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World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes
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World History Ch. 9 Section 1 Notes

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  • 1. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1
  • 2. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization The Origins of Islam Preview • Starting Points Map: Arabia • Main Idea / Reading Focus • The Arabian Peninsula • Muhammad the Messenger • Map: Islam in Arabia • Basic Ideas of Islam Section 1
  • 3. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps. Section 1
  • 4. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1 The Origins of Islam Main Idea 1. Muhammad, a merchant whom Muslims believe was the last prophet, reported that he received messages from God. The religion he taught—Islam—drew many followers. Reading Focus • What was Arabia like at the time of Muhammad’s birth? • What were Muhammad’s messages, and how were they received? • What are some basic ideas of Islam?
  • 5. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization The Arabian Peninsula Arabia was sparsely populated 1,500 years ago. Small bands of bedouins moved their herds between scattered oases in the desert. The Setting • Farming limited in Arabia • Commerce lively – Trade routes converged at Arabian Peninsula – Ideas as well as merchandise exchanged – Trade-dependent towns rose near coasts • Mecca, near Red Sea, most important of coastal towns Religious Function • The Kaaba, cube-shaped structure, at heart of Mecca • 500s, already ancient, considered sacred • Possible meteorite built into one wall, “relic from heaven” • Idols of local gods inside • Site drew religious pilgrims • One god considered supreme: Allah
  • 6. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1 Muhammad the Messenger Early Life Muhammad’s Faith • Muhammad ibn Abd Allah born 570 • Had always been religious man, but faiths of others probably also influenced Muhammad’s thinking • Parents died, Muhammad raised by uncle, powerful clan leader • Grew up to have successful career in Mecca as merchant • Married to older woman at age 25, fathered seven children, all but one of whom died young • Met followers of Judaism, Christianity while traveling on business • Took frequent spiritual retreats • Angel appeared to him during retreat, commanded him to speak messages from Allah • Muhammad disturbed by visitation, unsure of meaning • After more visits from angel, Muhammad concluded God had chosen him to be prophet
  • 7. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization The Revelations Messages • Among many messages from angel, Muhammad reported Allah one and only true and all-powerful God • Other messages, instructions on how to live to please Allah, live in paradise Public Preaching • Muhammad originally told only wife, few friends about experiences • Began to preach in public after about three years, attracted many followers • Some powerful Meccans did not accept teachings Safety • Many disliked Muhammad’s criticism of traditional beliefs in many gods • Only protection of uncle kept him safe • After uncle’s death Muhammad knew he and followers not safe in Mecca
  • 8. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1 Sharing the Revelations Hegira • 622, Muhammad moved to Yathrib, came to be called Medina, “the Prophet’s City”; journey from Mecca to Medina came to be known as hegira • Later Muslims marked year of hegira as first year of Islamic calendar Building Faith • Muhammad spent decade building community of fellow believers • Called faith Islam, meaning “achieving peace through submission to God” • Followers known as Muslims 2. Mecca • People of Mecca who wanted Muhammad stopped did not give up • Fought several battles with Muhammad, followers, ultimately lost ground • 630, Muhammad controlled Mecca, influence unmatched
  • 9. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1
  • 10. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Sequence What events led up to Muhammad’s taking control of Mecca? Answer(s): Muhammad moved to Medina, number of followers grew; Meccans fought him and his followers but lost
  • 11. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Basic Ideas of Islam • As Muhammad gained political power, revelations continued • Muhammad could not read, write; recited revelations • Followers memorized words, some wrote them down • Writings Muslims believe as direct revelations from God collected in Qur’an, sacred test of Islam Qur’an • Muslims read from Qur’an to hear Allah’s teachings • Seek religious experience in rhythm, beauty of words • Full meaning known only in original Arabic language • Translations not true representation Five Pillars of Islam • Five basic acts of worship central to Islam, Five Pillars of Islam • Profession of faith • Performance of five daily prayers • Giving of alms to poor, needy • Fasting during month of Ramadan • Make pilgrimage to Mecca
  • 12. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Five Pillars of Islam Profession of Faith • “There is no god but God…” • By affirmation, Muslim signals acceptance of the faith • Denies existence of other gods, accepts Muhammad as prophet Five Daily Prayers • Worshippers say daily prayers five times during day • Always face Mecca to pray, no matter where they are Giving Alms to Poor, Needy Fasting During Ramadan • Muslims supposed to give percentage of income to charity • Muslims required to go without food, drink, dawn to dusk • Even those with little encouraged to help others • Ramadan when Muhammad began to report messages written down in Qur’an
  • 13. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Mecca Pilgrimage to Mecca • Muslims physically, financially able required to go to Mecca • Journey called the hajj – Gather to pray in mosque – Perform various rituals, walk seven times around Kaaba – Climb Mount Arafat, site of Muhammad’s last sermon
  • 14. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1 3. Guidelines for Behavior • Qur’an provides guidelines for moral behavior • Muslims may not eat pork, drink alcohol, must wash before praying • Qur’an prohibits murder, lying, stealing • Requires jihad, to defend Muslim community, also means “holy war” Sunna and Sharia • Record of Muhammad’s behavior, teachings known as Sunna, “tradition,” provides guidance in personal relationships, business • Muslim legal system known as Sharia, reflects various rules by which Muslims should live, outlines method of reasoning, argument for legal cases, made up of opinions, writings over several centuries
  • 15. Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Section 1 People of the Book • Islam monotheistic like Jewish, Christian faiths • Islamic beliefs: – Allah the same as God in Jewish, Christian traditions – Abraham, Moses, Jesus messengers from God – Muhammad, last of God’s prophets – Qur’an represents God’s final message – Muslims told to respect Jews, Christians as “people of the book;” share tradition of prophets who taught, received God’s revelations
  • 16. Section 1 Muslim Civilization Muslim Civilization Summarize What are the acts of worship required of all Muslims? Answer(s): The Five Pillars of Islam—profession of faith, five daily prayers, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, and the hajj

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