World History Ch. 9 Section 2 Notes


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World History Ch. 9 Section 2 Notes

  1. 1. Muslim Civilization The Spread of Islam Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Islam after Muhammad’s Death • Map: Spread of Islam • The Umayyad Dynasty • The Abbasid Dynasty • The End of Unity • Quick Facts: The End of Unity Section 2
  2. 2. Muslim Civilization Section 2 The Spread of Islam Main Idea 1. After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond the Arabian Peninsula, shaping a major empire within 100 years. While the empire eventually broke into smaller parts, Islam continued to spread. Reading Focus • How did Islam evolve after Muhammad’s death? • What were key events of the Umayyad dynasty? • What changes occurred under the Abbasid dynasty? • What led to the end of the caliphate’s unity?
  3. 3. Section 2 Muslim Civilization Islam after Muhammad’s Death The death of Muhammad in 632 presented a challenge for the Muslim community. Who would lead the group and keep it unified? The answer affected the faith’s spread and its future. Muhammad’s Successors • Muhammad had not named successor • No clear candidate • Abu Bakr, close companion, early convert, chosen leader, called caliph, “successor” Priorities Expansion of Territory • Abu Bakr focused on bringing back bedouin tribes • Abu Bakr, successor Umar, expanded Muslim rule rapidly • Built strong Arab fighting forces to keep tribes under control • 637 early victory against Persian forces in Iraq • Reunified Arabia, led forces north • 642 victory over Persian Empire complete
  4. 4. Section 2 Muslim Civilization More Expansion More Expansion • After Iraq, Persia, Arab army faced wealthy Byzantine Empire to west • Byantines first lost Damascus, Syria, Jerusalem • 639, Byzantine province of Egypt fell; 642, rest of Nile Valley under Arab rule Empire • Only 10 years after Muhammad’s death, followers had created empire • Conquests continued under later caliphs • 661, caliphate stretched from northern Africa in west to Persia in East Internal Conflict and Division • Deep conflict within Muslim leadership, began with choice of Abu Bakr, caliph • Some had supported Muhammad’s cousin, Ali • 644, Ali lost again, to Uthman, supported by powerful Mecca clan Umayyad
  5. 5. Section 2 Muslim Civilization Civil War Ali’s Troubles • Umayyads had been Muhammad’s enemies, converted reluctantly, were unpopular Sunnis and Shias • Most Muslims accepted Umayyad caliph, Mu’awiya • Called Sunnis, “followers of the Sunna,” or “way of the Prophet” • Uthman killed by rebels • Ali became caliph, but troubles had just begun • Civil war broke out between Ali’s forces, Umayyad; Ali killed, Umayyad retook control • Ali’s supporters refused to go along with Umayyads. • Became known as the Shia, “party of Ali”
  6. 6. Muslim Civilization Section 2 The Shia and Imams Shia believed God had specially blessed Ali’s descendants • Ali’s descendants, Muhammad’s true heirs • Shia called each of Ali’s successors imam – Imam means “leader” – For the shia, only imams can interpret the Qur’an.
  7. 7. Muslim Civilization Section 2 Conflict • Conflict deepened between Sunni, Shia after deaths of Mu’awiya, Ali • Many thought Yazid, Mu’awiya’s son, successor, not a good Muslim • Muhammad’s grandson, Husayn, led rebellion against Yazid • Husayn, forces defeated in battle at Karbala, Iraq Further Division • Husayn killed while holding infant son, battle became known as the martyrdom of Husayn; split between Sunni, Shia has remained bitter • Third group developed within Islam—the Sufis • Sufis seek mystical, personal connection with God, using range of practices including breath control and meditation in rituals
  8. 8. Muslim Civilization Section 2
  9. 9. Muslim Civilization Section 2 Find the Main Idea What was the result of the succession conflict? Answer(s): Two different Muslim groups emerged —the Sunni and the Shia
  10. 10. Section 2 Muslim Civilization The Umayyad Dynasty 2. Under the Umayyad caliphs, Muslim rule spread. Internal problems weakened the Umayyads, though, and led to their fall. Continued Expansion • Umayyads strengthened rule after death of Husayn • Achievements: – Established Arabic as official language – Made coinage uniform throughout empire – Began first great work of Islamic architecture, Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem Military Conquests • Armies conquered territory to borders of China, Indus River Valley, to east • Took northern Africa, most of Spain, to west • Conquests spread Muslim faith, while allowing religious freedom for People of the Book; some restrictions, taxes for Non-Muslims however
  11. 11. Section 2 Muslim Civilization Ruling the Empire • Umayyads strengthened central government as caliphate grew in size • Arab Muslims became ruling class, with power, privilege unavailable to those they conquered • Creation of privileged class conflicted with strong Muslim ideal of equality • Wars over succession also upsetting to many faithful, unhappy with emphasis on political ambition End of the Umayyads • Displeasure with Umayyads widespread • Shia continued opposition • Also unrest among conquered people, some Arab tribes • Umayyads weakened by discontent, time ripe for rebellion Rebellion • Abbasids, led by descendant of Muhammad’s uncle, united many Umayyad opponents by appearing to support their causes • Abbasids wiped out Umayyads in series of battles, late 740s • Caliphate entered Abbasid dynasty
  12. 12. Section 2 Muslim Civilization Sequence What events brought about the end of the Umayyad dynasty? Answer(s): A family called the Abbasids took advantage of discontent with the Umayyads and established a new caliphate.
  13. 13. Section 2 Muslim Civilization The Abbasid Dynasty Baghdad Persian Influence • Abbasids relocated capital of caliphate; rulers lived in splendor • Move to Baghdad beginning of end of Arab domination of Muslim world • Chose Baghdad, on Tigris River, in present-day Iraq • Abbasids adopted Persian style of government Government Change in Islam • Rulers cut off from people • Nature of Islam changed • Caliph hidden behind screen in throne room, could not be seen • Abbasids invited all to join in, turned Islam into universal religion, attracted people of many cultures • Used Persian officials; vizier, deputy, oversaw affairs of state
  14. 14. Section 2 Muslim Civilization A Changing Culture Importance of Trade • Islam spread through trade • Muslim traders journeyed from end to end of caliphate, exchanging goods and information • Exchange brought Islam to West Africa, Southeast Asia Funding for Change • Trade helped fund cultural achievement • Most prominent Abbasid caliph, Harun al-Rashid, helped bring culture to great heights, 786 to 809 • Support of scholarship helped produce lasting achievements of Islamic arts, sciences
  15. 15. Section 2 Muslim Civilization Contrast How did the Abbasids differ from the Umayyads? Answer(s): The Abbasids focused more on prosperity and cultural advancement than on empire expansion.
  16. 16. Section 2 Muslim Civilization The End of Unity 3. As early as the 800s, Abbasid political power weakened. By the 900s, a number of small, independent states broke away from the caliphate. Challenges from Europe Problems from Egypt • European Christians weakened Muslim rule • 969, serious threat, Fatimid dynasty established in Egypt • Christian armies began to drive Muslims out of Spain, 1000s • Claimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatimah • European Christians began Crusades – Wanted to make Holy Land Christian, won at first – Muslims eventually retook Jerusalem • From Egypt, controlled Mediterranean, Red Sea • Disrupted Abbasid trade • Fatamids soon richer, more powerful than Abbasids
  17. 17. Muslim Civilization Section 2 Seljuk Turks and Others Seljuk Turks • Many non-Arabs among peoples of caliphate, including Turks • 1055, Turkish Seljuks rose to power, took control of Baghdad • Seljuks were Sunni Muslims, supported Abbasid caliph War Against Byzantine Empire • Seljuks defended Abbasids against Fatimids, went to war against Byzantine Empire, defeated Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert • Seljuks would go on to create own empire Mamluks and Mongols • 1200s, Mamluks took power in Egypt, Syria • 1258, Mongols destroyed Baghdad, killed Abbasid caliph; caliphate finished • Islam still a vital force, spread to India, Central and Southeast Asia
  18. 18. Muslim Civilization Section 2
  19. 19. Section 2 Muslim Civilization Summarize What forces ended the unity of the caliphate? Answer(s): Abbasids lost political power when small independent states broke away.