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ACEI 2010 Enhancing history within historical fiction Phoenix presentation

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  • It threw me for a loop!: Preservice teachers' reactions to issues-centered social studies in the primary gradesAuthor: Kim E. Koeppen a Affiliation:   a St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, MN 56301-4498, USA DOI: 10.1080/1090102010220307Publication Frequency: 4 issues per yearPublished in: Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, Volume 22, Issue 3 2001 , pages 191 - 199

Historical fiction revision Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Enhancing history within historical fiction: Exploring perceptions and strategies related to historical fiction in a children’s literature course
  • 2. Authors
    • Sherron Killingsworth Roberts
    • University of Central Florida [email_address]
    • Patricia A. Crawford
    • University of Pittsburgh [email_address]
    • Vicky Zygouris-Coe
    • University of Central Florida [email_address]
        • Slides found at www.slideshare.com
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  • 3. History and Literature
    • Any fool can make history, but it takes a genius to write it.- Oscar Wilde
    • History is not melodrama, even if it usually reads like that.- Robert Penn Warren
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  • 4. Beginning with You…
    • How did you learn history?
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  • 5. More Thoughts…
    • What factors need to be considered in the teaching of history?
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  • 6. Life’s Literature
    • I doubt if anything learnt at school is of more value than great literature learnt by heart.
          • Richard Livingston
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  • 7. Challenge of teaching history
    • Many consider history as irrelevant and isolated from the context of their lives, even teachers.
    • Preservice teachers have reported a lack of confidence in social studies content (Koeppen, 2001).
    • Many teachers struggle with finding pedagogically stimulating ways to teach history.
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  • 8. The potential of literature
    • In this presentation, we will:
    • consider ways in which history, literature, and pedagogy interface
    • examine the attitudes, content knowledge, and perceptions related to historical fiction of preservice teachers in a children’s literature course.
    • explore responses from preservice teachers that reveal the potential of using literature to strengthen students' understanding of history and to explore research-based pedagogical strategies that bring history to life in elementary and middle school classrooms.
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  • 9. What is historical fiction?
    • By definition, the term "historical fiction" refers to works of realistic fiction that are set within the historical past (Hancock, 2004; Kiefer, Hepler, & Hickman, 2007).
    • Historical fiction for children can be found across various genres: poetry, picturebooks, and chapter books.
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  • 10. Characteristics of high-quality historical fiction
    • Not merely a series of historical facts, but setting is integral.
    • Weaves historical authenticity into a compelling storyline that includes unique perspectives, a contextualized setting, and a sense of emotional pull.
    • Provides visual and contextual clues about daily life and a comprehensive understanding of the period or event at hand.
    • Helps students develop a critical understanding of complex social issues and age-old dilemmas against the template of today’s challenges.
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  • 11. Author’s Perspective
    • "Without historical accuracy, my books would be fantasy. With only historical accuracy, they would be textbooks. For historical fiction, there must be a story, accurate in detail but brought to life through imagination and creativity.”
          • Karen Cushman, Newbery Medal Winner
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  • 12. Limitations of children’s literature
    • True history is often too intense for children.
    • Often criticized for revisionist history
    • Inaccuracies or stereotypes often included
    • Sentimentality related to audience
    • Often difficult to capture the complexity of viewpoints around social issues
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  • 13. Engaging students with history
    • Revived interest in connecting children's literature and the teaching of history (Alien & Landaker, 2004; Ammon & Tunnell, 1992; Levstik & Pappas, 1990; Zarnowski, 2006).
    • Scholars recognize the importance of learning history in ways that actively engage students in their learning (Dodd, 1999; Schur, 2007).
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  • 14. Our historical fiction project:
    • Introductory children’s literature course
    • We wanted to probe preservice teachers’ attitudes about historical fiction as well as their perceptions about content knowledge and usefulness of historical fiction.
    • We used pre, mid & post surveys, and group K-W-L strategies in regard to collecting data.
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  • 15. Creating an atmosphere of thinking “historically”…
    • -Offering historical fiction selections
    • in a variety of formats
    • -Modelling “thinking historically”
    • -Illuminating related social justice issues
    • -Inviting participation using pedagogically strong strategies
    • -Relying heavily on discourse to allow personal connections
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  • 16. Pre-Survey Results
    • How would you rate your knowledge of history?
      • Pretty good. I have always been interested in history, so I watch a lot of history channel, took extra history classes in undergrad and taught history with drama.
      • I would say I’m decent in history. I took AP European history in HS. And Euro history in college. I like euro history. As US history goes, I don’t know as much.
      • Not high. I was never good in history in school. I hated memorizing dates and I could care less about what happened in Europe 1066! As I matured I still don't love it, but have a better appreciation of it.
      • I wouldn’t call myself a history buff, but I wouldn’t say that I do not know anything. I guess it depends on the subject or period of time. I am interested in learning about historical places and interesting people.
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  • 17. Pre-Survey Results
    • How did you learn about history?
      • Through personal experience, reading books,at school, through movies.
      • I enjoyed history in college the most. I took an American history class that changed my idea of history.
      • In elementary school, we spent a lot of time studying history: Field trips, books, making re-enactments.
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  • 18. Pre-Survey Results
    • Did you grow up reading historical fiction?
      • Yes, gives you an individual’s perspective during a historical time period. To Kill a Mockingbird is my favorite book of all time.
      • Not on purpose, but I did love biographies about women. But I also read books like Gone with the Wind , but I really widely skipped the battle descriptions and stuff!
      • I can’t recall reading historical fiction. I remember that my librarian at my middle school wouldn’t allow me to check out serious chapter books.
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  • 19. Pre-Survey Results
    • Do you typically read historical fiction now?
      • No, not time, doesn’t catch my attention fast enough.
      • No, I actually prefer to read non-fiction.
      • No; I just don’t have time.
      • No I don’t. I tend to read easy reads that are enjoyable when I have free time to read.
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  • 20. Pre-Survey Results
    • Do you typically read historical fiction now?
      • No, not time, doesn’t catch my attention fast enough.
      • No, I just don’t have time.
      • Yes, particularly Florida history.
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  • 21. Pre-Survey Results
    • How comfortable/confident do you feel about your knowledge of history?
      • Fairly comfortable. Although I know there is much more I have to learn.
      • Not comfortable.
      • Average.
      • I am not confident at all.
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  • 22. Literature study groups and contextualizing historical fiction
    • LITERATURE STUDY GROUPS: This group will be formed as described in Ralph Peterson & Barbara Eeds’ Grand Conversations ; that is, groups of 4-5 students will read a historical fiction novel together.
    • These lit circles will set their agendas, share predictions, responses, questions, & will culminate in a celebration with a party favor .
    • Contextualizing HF lit group As a means of making the time period come alive for LSG, here are some miniprojects to bring for sharing. Each member of the group will clearly take on one of the following roles: at least 3 jackdaw items, travel brochures, relevant decade posters, collection of at least 4 websites, at least 4 museum resources via websites, timelines, ppt biographies or tributes, games, student activities, or graphic organizers. As we proceed w/ this experiment, the combination of these will provide your presentation.
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  • 23. Pedagogical Strategies
    • Read Alouds
    • Text Sets
    • Literature Study Groups
    • Character Maps
    • Timelines
    • Jackdaws
    • Passport Projects
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  • 24. Mid-Survey Results
    • How much historical fiction for children/young adults had you read prior to this semester?
      • More than 5: I read lots of historical fiction when I was younger.
      • None.
      • Several.
      • Actually, a few.
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  • 25. Mid-Survey Results
    • Why did you choose the book you selected for lit study groups? Comments?
      • Knew a little about the time period; Other reasons also played a role: I wanted to learn more about Japanese American lifestyles.
      • Other reasons also played a role: I didn’t really have a "favorite" when the choices were given, so I chose the book based on the group composition.
      • Other reasons also played a role: I like exciting and suspenseful books. It doesn’t matter if they are fiction, non-fiction, or historical fiction.
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  • 26. Mid-Survey Results
    • Happy with Selection?
      • Yes: I loved it! I would definitely use it in the classroom because I think its good for boys and girls, even if the main character is a girl.
      • Yes: I thought the book was very interesting. It showed the struggles of other cultures in the US. I learned about and could feel the struggle of Katie's.
      • Yes, So much better than my preconceived notions.
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  • 27. Mid-Survey Results
    • Would you have chosen to read this book on your own?
      • No, I would admit historical fiction is not my cup of tea.
      • No: I probably would never have known about it. I should read magazines or something that suggest books.
      • No: I needed the book talk to help me decide.
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  • 28. Mid-Survey Results
    • Added to knowledge?
      • I added to my knowledge of the time period.
      • I added to my knowledge of the time period: It was interesting to learn about the life of Charlotte.
      • I added to my knowledge of the time period: I knew a little about the period as a former history student; however, it gave me great insight into sea travel at the time.
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  • 29. Mid-Survey Results
    • How did the experience of reading collaboratively affect the reading of this historical fiction book?
      • Positively: I enjoyed different perspectives that I had not even thought about. We had some intriguing discussions about the characters and their motivations.
      • Positively; it was nice to hear other people's comments about the book/text.
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  • 30. Mid-Survey Results
    • What have you learned from reading this historical fiction piece? Did you learn something about history? Historical fiction? Collaborative reading?
      • All the above… I haven’t done any collaborative reading on a book of my selection in quite a while and it was fun to discuss a book that we all read and enjoyed. It renewed my interest in historical fiction (which I'm interested in trying my hand at) and gave a little more insight into sea travel.
      • I learned how people acted or rather how they were EXPECTED to act.
      • I also learned that historical fiction is not too bad.
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  • 31. Mid-Survey Results
    • Did reading this historical fiction piece give you a better understanding of the period or about the same understanding of the period?
      • I learned how children of a wealthy background behaved in 1832.
      • A little; I found out it was really hard for Japanese-Americans in the 1950s.
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  • 32. Mid-Survey Results
    • Are you intrigued to read another book or learn more about this historical period?
      • Yes, I would like to read a book about each of the cultures in the US before the 1960s, who struggled with not being accepted by the culture of the US and how this effected.
      • Yes, Although it was a dirty time period and quite strange, I would like to read about many time periods.
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  • 33. Post-Survey Results
    • Given the time period of any historical fiction piece we read, how would you rank yourself in terms of knowledge of the history of that period BEFORE this semester?
      • Out of the Dust: weak; Roll of Thunder: average; Watsons: weak.
      • Out of the Dust: weak; Roll of Thunder: average; Kira-Kira: average.
      • Out of the Dust: average; Roll of Thunder: strong; Charlotte: weak.
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  • 34. Post-Survey Results
    • Given the time period of any historical fiction piece we read, how would you rank yourself in terms of knowledge of this history of that period at the END of this semester?
      • Out of the Dust: average; Roll of Thunder: strong; Watsons: strong.
      • Out of the Dust: strong; Roll of Thunder: strong; Kira-Kira: strong
      • Out of the Dust: strong; Roll of Thunder: strong; Charlotte: strong.
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  • 35. Post-Survey Results
    • Please comment on the authenticity of factual information provided children in the historical fiction pieces you read. Anything stand out to you?
      • These pieces really brought the time periods alive. Out of the Dust was written in a way that you could actually taste the mud in your mouth. I never realized how truly awful it was for people during the Dust Bowl.
      • After researching the time period, I found that the books
      • were very factual and true.
      • Details of clothes, transportation, and etiquette.
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  • 36. Post-Survey Results
    • What was the best thing about being exposed to historical fiction this semester?
      • I would never have picked up any of those books on my own, but now I would definitely use any of them to teach in my classroom. I am especially anxious (excited) to read Catherine Called Birdy .
      • I was introduced to time periods that I was not very familiar with- ex. 13th century England.
      • I grew an appreciation I didn't have before.
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  • 37. Post-Survey Results
    • What was the worst thing about being exposed to historical fiction this semester?
      • Nothing- it's one of my favorite genres now!
      • For me, it might be difficult to choose which books and which eras would be interesting to me.
      • I LOVE it and want to read more…when I should be studying!
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  • 38. Post-Survey Results
    • How did the experience of reading collaboratively affect the reading of your lit study group/historical fiction book?
      • Positively, I always enjoy hearing what others thought and they often point out things I missed!
      • Positively, it helps you learn and grow by listening to what others have to say. Helps to understand the time period as well since I don’t know a lot about history.
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  • 39. Post-Survey Results
    • What have you learned from reading your lit study group/historical fiction piece?
      • I have learned a lot about a time period I knew nothing about and about working and sharing collaboratively.
      • Learned about life in the 13th century England: family roles and responsibilities.
      • We researched the time period thoroughly. We learned a lot about the era.
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  • 40. Post-Survey Results
    • Do you intend to incorporate historical fiction in your future classroom?
      • Yes, I think it is a great way to introduce or incorporate history in a fun way.
      • Yes, I always loved when history lessons were combined with relevant literature.
      • Yes, Great way to introduce and tie together literature and social studies.
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  • 41. Post-Survey Results
    • Did your reading, your collaboration, or your extensions of historical fiction during this class influence your answer to the above question?
      • Yes, I think students learn best together (collaboratively) and benefit more when they talk about questions they may have had.
      • Yes, I didn't know historical fiction could be so entertaining and educational. The group work was great and fun!
      • Yes, the books and authors were great to analyze. Dr. Roberts influenced me just as much as the books. Her excitement makes me excited.
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  • 42. How might we motivate students to read historical fiction?
    • INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR ENGAGEMENT
    • Read alouds and guided discussion
    • Book talks
    • Literature circles with historical fiction and Celebrations (with party favors)
    • Timelines (Timeliner software ) or Decade posters
    • Jackdaw projects
    • Artistic representations: drama, music, dance, poetry
    • Text sets
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  • 43. More suggestions for engagement…
    • Affinity exercises and K-W-L exercises
    • Inquiry Research groups: PowerPoint /Wikis/Prezi/google docs
    • Travel brochures or Graphic organizers
    • Collections of relevant websites
    • Museum resources via websites
    • PowerPoint biographies or tributes
    • Games or student activities
    • Ongoing cycles of learning communities
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  • 44. Saint Erc
    • Only person to give homage to Saint Patrick during the confrontation with druids
    • Saint Patrick ordained Erc a priest and Bishop of Slane
    • Responsible for establishing the famous school of Slane where King Dagobert II may have earned his early education
    • Cornish Saint Erc is believed to be the same man and his feast in Cornwall is October 31.
  • 45. Saint Catherine
    • Known as a scholar in early 4 th century
    • Spoke of Joan of Arc
    • She declared to her parents that she would only enter marriage with someone who surpassed her in reputation, wealth, beauty and wisdom
    • Converted the Roman Emperor’s wife and a few pagan wise men to Catholicism
    • When the Emperor failed to win Catherine over she was sent to prison – When the people who visited her were converted she was sentenced to death on the breaking wheel which is a device for torture
    • When she touched the breaking wheel it broke and she was beheaded
    • Her feast is celebrated on November 25th
  • 46. Results
    • All participants reported positive perceptions of historical fiction as both a genre and as a teaching tool.
    • Participants who participated in lit study groups provided evidence of wanting to know more and of finding out more.
    • All participants were observed making life connections to the era studied.
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  • 47. Concluding remarks
    • Before the course, preservice teachers revealed that they would not have chosen historical fiction on their own. Now, they would.
    • Preservice teachers now found historical fiction and historical research intriguing & interesting as an avenue of further study.
    • Although the discourse began academically, the real connections between books and readers were personal and real.
    • Preservice teachers reported now feeling comfortable using historical fiction as a teaching tool in their elementary classrooms.
    • Personal engagement definitely created a level of comfort for teachers that translated to more content knowledge and positive academic interactions.
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  • 48. The link between past and present…
    • "Historical fiction helps bridge the gap between the past and the present for young readers" (Sipe, 1997, p. 254).
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  • 49. The beauty of historical fiction as a teaching tool
    • “ Personally, I am always ready to learn, although I do not always like being taught.” Winston Churchill
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  • 50. Children’s Books Cited:
    • Out of the Dust (Hesse)
    • Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (Taylor)
    • Kira, Kira (Kadohata)
    • The Watsons Go to Birmingham-1963 (Curtis)
    • Catherine Called Birdy (Cushman)
    • The True Confessions of
    • Charlotte Doyle (Avi)
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  • 51. References
    • Allen, J., & Landaker, C. (2004). Reading history: A practical guide to improving literacy. New York: Oxford University.
    • Ammon, R., & Tunnell, M. O. (1992). The story of ourselves: Teaching history through children's literature. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    • Crawford, P. A., & Zygouris-Coe, V. (2008). Those were the days: Learning about history through literature. Childhood Education, (4), 197-204.
    • Daniels, H. (2002). A closer look: Literature circles defined. In H. Daniels (Ed.) , Literature circles: Voice and choice in book clubs & reading groups (2nd ed., pp. 17-29). Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
    • Dodd, E. L. (1999). Echoes of the past: Jackdaws and historical fiction bring history to life. Childhood Education, 75, 136-141.
    • Dowd, F.S. (1990). What's a jackdaw doing in our classroom? Childhood Education, 66 , 228-231.
    • Galda, L., & Cullinan, B. E. (2006) . Literature and the child (6th ed.) . Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
    • Hamman, V. (1995). Using text sets in the social studies curriculum. Southern Social Studies Journal, 20 (3), 34-43.
    • Hancock, M. R. (2004) . A celebration of literature and response: Children, books, and teachers in K-8 classrooms (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
    • Kiefer, B., Hepler, S., & Hickman, J. (2007). Charlotte Huck's children's literature (9th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
    • Koeppen, K. E. (2001). It threw me for a loop!: Preservice teachers’ reactions to issues-centered social studies in the primary grades. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 22 , 191-199.
    • Leal, D. J. (1993). The power of literary peer-group discussions. How children collaboratively negotiate meaning. The Reading Teacher, 47 ,114-120.
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  • 52. More References
    • Levstik, L. S., & Pappas, C. C. (1990). New directions for studying historical understanding. Theory and Research in Social Education, 18 , 327-343.
    • Norton, D. E. (2006). Through the eyes of a child: An introduction to children's literature (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    • Opitz, M. (1998). Text sets: One way to flex your grouping-in first grade, too! The Reading Teacher, 51, 622-623.
    • Rosenblatt, L. M. (1991). Literary theory. In J. Flood, J. Jensen, D. Lapp, & J. Squire (Eds.) , Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts . New York: Macmillan.
    • Schur, J. B. (2007) . Eyewitness to the past: Strategies for teaching American history in grades 5-12. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
    • Sipe, L. R. (1997). In their own words: Authors' views on issues in historical fiction. The New Advocate, 10 , 243-258.
    • Temple, C., Martinez, M., Yokota, J., & Naylor, A. (1998). Children's books in children's hands: An introduction to their literature. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    • Tunnel, M., & Ammon, R. (Eds.) (1993). The story of ourselves: Teaching history through children’s literature. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    • Van Middendorp, J. E., & Lee, S. (1994). Literature for children and young adults in a history classroom. Social Studies, 85 , 117-120.
    • Walsh, J. P. (1972, February). History is fiction. The Horn Book, 48 , 17-23
    • Zarnowski, M. (2006). Making sense of history: Using high quality literature and hands-on experiences to build content knowledge. New York: Scholastic.
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