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Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys
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Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys

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Presentation at Nonresponse Workshop, Copenhagen, 2002

Presentation at Nonresponse Workshop, Copenhagen, 2002

Published in: Economy & Finance, Technology
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  • 1. Reasons for unit and partial nonresponse in Web Surveys Vasja Vehovar, Gašper Koren, Katja Lozar Manfreda University of Ljubljana
  • 2. Outline <ul><li>Participation in Web surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Nonresponse process </li></ul><ul><li>Description of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul>
  • 3. Trends in Survey Industry <ul><li>Move towards self-administered modes </li></ul><ul><li>Dominance of the Web mong self-administered modes </li></ul><ul><li>Responses rates are critical </li></ul>
  • 4. Participation in Web surveys
  • 5. Technological environment <ul><li>Internet penetration (Slovenia: 30% of general population during the RIS2001) </li></ul><ul><li>General telecomunication and information infrastructure (quality of Internet networks, costs of internet access) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal regulations on solicitation (SPAM), incentives, privacy... </li></ul>
  • 6. Social environment <ul><li>General survey climate: perception of direct marketing, legitimacy of surveys and their sponsors, data protection scandals... (Groves and Couper, 1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude toward spaming </li></ul>
  • 7. Survey design <ul><li>Invitation to a Web Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-ups </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Research organization </li></ul><ul><li>Length of data collection period </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire design </li></ul>
  • 8. Respondents characteristics <ul><li>Social-demographic characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Survey experience </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in survey topic </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes and other psychological predispositions </li></ul>
  • 9. Nonresponse process in Web surveys is extremely structured
  • 10. The s urvey <ul><li>Web survey: July – Oktober 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Target population: 550,000 Internet users </li></ul><ul><li>14.012 respondents (at least partial) </li></ul><ul><li>Banner advertising </li></ul><ul><li>3 Web Advertising networks + 50 individual sites Web sites  altogether 300 largest Web Sites </li></ul><ul><li>More than 10 mio. impressions of banner-adds </li></ul><ul><li>More than 100,000 clicks </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail invitations (20,000) </li></ul>
  • 11. Respondents in Web survey <ul><li>14.012 respondents </li></ul>9.673 (70%) solicitated with Banner Advertising 4.199 (30%) solicitated with e-Mail invitation 140 can’t categorize
  • 12. Evaluation surveys RIS2001 Web Survey 2 telephone surveys and 2 web surveys
  • 13. Telephone evaluation Yes (10%) No (90%)
  • 14. Telephone evaluation (n=5016) Yes (10%) No (90%) No 67% / 7% Yes 33% / 3%
  • 15. Telephone evaluation (n=5016) Yes (10%) No (90%) No 67% / 7% Yes 33% / 3% No 25% / 1% Yes 75% / 2%
  • 16. Telephone evaluation (n=5016) Only first few Q 13% I answered part of the Qnaire 33 % I answerd whole Qnaire 63% Yes (10%) No (90%) No 67% / 7% Yes 33% / 3% No 25% / 1% Yes 75% / 2%
  • 17. Web evaluation (n=349) No 43% Yes 57%
  • 18. Web evaluation (n=349) No 43% Yes 57% No 22% / 13% Yes 78% / 44%
  • 19. Web evaluation (n=349) No 43% Yes 57% No 22% / 13% Yes 78% / 44% No 8% / 3% Yes 92% / 41%
  • 20. Web evaluation (n=349) Only first few Q 10% I answered part of the Qnaire 19 % I answerd whole Qnaire 75%
  • 21. Reported Qnaire F low
  • 22. Nonresponse proces
  • 23. Why you didn’t click? <ul><li>Web </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t have time </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t click on banners </li></ul>3% = 15.000 <ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t click on banners </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t have time </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know </li></ul><ul><li>Affraid of Viruses </li></ul>
  • 24. Why you didn’t start answering? <ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t have time </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know </li></ul><ul><li>Computer problems </li></ul>2% = 11.250 15.000
  • 25. Why you didn’t finish? <ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t have time </li></ul><ul><li>Too long questionaire </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Computer problems </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know </li></ul>7.088 4.162 15.000 11.250
  • 26. Socio-demographic factors
  • 27. Influence on nonresponse process
  • 28. Conclusions <ul><li>Initial stage s </li></ul><ul><li>Interest and motivation most critical </li></ul><ul><li>Survey b rand extremely important </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic factors also very important </li></ul><ul><li>Later stages </li></ul><ul><li>Questionaire characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of time or lack of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic factors are less important </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of c omputer problems </li></ul>
  • 29. <ul><li>Presention available on </li></ul><ul><li>http://websm.org/ </li></ul>
  • 30. Evaluation – e-Mail invitation Telephone (n=1690) No 97% Yes 3%
  • 31. Evaluation – e-Mail invitation Telephone (n=1690) No 97% Yes 3% No 71% / 2% Yes 29% / 1%
  • 32. Evaluation – e-Mail invitation Telephone (n=1690) No 97% Yes 3% No 71% / 2% Yes 29% / 1% No 37% Yes 63%
  • 33. Conclusions <ul><li>Technological changes are occurring extremely fast </li></ul><ul><li>Those, who are implementing Web Surveys are forced to use mixed-mode at the solicitation as well as at the responding stage  that leads to even higher complexity of nonrespon s e studying </li></ul>
  • 34. Conclusions <ul><li>Very complex nonresponse process </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents are overfilled with surveys and telemarketing (lack of time and interest) </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation of srvey organization is very important on all levels </li></ul>

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