World History Ch. 20 Section 4 Notes
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  • 1. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Disaster and Defeat • Map: Russian Campaign,1812 • The Last Campaigns • The Congress of Vienna • Map: Europe after the Congress of Vienna Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reaction
  • 2. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Preview, continued • The Revolution’s Legacy • Faces of History: Prince Klemens von Metternich • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of the French Revolution Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reaction
  • 3. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Reading Focus • What events caused disaster and defeat for Napoleon? • What were Napoleon’s last campaigns? • What did the Congress of Vienna achieve? • What is the legacy of the French Revolution? Main Idea 1. After defeating Napoleon, the European allies sent him into exile and held a meeting in Vienna to restore order and stability to Europe. Napoleon’s Fall and Europe’s Reaction
  • 4. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Portugal • Napoleon surprised by inability to control Portugal • Peninsular campaign was a failure Costly Mistake • Napoleon turned east in 1812 • Hoped to teach Russia a lesson Russia • Czar Nicholas I didn’t like French troops on western border • Russia hurt by Continental System; country needed imports Disaster and Defeat
  • 5. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4
  • 6. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 June 1812 • Napoleon and army of 600,000 troops • Marched across Russian border No One to Fight • Russian troops pulled east • French victory at Borodino, but Russian army still strong • Pushed to Moscow but found city in flames French Army • New recruits with no loyalty • Supplies lost or spoiled • Disease, desertion, and hunger Retreat Homeward • Ruined city, no winter supplies • Starvation and freezing temperatures decimated army • Only 94,000 men survived The Russian Campaign
  • 7. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 • Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain allied against France • Napoleon raised another army, but troops inexperienced • In October 1813 Napoleon defeated at Battle of the Nations near Leipzig • In March 1814, victorious allies entered Paris. • Terms of surrender—Napoleon gave up throne and went into exile on tiny island of Elba Defeat and Exile to Elba
  • 8. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Identify Cause and Effect What factors contributed to Napoleon’s failure in Russia? Answer(s): soldiers lacked loyalty to Napoleon, extreme heat, supplies lost or spoiled, disease, desertion, hunger, Russian troops withdrew, harsh Russian winter
  • 9. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 The Hundred Days • French monarchy restored with King Louis XVIII • King unpopular; Napoleon returns after year in exile • Louis panicked and fled; Napoleon declared outlaw by allies • Paris cheered Napoleon’s return • Brief period of renewed glory-the Hundred Days The Last Campaigns
  • 10. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 • Duke of Wellington led final confrontation • Battle of Waterloo • British and Prussian armies • Crushing defeat for Napoleon • End of the Napoleonic Wars Battle of Waterloo • Tried to escape capture, sent to exile in Saint Helena • Volcanic island in South Atlantic • Remained imprisoned for six years • Died at 51; cause of death never determined 2. Napoleon’s Final Days The Last Campaigns
  • 11. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Draw Conclusions How was Napoleon able to escape exile in Elba and return to command the French army? Answer(s): hired a ship to return him to France and won the support of people and the army
  • 12. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Negotiators • Lord Castlereagh of Great Britain • Czar Alexander I of Russia • Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria • Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand of France Goals for Other Decision Makers • Make sure France could not rise again to such power • Put down revolution wherever it might appear • Remove traces of French Revolution and Napoleon’s rule Metternich • Distrusted democracy and political change • Dominated the congress, wanted to restore the balance of power The Congress of Vienna
  • 13. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 National borders • Congress changed many borders • Wanted to strengthen nations surrounding France Process • Countries that aided France lost territory • Countries that fought France gained territory • Talleyrand arranged trades New Countries • Union of the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands as the Kingdom of the Netherlands • Austria and 38 German states in German Confederation France’s loss • Was not allowed to keep any conquered territory • Boundaries back to 1792 • Forced to pay indemnity, or compensation for damages Redrawing the Map
  • 14. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Metternich’s Influence • His reactionary attitudes influenced politics and society. • Wanting a return to absolute monarchy, he despised constitutions, voting rights, and freedom of religion and the press. • Liberal ideas were suppressed in Austria, the German states, and northern Italy. Restoring Monarchies • Napoleon had eliminated royal control in many countries. • Members of the old Bourbon royal family were returned to the thrones of Spain and Sicily. • Monarchies were restored in Portugal and Sardinia.
  • 15. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Summarize What were the main goals of the Congress of Vienna? Answer(s): restore order, stability, and balance of power; ensure France could not rise again; suppress revolution
  • 16. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4
  • 17. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 The Revolution’s Legacy Was the French Revolution a failure? • After Congress of Vienna, monarchs ruled again – Citizens’ rights restricted – Nobles returned to their previous lifestyles • 3. French Revolution changed Europe – Monarchies no longer secure – Common people learned they could change the world – Ideals of human dignity, personal liberty, and equality – Enlightenment crossed the Atlantic to Latin America, eventually inspired political movements in Asia and Africa
  • 18. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4
  • 19. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Draw Conclusions Why could it be said that the French Revolution is still being fought today? Answer(s): People still fight for the basic ideals of liberty and equality.
  • 20. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4
  • 21. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 4 Video The Impact of the French Revolution Click above to play the video.