insight&#xA0;and&#xA0; To&#xA0;test&#xA0;specific&#xA0;expectations&#xA0; understanding and&#xA0;examine&#xA0;relationships Characteristics &#x2022; Information&#xA0;needs&#xA0;are&#xA0; &#x2022; Information&#xA0;needs&#xA0;are&#xA0; loosely&#xA0;defined clearly&#xA0;defined &#x2022; Research&#xA0;process&#xA0;flexible&#xA0; &#x2022; Research&#xA0;process&#xA0;is&#xA0; and&#xA0;unstructured formal&#xA0;and&#xA0;structured &#x2022; Sample&#xA0;is&#xA0;small&#xA0;and&#xA0;non- &#x2022; &#xA0;Sample&#xA0;are&#xA0;large&#xA0;and&#xA0; representative representative Findings Tentative &#x2022; Analysis&#xA0;is&#xA0;qualitative Conclusive &#x2022; Analysis&#xA0;is&#xA0;quantitative Outcome Generally&#xA0;followed&#xA0;by&#xA0; Findings&#xA0;used&#xA0;as&#xA0;input&#xA0;to&#xA0; further&#xA0;exploratory&#xA0;or&#xA0; decision&#xA0;making conclusive&#xA0;research&#xA0;
• 48. &#xA0;&#xA0; Introduction to Research Design EXPLORATORY DESCRIPTIVE CAUSAL Chap 4,7 Chap 5,6 Chap 8 Objective Discovery&#xA0;of&#xA0; Describe&#xA0; Determine&#xA0;cause&#xA0; insights&#xA0;and&#xA0; respondent&#xA0;or&#xA0; and&#xA0;effect relationships program&#xA0; characteristics&#xA0;or&#xA0; function Characteristics &#x2022; Flexible,&#xA0; &#x2022; Prior&#xA0; &#x2022; Variable&#xA0; versatile formulation&#xA0;of&#xA0; manipulation &#x2022; Often&#xA0;the&#xA0;front- expectations &#x2022; Control&#xA0;of&#xA0; end&#xA0;of&#xA0;other&#xA0; &#x2022; Pre-planned&#xA0;and&#xA0; mediating&#xA0; designs structured variables Methods &#x2022; Secondary&#xA0;data &#x2022; Secondary&#xA0;data &#x2022; Experiments &#x2022; Expert&#xA0;surveys &#x2022; Meta-analysis &#x2022; Field&#xA0; &#x2022; Pilot&#xA0;surveys &#x2022; Surveys Experiments &#x2022; Qualitative&#xA0; &#x2022; Panels designs &#x2022; Observational&#xA0; &#x2022; Focus&#xA0; designs&#xA0; groups
• 49. Exploratory vs. conclusive research Exploratory research Conclusive research&#x2022; Insights and understanding of &#x2022; Test specific hypothesis the research problem and examine relationships&#x2022; Loose definition of &#x2022; Clear definition of information needed informational need&#x2022; Flexible (unstructured) &#x2022; Formal and structured research process research process&#x2022; Small and nonrepresentative &#x2022; Representative and large samples samples&#x2022; QUALITATIVE analysis of &#x2022; QUANTITATIVE data primary data analysis&#x2022; Preliminary to further &#x2022; Conclusive results for research decision making Qualitative Research Methods
• 50. A Classification of Marketing Research Designs Fig. 3.1 Research Design Exploratory ConclusiveResearch Design Research Design Descriptive Causal Research Research Cross-Sectional Longitudinal Design Design Single Cross- Multiple Cross- Sectional Design Sectional Design
• 51. Exploratory &amp; Conclusive Research Differences Table 3.1 Exploratory ConclusiveObjective: To provide insights and To test specific hypotheses understanding. and examine relationships.Character- Information needed is Information needed is clearlyistics: defined only loosely. defined. Research process is Research process is flexible formal and structured. Sample and unstructured. Sample is large and representative. is small and non- Data analysis is quantitative. representative. Analysis of primary data is qualitative.Findings Conclusive./Results: Tentative.Outcome: Findings used as input into Generally followed by decision making. further exploratory or
• 52. A Comparison of Basic Research Designs Table 3.2 Exploratory Descriptive CausalObjective: Discovery of Describe market Determine cause ideas and characteristics or and effect insights functions relationshipsCharacteristics: Marked by the prior Manipulation of Flexible, formulation of one or more versatile specific hypotheses independent variables Preplanned and structured design Control of other Often the front mediating end of total variables research design Secondary dataMethods: Surveys Experiments Expert surveys Panels Pilot surveys Observation and Secondary data other data Qualitative
• 53. Overview of Research Designs
• 54. The Marketing Research Process Step 1: Defining the Problem Step 2: Developing an Approach to the Problem Step 3: Formulating a Research Design Step 4: Doing Field Work or Collecting Data Step 5: Preparing and Analyzing Data Step 6: Preparing and Presenting the Report
• 55. Research Design&#x2022; A master plan that specifies the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing needed information.
• 56. Tasks Involved In a Research Design Define the Information Needed Design the Exploratory, Descriptive, and/or Causal Phases of the Research Today&#x2019;s Specify the Measurement and Scaling Procedures Topic Construct a QuestionnaireSpecify the Sampling Process and the Sample Size Develop a Plan of Data Analysis
• 57. A Classification of Market Research Designs Research Design Exploratory Conclusive Research ResearchSecondary Experience Pilot Studies Case Studies Data Surveys See next slide
• 58. A Classification of Market Research Designs Research Design Exploratory Conclusive Research ResearchSee previous slide Cross-sectional Study Descriptive Causal Longitudinal Design Design Study Experiment Secondary Survey Observation Data Study
• 59. Exploratory Research&#x2022; Usually conducted during the initial stage of the research process&#x2022; Purposes &#x2013; To narrow the scope of the research topic, and &#x2013; To transform ambiguous problems into well-defined ones
• 60. Exploratory Research Techniques&#x2022; Secondary Data Analysis &#x2013; Secondary data are data previously collected &amp; assembled for some project other than the one at hand&#x2022; Pilot Studies &#x2013; A collective term for any small-scale exploratory research technique that uses sampling but does not apply rigorous standards &#x2013; Includes &#x2022; Focus Group Interviews &#x2013; Unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group of people &#x2022; Projective Techniques &#x2013; Indirect means of questioning that enables a respondent to project beliefs and feelings onto a third party or an inanimate object &#x2013; Word association tests, sentence completion tests, role playing
• 61. Exploratory Research Techniques&#x2022; Case Studies &#x2013; Intensively investigate one or a few situations similar to the problem situation&#x2022; Experience Surveys &#x2013; Individuals who are knowledge about a particular research problem are questioned
• 62. Conclusive Research&#x2022; Provide specific information that aids the decision maker in evaluating alternative courses of action&#x2022; Sound statistical methods &amp; formal research methodologies are used to increase the reliability of the information&#x2022; Data sought tends to be specific &amp; decisive&#x2022; Also more structured &amp; formal than exploratory data
• 63. Types of Conclusive Research&#x2022; Descriptive Research &#x2013; Describes attitudes, perceptions, characteristics, activities and situations. &#x2013; Examines who, what, when, where, why, &amp; how questions&#x2022; Causal Research &#x2013; Provides evidence that a cause-and-effect relationship exists or does not exist. &#x2013; Premise is that something (and independent variable) directly influences the behavior of something else (the dependent variable).
• 64. Common Characteristics of Descriptive Studies&#x2022; Build on previous information&#x2022; Show relationships between variables&#x2022; Representative samples required&#x2022; Structured research plans&#x2022; Require substantial resources&#x2022; Conclusive findings
• 65. Major Types of Descriptive Studies Descriptive Studies Consumer Market Characteristic Sales Studies Perception Studies And Behavior StudiesMarket DistributionPotential Image Competitive AnalysisMarket Product UsageShare AdvertisingSales PricingAnalysis
• 66. Cross Sectional vs. Longitudinal DesignsCr o s s SampleS e c t io n a l Surveyed atDe s ig n T1 Sam eL o n g it u d in a l Sample Sample alsoDe s ig n Surveyed at Surveyed at T1 T2 Time T1 T2
• 67. Cross-Sectional vs. Longitudinal Designs Cross-Sectional LongitudinalDetecting change Worse BetterAmount of data Worse BettercollectedAccuracy Worse BetterRepresentativeness Better WorseResponse bias Better Worse
• 68. Some Alternative Research Designs Exploratory Research Conclusive(a) Secondary Data Research Analysis Descriptive/Causal Focus Groups Conclusive(b) Research Descriptive/Causal Exploratory Conclusive(c) Research Research Secondary Data Descriptive/Causal Analysis Focus Groups
• 69. Common Characteristics of Causal Studies&#x2022; Logical Time Sequence &#x2013; For causality to exist, the cause must either precede or occur simultaneously with the effect&#x2022; Concomitant Variation &#x2013; Extent to which the cause and effect vary together as hypothesized&#x2022; Control for Other Possible Causal Factors
• 70. How Descriptive &amp; Causal Designs Differ&#x2022; Relationship between the variables &#x2013; Descriptive designs determine degree of association &#x2013; Causal designs infer whether one or more variables influence another variable&#x2022; Degree of environmental control &#x2013; Descriptive designs enjoy lesser degrees of control&#x2022; Order of the variables &#x2013; In descriptive designs, variables are not logically ordered
• 71. Comparison of Research Designs Exploratory Descriptive CausalPurpose ID problems, gain Describe things Determine cause- insights and-effect relationshipsAssumed Minimal Considerable ConsiderablebackgroundknowledgeDegree of Very little High HighstructureFlexibility High Some LittleSample Nonrepresentative Representative RepresentativeResearch Relaxed Formal Highly controlledenvironmentCost Low Medium HighFindings Preliminary Conclusive Conclusive
• 72. Basic Research Methods&#x2022; Secondary Data Analysis &#x2013; Historical analysis&#x2022; Surveys &#x2013; Asking; self-reported&#x2022; Experiments &#x2013; Testing in controlled environments&#x2022; Observation &#x2013; Watching &amp; recording
• 73. Which is the &#x201C;Best&#x201D; Research Design &amp; Method?&#x2022; &#x201C;You cannot put the same shoe on every foot.&#x201D; &#x2013; Publilius Syrus&#x2022; It depends on the &#x2013; problem of interest, &#x2013; level of information needed, &#x2013; resources, &#x2013; researcher&#x2019;s experience, etc.
• 74. Survey MethodsPrimary data are originated by a researcher forthe specific purpose of addressing the problemat hand. The collection of primary data involvesall six steps of the marketing research process.Secondary data are data which have alreadybeen collected for purposes other than theproblem at hand. These data can be locatedquickly and inexpensively. 76
• 75. Survey Methods Classified by Mode of Administration 77
• 76. Survey Methods Classified by Mode of AdministrationSurvey Questionnaires may be administered in4 major modes:2.Telephone Methods &#x2013; Traditional &amp; CATI3.Personal Interviews &#x2013; In-Home, Mall Intercept&amp; CAPI4.Mail Interviews &#x2013; Mail &amp; Mail Panel5.Electronic Viewing &#x2013; E-mail &amp; Internet 78
• 77. Telephone MethodsTraditional: Phoning a sample of respondentsand ask them a series of ques &amp; records theresponses on paper quest. Using a pencil.Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing &#x2013;CATI: Uses a computerized questionnaireadministered to respondents over telephone.On command, computer dials the telephonenumber to be called. The responses are directlyrecorded in the computer thus reducinginterview time, coding, data entry process. 79
• 78. Telephone Methods - Advantages&#x2022;Central location, under supervision, at own hours&#x2022;More interviews can be conducted in a given time&#x2022; Travelling time is saved&#x2022; Shorter data collection periods&#x2022;More hours of the day are productive&#x2022;Repeated call backs at lower cost (WATS)&#x2022;Absence of administrative costs&#x2022;Lower cost per completed interview&#x2022;Less sample bias due to non-response&#x2022;Intrusiveness of the phone 80&#x2022; Ease of call backs
• 79. Telephone Methods - Advantages&#x2022;Inability to employ visual aids or complex tasks&#x2022; Interviewer must rely solely on verbal cues to judgethe reaction and understanding of respondents&#x2022; Cant be longer than 5-10 min. or they get boring&#x2022; Amount of data that can be collected is relativelyless&#x2022; A capable interviewer essential&#x2022; Potential for sample bias&#x2022; No phone, unlisted phone or mobile phones 81
• 80. Personal MethodsPersonal In-home Interviews: Respondentsare interviewed in person in their homes.Mall-intercept Personal Interviews: Mallshoppers are intercepted and brought tothe test facilities in the malls where theinterview would be conducted.Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing(CAPI): Respondent sits in front of acomputer terminal and answers aquestionnaire using key board, assisted bythe researcher. + Purchase Intercept 82
• 81. Personal Methods - Advantages&#x2022;Can arouse and keep interest&#x2022;Can build rapport&#x2022;Ask complex questions with the help ofvisual and other aids&#x2022;Clarify misunderstandings&#x2022;High degree of flexibility&#x2022;Probe for more complete answers&#x2022;Good for neutral questions&#x2022;Do not need an explicit or current list ofhouseholds or individuals 83
• 82. Personal Methods &#x2013; Dis-advantages&#x2022;Bias of Interviewer&#x2022; Response Bias&#x2022; Embarrassing/personal questions (Money&amp; Age - DOB)&#x2022; Time Requirements&#x2022; Cost Per Completed Interview Is High&#x2022; Trained staff of interviewers geographicallynear the sample required 84
• 83. Self Administration Surveys&#x2013; Advantages &#x2022;Ease of presenting questions requiring visual aids. &#x2022;Asking questions with long or complex response categories is facilitated. &#x2022;Asking batteries of similar questions is possible. 85
• 84. Self Administration Surveys&#x2013; Disadvantages &#x2022;Especially careful questionnaire design is needed. &#x2022;Open questions usually are not useful. &#x2022;Good reading and writing skills are needed by respondents. &#x2022;The interviewer is not present to exercise quality control with respect to answering all questions, meeting questions objectives, or the quality of answers provided. 86
• 85. Mail MethodsMail Interviews: Questionnaires are mailedto potential respondents.(return envelope)Mail Panels: Panel consists of a large,nationally representative sample ofhouseholds that agreed to participate inperiodic mail questionnaires, product testsand telephone surveys.National Family Opinion, Market Fact&#x2019;sConsumer Mail Panel, Marketing andResearch Counselors&#x2019; NationalNeighborhood panel, Home testing Inst. 87
• 86. Mail MethodsRequires a broad identification of the individuals tobe sampled before data collection beginsSome Decisions That Need to Be Taken Are:&#x2022;Type of Return Envelope&#x2022;Postage&#x2022;Method of Addressing&#x2022;Cover Letter&#x2022;The Questionnaire Length, Layout, Color, Format etc&#x2022;Method of Notification&#x2022;Incentive to Be Given 88
• 87. Mail Methods - Advantages&#x2022;Lower cost&#x2022; Better results, including a shorterresponse time&#x2022; Reliable answers as no inhibitingintermediary&#x2022; Survey answered at respondents&#x2019;discretion 89
• 88. Mail Methods - Disadvantages &#x2022;The identity of the respondent is inadequately controlled &#x2022;No control over whom the respondent consults before answering the questions &#x2022;The speed of the response cant be monitored &#x2022;No control on the order in which the questions are exposed and answered &#x2022;Respondents&#x2019; understanding of the questions 90
• 89. Electronic Methods E-Mail Interviews: Survey written withinthe body of e-mail message is sent torespondents to their e-mail addresses. UseASCII.Internet Interviews: Use HTML, weblanguage &amp; post them on a web site.Respondents recruited on-line frompotential databases, maintained by MRfirm, are asked to complete the survey. 91
• 90. A comparative Evaluation of Survey Methods&#x2022; Flexibility of data collection&#x2022; Diversity of questions&#x2022; Use of physical stimuli&#x2022; Sample control&#x2022; Control of data collection environment&#x2022; Control of field force&#x2022; Quantity of data&#x2022; Response rate&#x2022; Perceived Anonymity&#x2022; Social Desirability 92
• 91. Flexibility of Data Collection&#x2022; Determined primarily by the extent to whichrespondent can interact with the interviewerand the survey questionnaire.&#x2022; Mail Survey, mail panels and e-mail surveyshave low flexibility.&#x2022; Telephone interview &#x2013; moderate flexibility&#x2022; Personal interview (@home / mall-intercept)allows highest flexibility of data collection.&#x2022; CATI, CAPI &amp; Internet surveys allow greaterflexibility due to interactive mode. 93
• 92. Diversity of Questions&#x2022; Diversity of questions that can be asked in asurvey depends on the degree of interaction therespondent has with the interviewer and thequestionnaire, as well the respondents&#x2019; abilityto actually see the questions.&#x2022; Wide variety of ques can be asked in apersonal interview as respondents can see theques and interviewer to clarify ambiguities.&#x2022; In Internet surveys, diversity of ques ismoderate to high. 94
• 93. Use of Physical Stimuli&#x2022; Necessary to use physical stimuli such asproduct, a product prototype, commercials orpromotional displays.&#x2022; A taste test for eg in personal interview (RuchiPickle); mail panels gives average success.&#x2022; Use of physical stimuli is limited in traditionaltelephone interviews and CATI as well as in e-mail surveys.&#x2022; Internet survey moderately suitable. 95
• 94. Sample Control&#x2022;Sample Control: Ability of the survey mode toreach the units specified in the sample effectivelyand efficiently.&#x2022; Sampling Frame: A representation of the elementsof the target population. It consists of a list or set ofdirections for identifying the target population.&#x2022; Moderate to high sampling control can beachieved with traditional telephone interviews andCATI.&#x2022; Telephones offer access to a geographicallydispersed respondents. 96
• 95. Control of Field Force&#x2022; Field force is the interviewers and thesupervisors involved in data collection.&#x2022; Traditional telephone interviews, CATI, mall-intercept, and CAPI offer moderate degrees ofcontrol because interviews are conducted atcentral location, making supervision relativelysimple.&#x2022; Many interviewers work in many differentlocations, making supervision highly a difficulttask.&#x2022; For Eg. Survey on in 4 states. 97
• 96. Quantity of Data&#x2022; Personal interviews allow large amounts of datacollection. (4 different types of people ?)&#x2022; Mall intercept &amp; CAPI provide only moderateamounts of data.&#x2022; Typically the interview time is 30 minutes or less.&#x2022; Mail surveys yield moderate amounts of data.&#x2022; Mail panels can generate large amounts of data&#x2022;For eg Hotels lure visitors to undertake survey toget instant money. 98
• 97. Response Data&#x2022; The percentage of total attempted interviewsthat are completed.&#x2022; Personal, in-home, mall-intercept and CAPIyield the highest response rate (&gt; 80%).&#x2022; Not-at-homes can be resolved by calling backat different times.&#x2022; Telephone interviews, traditional and CATIyield response rates between 60 &amp; 80%.&#x2022; Non response bias : For eg Husband answerfor Wife &amp; vice versa 99
• 98. Perceived Anonymity&#x2022; Refers to the respondents&#x2019; perceptions thattheir identities will not be discerned by theinterviewer or the researcher.&#x2022; Perceived anonymity of the respondent is highin mail surveys, mail panels and internetsurveys because there is no contact with aninterviewer while responding.&#x2022; Low in personal interviews&#x2022; Moderate with e-mail. 100
• 99. Potential For Interviewer Bias&#x2022; Interviewer selects wrong respondents&#x2022; Omitting research questions&#x2022; record answers incorrectly / incompletely.&#x2022; Understand the respondents wrongly.&#x2022; IN-home and Mall-intercept personalinterviews are highly susceptible tointerviewers&#x2019; bias.&#x2022; Telephone &amp; CATI are less susceptible.&#x2022; Mail surveys, mail panels, e-mail and internetsurveys are free from it. 101
• 100. Observation Methods&#x2022; The recording of behavioural patterns ofpeople, objects and events in a systematicmanner to obtain information about thephenomenon of interest.&#x2022; Structured: Researcher clearly defines thebehaviours to be observed and the methods bywhich they will be measured.&#x2022; Un-Structured: Research monitoring allrelevant phenomenon without specifying thedetails in advance. 102
• 101. Observation Methods classified by mode of administration Observation Methods Personal Mechanical Content Trace AuditObservation Observation Analysis Analysis 103
• 102. Personal Observation&#x2022; In which human observers record thephenomenon being observed as it occurs.&#x2022; He / she does not attempt to control ormanipulate the phenomenon beingobserved.&#x2022; The observer merely records what takesplace in a natural or a contrivedenvironment.&#x2022; For Eg. A researcher records trafficcounts and observe traffic flows in a dept.store. 104
• 103. Mechanical Observation &#x2022; An observational research strategy in which mechanical devices record the phenomenon being observed. &#x2022; Psychogalvanometer: An instrument that measures a respondent&#x2019;s galvanic skin response (ie increased perspiration) to advertisements, packages &amp; slogans. &#x2022; Voice Pitch Analysis: Measurement of emotional reactions through changes in the respondents&#x2019; voice. &#x2022; Response Latency: Amount of time it takes to answer a ques. 105
• 104. Audit&#x2022; In an audit, researcher collects data byexamining physical records or performinginventory analysis. 2 distinguishing features:&#x2022; First data are collected personally by theresearcher.&#x2022; Second The data are based on counts,usually of physical counts.&#x2022; In Pantry Audit, researcher takes aninventory of brands, quantities, and packagesizes in a consumer&#x2019;s home. 106
• 105. Content Analysis&#x2022; The objective, systematic and quantitativedescription of the manifest content of acommunication.&#x2022; It includes observation of words(different wordsor type of words), characters (individuals orobjects), themes (propositions), space and timemeasures (length or duration of the message), ortopics (subject to the message).&#x2022; Content Analysis of Advt, Newspaper articles, TVand radio programs. 107
• 106. Trace Analysis &#x2022; In Trade Analysis, data collection is based on physical traces, or evidence, of past behaviour. &#x2022; The no. of different fingerprints on a page was used to gauge the readership of various advertisements in a magazine. 108
• 107. THANK YOUAny Questions Any Questions 109