1. Department of EnglishCourse Name: Elementary EnglishGrammarTopic: PrepositionCourse Code: ENG111Semester: Summer’12Course Teacher: Antara Basak
3. A preposition links nouns, pronouns andphrases to other words in a sentence. The wordor phrase that the preposition introduces iscalled the object of the preposition.A preposition usually indicates the temporal,spatial or logical relationship of its object to therest of the sentence as in the followingexamples:
4. • The book is on the table.• The book is beneath the table.• The book is leaning against the table.• The book is beside the table.• She held the book over the table.• She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time.
5. Common use of Prepositions:About: Approximation & usually is used to describe things that cannot be seen.Ex. It’s about 5 o’clock. The book is about a voyage.Against: an object is parallel to another object and touching. Or, one object is in contradiction to another.Ex. Put the chair against the table. I am against all the political fanatics.
6. Along: one object is in motion with another or moving in same direction with another non-moving object.Ex. He went along with her to the museum. He walked along the road.Among: Out of many, a few or one.Ex. They are among the few survivals. Divide the mangoes among the boys.
7. Around: Approximation of location or time.Ex. He is around here some where. I will be there around 5 o’clock.At: Exact location; immediacy.Ex. She is at her room. At once, let’s jump all together.
8. Between: An object is in the middle of two objects.Ex. The books are between the file cabinet and the desk.By: an object is located near another object or will pass near the object.Ex. The ball went by the batsman. The tea stall is by the road.
9. During: one activity being performed at the same time when another activity is going on.Ex. During the cricket match, players were shouting at each other.For: an object is intended for another object.Ex. The gift is for my brother. I will learn this lesson for my teacher.
10. From: Expressing distance between two objects.Ex. She is from Canada. A tsunami came from the deep of the ocean.In: an object is inside or surrounded by another object.Ex. I am in class right now. In the evening, I usually read.
11. Into: object is in motion and heading towards the inside of another object.Ex. Let’s go into the store and see what is there. keep my book into my bag.Of: one object is part of the whole of another object.Ex. We enjoyed the whole view of the mountain. I can see you from the window of my room.
12. On: over the surface of something.Ex. I am on the roof.Since: cause of inability of something; starting of time.Ex. I couldn’t come since I was ill. He has been teaching since 2006.
13. Through: activity of an action which is in motion.Ex. They both went through the town.Throughout: used for continuous activity.Ex. He used to speak the truth throughout his life.
14. With: one object is somehow related to other.Ex: We like milk with tea.Within: When an object is present with some type of limitation.Ex. He wants me to be back within 5 minutes You should be within 5 km from here.
15. Without: about a missing object; it’s direct opposite of with.Ex. Without a ball we cannot play cricket.
16. Prepositions of Time: at, on, and in• We use at to designate specific times. The train is due at 12:15 p.m.• We use on to designate days and dates. My brother is coming on Monday. Were having a party on the Fourth of July.
17. • We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year. She likes to jog in the morning. Its too cold in winter to run outside. He started the job in 1971. Hes going to quit in August.
18. Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in• We use at for specific addresses. Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham.• We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc. Her house is on Boretz Road.
19. • And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents). She lives in Durham. Durham is in Windham County. Windham County is in Connecticut.
20. Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition• We use to in order to express movement toward a place. They were driving to work together. Shes going to the dentists office this morning.
21. • Toward and towards are also helpful prepositions to express movement. These are simply variant spellings of the same word; use whichever sounds better to you. Were moving toward the light. This is a big step towards the projects completion.
22. With the words home, downtown, uptown,inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs , weuse no preposition.Grandma went upstairsGrandpa went home.They both went outside.
23. Prepositions of Time: for and since• We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years). He held his breath for seven minutes. Shes lived there for seven years. The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.
24. • We use since with a specific date or time. Hes worked here since 1970. Shes been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.
25. Prepositions with Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs.• Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically become one word. This occurs in three categories: nouns, adjectives, and verbs.•
26. • NOUNS and PREPOSITIONS approval of fondness for need for awareness of grasp of hope for belief in participation in love of reason for hatred of desire for concern for respect for confusion about interest in success in understanding of
27. • ADJECTIVES and PREPOSITIONS afraid of fond of proud of angry at happy about similar to aware of interested in sorry for capable of jealous of sure of careless about made of tired of familiar with married to worried about
28. • VERBS and PREPOSITIONS apologize for give up prepare for ask about grow up study for ask for look for talk about belong to look forward to think about bring up look up trust in care for make up work for find out pay for worry about