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Digital Libraries of the Future: Use of Semantic Web and Social Bookmarking to support E-learning in Digital Libraries
 

Digital Libraries of the Future: Use of Semantic Web and Social Bookmarking to support E-learning in Digital Libraries

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This is the presentation I gave to the Logic Group at Stanford University (May, 2007)

This is the presentation I gave to the Logic Group at Stanford University (May, 2007)

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Digital Libraries of the Future: Use of Semantic Web and Social Bookmarking to support E-learning in Digital Libraries Digital Libraries of the Future: Use of Semantic Web and Social Bookmarking to support E-learning in Digital Libraries Presentation Transcript

  • Digital Libraries of the Future Use of Semantic Web and Social Bookmarking to support E-learning in Digital Libraries Sebastian Ryszard Kruk Digital Enterprise Research Institute National University of Ireland, Galway sebastian.kruk @deri.org http:// corrib.deri.ie /
  • Presentation outline
    • Motivation
    • Building Social Semantic Digital Library
      • Semantic Digital Libraries
      • Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries
    • JeromeDL and other Corrib components
      • Motivation and Overview
      • Architecture and Ontologies
      • Semantic Services
      • Social Services
      • Semantics in Use
    • JeromeDL in Action
    • e-Learning 2.0
    • Conclusions
  • Motivations
    • John teaches biology, over the Internet, using digital libraries and modern technologies (wikis, blogs)
    • How to deliver the material just-in-time?
    • How to pre-asses students?
    • How to automate most of the process?
  • Presentation outline
    • Motivation
    • Building Social Semantic Digital Library
      • Semantic Digital Libraries
      • Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries
    • JeromeDL and other Corrib components
      • Motivation and Overview
      • Architecture and Ontologies
      • Semantic Services
      • Social Services
      • Semantics in Use
    • JeromeDL in Action
    • e-Learning 2.0
    • Conclusions
  • The Semantic Web – Applications
    • Semantic Web cannot be and is not only a set of recommendations
    • Semantic Web is becoming reality by applications that support it and are based on it
    • Enabling technologies:
      • RDF Storages: Sesame, Jena, YARS
      • Reasoners: KAON, Racer
      • Editors: Protege, SWOOP, MarcOnt Portal
    • End-User applications:
      • Semantic wikis: Makna, SemperWiki
      • Semantic blogs
      • Semantic digital libraries
  • What is a Semantic Digital Library?
    • Semantic digital libraries
      • integrate information based on different metadata, e.g.: resources, user profiles, bookmarks, taxonomies – high quality semantics = highly and meaningfully connected information
      • provide interoperability with other systems (not only digital libraries) on either metadata or communication level or both – RDF as common denominator between digital libraries and other services
      • delivering more robust, user friendly and adaptable search and browsing interfaces empowered by semantics
  • Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries?
    • Metadata is the key concept
    • the Web does not have metadata
      • the idea of a Semantic Web is nice but difficult to implement
    • many digital libraries do have metadata in place
    • we simply must make them available in a machine understandable format
    • the Semantic Web provides the format: RDF
  • Semantic Web Technologies for Digital Libraries?
    • Knowledge in bibliographic records
    • Digital Libraries already have controlled vocabularies, taxonomies or even ontologies in place
    • the challenge is to model this knowledge in a machine understandable way
    • the Semantic Web provides ontology languages:
      • RDF Schema
      • OWL
      • SKOS
  • Taxonomy of Knowledge Organization Systems
    • Term Lists
      • Authority files ( FOAF )
      • Glossaries
      • Dictionaries
      • Gazetteers
    • Classifications and Categories ( DMoz )
      • Subject headings
      • Classification schemes
      • Taxonomies
      • Categorization Schemes.
    • Relationship Lists
      • Thesauri ( WordNet, MeSH )
      • Semantic networks
      • Ontologies
    (Hodge, 2000)
  • Benefits of Semantic Digital Libraries
    • The two main benefits of Semantic Digital Libraries
    • new search paradigms for the information space
      • Ontology-based search / facet search
      • Community-enabled browsing
    • providing interoperability on the data level
      • integrating metadata from various heterogeneous sources
      • Interconnecting different digital library systems
  • Presentation outline
    • Motivation
    • Building Social Semantic Digital Library
      • Semantic Digital Libraries
      • Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries
    • JeromeDL and other Corrib components
      • Motivation and Overview
      • Architecture and Ontologies
      • Semantic Services
      • Social Services
      • Semantics in Use
    • JeromeDL in Action
    • e-Learning 2.0
    • Conclusions
  • Semantic DL as Evolving Knowledge Space
    • In state-of-the-art digital libraries users are consumers
      • Retrieve contents based on available bibliographic records
    • Recent trends: user communities
      • Connetea
      • Flickr
    • In Semantic digital libraries users are contributers as well
      • Tagging (Web 2.0)
      • Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering
      • Annotations
    • Semantic Digital libraries enforce the transition from a static information to a dynamic (collaborative) knowledge space
    • Why current (semantic) digital libraries are not enough?
      • digital libraries should not be for librarians only but for average people
      • they concentrate on delivering content/information, not on knowledge sharing within a community of users
      • digital libraries have lost human-part of their predecessors
    • What could be the solution?
      • make users/readers involved in the content annotation process
      • allow users/readers to share their knowledge within a community
      • provide better communication between users in and across communities
    The future - Social Semantic Digital Libraries
  • Social Semantic Information Spaces
  • Comparing Web 1.0 / Web 2.0 / Semantic Web 2.0 Semantic Social Networks Online Social Networks Buddy Lists, Address Books Semantic Social Information Spaces - - Social Semantic Digital Libraries Google Scholar, Book Search CiteSeer, Project Gutenberg Semantic Forums and Community Portals Community Portals Message Boards Semantic Blogs Blogs Personal Websites Semantic Search Google Personalised, DumbFind Altavista, Google Semantic Wikis Wikis Content Management Systems Semantic Web 2.0 Web 2.0 Web 1.0
  • Evolution of Libraries Social Semantic Digital Library Involves the community into sharing knowledge Semantic Digital Library Accessible by  machines, not only with machines Digital Library Online, easy searching with a full-text index Library Organized collection
  • Existing Semantic Digital Library Systems
    • SIMILE
      • extends and laverages DSpace, seeking to enhance interoperability among digital assets, schemata, metadata, and services
    • JeromeDL
      • a social semantic digital library makes use of Semantic Web and Social Networking technologies to enhance both interoperability and usability
    • BRICKS
      • aims at establishing the organizational and technological foundations for a digital library network in order to share knowledge and resources in the cultural heritage domain.
    • FEDORA
      • delivers flexible service-oriented architecture to managing and delivering content in the form of digital objects
  • Presentation outline
    • Motivation
    • Building Social Semantic Digital Library
      • Semantic Digital Libraries
      • Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries
    • JeromeDL and other Corrib components
      • Motivation and Overview
      • Architecture and Ontologies
      • Semantic Services
      • Social Services
      • Semantics in Use
    • JeromeDL in Action
    • e-Learning 2.0
    • Conclusions
  • JeromeDL - Introduction
    • Joint effort of DERI, National University of Ireland, Galway and Gdansk University of Technology (GUT)
    • Distributed under BSD Open Source license
    • Digital library build on semantic web technologies to answer requirements from: librarians, scientists and everyone.
  • JeromeDL – Motivations Use Cases
    • Librarians:
      • support for rich metadata (MARC21) in uploading resources, accessing bibliographic information and searching
      • persistent identifiers
    • Scientists:
      • easy publishing (designed as a institute/university digital library)
      • creating hierarchical networks of digital libraries
      • support for accessing, sharing and searching using bibliography metadata (BibTeX)
    • Everyone:
      • simple search (incl. natural language queries)
      • community-aware information sharing and browsing,
      • support for interationalization
  • Presentation outline
    • Motivation
    • Building Social Semantic Digital Library
      • Semantic Digital Libraries
      • Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries
    • JeromeDL and other Corrib components
      • Motivation and Overview
      • Architecture and Ontologies
      • Semantic Services
      • Social Services
      • Semantics in Use
    • JeromeDL in Action
    • e-Learning 2.0
    • Conclusions
  • JeromeDL – Architecture
    • Resources and annotations repository
    • Middleware:
      • query processing
      • community space
      • resources management
    • User interface agents:
    • Communication to the outside world
    • Administrative interface
  • Structure ontology in JeromeDL
  • Bibliographic (MarcOnt) Ontology in JeromeDL
  • Community-aware (FOAFRealm) ontology
  • Ontologies in JeromeDL
  • Metadata and Services in JeromeDL
  • Presentation outline
    • Motivation
    • Building Social Semantic Digital Library
      • Semantic Digital Libraries
      • Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries
    • JeromeDL and other Corrib components
      • Motivation and Overview
      • Architecture and Ontologies
      • Semantic Services
      • Social Services
      • Semantics in Use
    • JeromeDL in Action
    • e-Learning 2.0
    • Conclusions
  • MarcOnt Initiative – Overview
    • Motivation:
    • Provide set of tools for
    • collaborative ontology
    • development
    • MarcOnt Initiative goals:
    • Create a framework for collaborative ontology improvement (E-learning)
    • Provide domain experts with tools to share their knowledge
    • Offer tools for data mediation between different data formats
  • MarcOnt Portal and MarcOnt Ontology
    • MarcOnt Ontology:
    • Central point of MarcOnt Initiative
    • Translation and mediation format
    • Continuos collaborative ontology improvement
    • Knowledge from the domain experts
    • MarcOnt Portal (source of knowledge):
    • Suggestions
    • Annotations
    • Versioning
    • Ontology editor
  • MarcOnt Mediation Services for Legacy Metadata Format translation RDF Translator Format co-operation MarcOnt Mediation Services
  • Presentation outline
    • Motivation
    • Building Social Semantic Digital Library
      • Semantic Digital Libraries
      • Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries
    • JeromeDL and other Corrib components
      • Motivation and Overview
      • Architecture and Ontologies
      • Semantic Services
      • Social Services
      • Semantics in Use
    • JeromeDL in Action
    • e-Learning 2.0
    • Conclusions
  • Social Services in JeromeDL
    • Involve users into sharing knowledge
      • Blogs – comments and discussions about documents and resources
      • Tagging – collaborative classification
      • Wikis – collaboratively edited additional descriptions , such as summaries and interesting facts
    • Preserve knowledge for future use
      • Users can learn from experience of others instantly
      • Recommend new, interesting resources based on users’ profiles
  • Identity management with FOAFRealm
    • Identity defined with extended FOAF metadata
    • Policies expressed by social networking
      • Distance between owner and requester
      • Friendship level between owner and requester, calculated across digraph of social network
    • Support for single registration and sign on
    • Distributed identity management with HyperCuP (“D-FOAF”)
    • FOAFRealm is currently implemented as a plugin for Tomcat (Realm/Valve implementation), with PHP and .NET versions coming soon
  • What is S ocial S emantic C ollaborative F iltering?
    • Goal: t o enhance individual bookmarks with shared knowledge within a community
    • Users annotate catalogues of bookmarks with semantic information taken from DM oz or WordNet vocabularies
    • Catalogs can include ( transclusion ) friend's catalogues
    • Access to catalogues can be restricted with social networking-based polices
    • SSCF delivers:
      • Community-oriented, semantically-rich taxonomies
      • Information about a user's interest
      • Flows of expertise from the domain expert
      • Recommendations based on users previous actions
      • Support for SIOC metadata
  • Example of S ocial S emantic C ollaborative F iltering foaf:knows xfoaf:include xfoaf:bookmark
  • Social Networks in Digital Libraries Resource xfoaf:Annotation user_C creator_B foaf:knows marcont:hasCreator creator_A foaf:knows foaf:knows xfoaf:Directory user_D xfoaf:owns xfoaf:linksTo xfoaf:isIn
  • Support for online communities in SSCF
  • Support for online communities in SSCF
  • Presentation outline
    • Motivation
    • Building Social Semantic Digital Library
      • Semantic Digital Libraries
      • Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries
    • JeromeDL and other Corrib components
      • Motivation and Overview
      • Architecture and Ontologies
      • Semantic Services
      • Social Services
      • Semantics in Use
    • JeromeDL in Action
    • e-Learning 2.0
    • Conclusions
  • JeromeDL – Delivering Semantic Content
    • Providing semantic annotations during uploading process :
      • open module for handling any taxonomies
      • keywords based on WordNet and free tagging
      • defining structure of resources in the JeromeDL ontology
    • Lifting legacy metadata to MarcOnt ontology
    • Community maintained annotations
      • social semantic collaborative filtering
      • semantic descriptions based on the FOAF metadata
  • Annotating Library Resources
  • JeromeDL – Semantic Information In Use
    • Searching:
      • Keyword-based search with semantic query expansion
      • Semantic search:
        • Direct RDF quering
        • Natural language templates
    • Browsing
      • Exibit
      • MultiBeeBrowse
    • Sharing:
      • Social Semantic Collaborative Filtering
      • Semantically Interlinked Online Communities
    • Heterogeneous communication:
      • Bibster , A9 , OAI -PMH
  • Exposing Semantic Annotations
  • Filtering Resources in JeromeDL
  • Sharing Knowledge with SSCF
  • Information Retrieval in JeromeDL Fulltext Index Structure Repository MarcOnt Repository Resources’ Content FOAFRealm Repository (typed) keywords RDF & NL Query OpenSearch RSS collaborative filtering types translation semantic query expansion RDF Repositories Secure Snapshot local interface distributed interface
  • Networks of Digital Libraries
    • ELP (Extensible Library Protocol) implementation
      • communication within JeromeDL network
      • adapters for communication with other networks
    • D-FOAF integration (distributed user profile management)
      • single sign on and single registration within D-FOAF network
    • HyperCuP integration (scalable P2P network)
    • Independent ELP network entry point: http://search.jeromedl.org/
    0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 2 2
  • JeromeDL in Action
  • Presentation outline
    • Motivation
    • Building Social Semantic Digital Library
      • Semantic Digital Libraries
      • Towards Online Communities for Digital Libraries
    • JeromeDL and other Corrib components
      • Motivation and Overview
      • Architecture and Ontologies
      • Semantic Services
      • Social Services
      • Semantics in Use
    • JeromeDL in Action
    • e-Learning 2.0
    • Conclusions
  • Web 1.0 e-Learning Creation Consumption
  • Web 2.0 e-Learning Creation Communities Consumption
  • Semantic Web e-Learning Semantic sources Creation Consumption
  • Semantic Web 2.0 e-Learning Contribution Creation Consumption Communities Semantic sources
  • Didaskon project
    • Deliver a framework for assemblying an on-demand curriculum from existing Learning Objects (LOs) provided by e-Learning services
    • Connection between formal and informal learning :
      • Repository of couses prepared by specialists (formal LOs)
      • Transform data collected from SSIS into LOs (informal knowledge) – IKHarvester
      • Used o ntolog ies link user needs and the characteristics of the learning material
  • Didaskon project
    • LOs described with LOM ontology, composed into a learning path for a specific student
    • User profile (knowledge level in different domains and goals/expectations from the course) described with FOAF ontology – preconditions
    • Didaskon:
      • returns learning material customized for specific user’s needs
      • allows more scalable helper features for students supervision
    • Produced curriculum:
      • reflects user requirements
      • introduces new interdisciplinary, extensible and robust meaning of e-Learning
    • One of potential sources of future e-Learning systems
    • On the verge between formal (libraries) and informal (communities) learning sources
    • Semantic interoperability with Learning Management Systems
    • Improve knowledge creation, delivery and sharing
    E-Learning Solution based on Social Sem. DL
  • E-Learning Solution based on Social Sem. DL
    • Comparison between process based on JeromeDL and a set of other services
    • Some tasks take shorter to execute with JeromeDL
    • Some tasks are automated within JeromeDL
    • Roughly twice less time spend with JeromeDL
    Evaluation of e-Learning Solution based on SSDL
  • E-Learning Project at DERI Galway
  • Between e-Learning and DL - Museum Scenario
    • Museums have physical objects
    • Should bind digital annotations with physical objects
    • Real-virtual tours
      • Start with real, guided tour
      • Ubiquitous browse through context information
      • Locate other exhibitions in the vicinity
      • Share your knowledge and experience with others, leave bread-crumbs for others
      • Get the most of the exhibition during your visit
  • Conclusions
    • New generation of Internet services can bring digital libraries:
      • Closer to each other (interoperability)
      • Closer to the users (online communities)
    • Social and semantic services delivered in digital libraries can enhance user experience in:
      • E-Learning
      • Real world (!) museums
      • ... and other online and real services
    • JeromeDL is one of the first digital library that aims to implement these services
    • Growing number of JeromeDL instances world-wide: http://wiki.jeromedl.org/Instances
    • J eromeDL answer s various expectations
    • as the Digital Library on Social Semantic Information Spaces
    • http://www.jeromedl.org/
    • http://wiki.jeromedl.org/
    • Sebastian Ryszard Kruk
    • DERI, NUI Galway, Ireland
    • [email_address]