World History Ch. 20 Section 2 Notes

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World History Ch. 20 Section 2 Notes

  1. 1. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • A Radical Government • The Reign of Terror • Quick Facts: Governments of Revolutionary France The Republic
  2. 2. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 Reading Focus • What changes did the radical government make in French society and politics? • What was the Reign of Terror, and how did it end? Main Idea 1. An extreme government changed French society and tried through harsh means to eliminate its critics within France. The Republic
  3. 3. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 In 1792, the radical representatives were in charge of the National Convention. The constitutional monarchy came to a violent end, and France became a republic. • Radical Mountain • Moderate Girondins • The Plain (swing voters) • No group had program or plan of action • Personal rivalries Factions • Marat – Sansculottes, advocate of violence • Danton – Compromiser • Robespierre – Dedicated radical Leaders • King put to death by guillotine • Europeans reacted with horror – Revolution savagery condemned Executions A Radical Government
  4. 4. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 Transforming Society • Leaders wanted to erase connections to old ways of life • Clergy members lost positions; churches closed in Paris • Robespierre created the cult of the Supreme Being • Metric system was introduced Tightening Control • Committee of Public Safety set up to manage military defense • Drafted all able-bodied men between 18 and 45 for service • Established the Revolutionary Tribunal to protect the Revolution
  5. 5. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 Explain Why did the National Convention want to change French government and society? Answer(s): It saw the old government and systems as oppressive and it wanted to create a better society.
  6. 6. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 2. Course of Revolution • Revolutionary leaders feared counterrevolution and took drastic actions with accusations, trials, and executions. This period was known as the Reign of Terror. Accusations and Trials • Robespierre used the Revolutionary Tribunal to rid the country of dissent. • It started with the Girondists, but soon anyone who had ever criticized the Revolution, or who had connections to the Old Order, was in danger. An Outbreak of Civil War • Peasants, essentially conservative, only wanted an end to feudal dues. • Remaining devoutly Catholic, the Vendée region opposed the Revolution in a civil war. The government put down the counterrevolution to regain control. The Reign of Terror
  7. 7. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2
  8. 8. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 3. Death by Guillotine • Most common sentence - death by guillotine • Condemned paraded through Paris in open carts • Mobs watched at scaffold; executions took less than one minute • No one was spared • Peasants and laborers affected • Danton and Robespierre • 40,000 executed in 10 months • “Oh Liberty, what crimes are committed in your name!” The Terror’s Victims • France started over with new constitution in 1795 • Voting limited to property owners • The Directory established • High prices, bankruptcy, and citizens’ unrest continued • Power vacuum developed After the Terror No Escape from the Terror
  9. 9. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 Summarize Why was the period of mass executions called the Reign of Terror? Answer(s): It was a period of accusations, trials, and executions that led to a wave of fear.
  10. 10. The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 2 Summarize Why was the period of mass executions called the Reign of Terror? Answer(s): It was a period of accusations, trials, and executions that led to a wave of fear.

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