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World History Ch. 19 Section 1 Notes
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World History Ch. 19 Section 1 Notes

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  • 1. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution
  • 2. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Preview • Starting Points Map: European Centers of Learning • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Dawn of Modern Science • Quick Facts: The Scientific Method • Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics, and Math The Scientific Revolution
  • 3. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Preview, continued • Discoveries in Biology and Chemistry • Science and Society • Faces of History: Galileo Galilei • Quick Facts: Causes and Effects of the Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution
  • 4. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.
  • 5. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Reading Focus • What changes led to the dawn of modern science? • What discoveries occurred in astronomy, physics, and math during the Scientific Revolution? • How did early scientists advance knowledge in biology and chemistry? • How did scientific ideas move beyond the realm of science and affect society? Main Idea 1. New ways of thinking led to remarkable discoveries during the Scientific Revolution. The Scientific Revolution
  • 6. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Some Middle Ages scholars sought answers about the natural world from the church. In the mid-1500s, others began to think in new ways. • Scholars relied on traditional authorities for beliefs about structure of universe • Geocentric theory, Aristotle – Earth center of universe – Sun, moon, planets revolved around sun • Ideas upheld by church, accepted authority for European intellectuals The Old View • Scholars began to challenge traditional authorities, 1500s • Scientific Revolution, new way of thinking • Posed theories, developed procedures to test ideas • Why open to new ideas? – Exploration – New lands, new people, new animals New Viewpoints Dawn of Modern Science
  • 7. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Dawn of Modern Science Ancient scholars could provide no information about new lands, people, animals • Age of Exploration led scientists to study natural world more closely • Other things to be discovered, things unknown to ancients • Navigators needed more accurate instruments, geographic knowledge • Scientists examined natural world, found it did not match ancient beliefs
  • 8. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution • Francis Bacon, experimentation to gain scientific knowledge • Rene Descartes, reason key • Believed everything should be doubted until proved by reason • Relied on math, logic • Ideas of both continue to influence modern scientific methods Scientific Method Scholars • Scientific Method • Identify problem • Form hypothesis • Perform experiments to test hypothesis • Record results • Analyze results, form conclusion New Approach to Investigation The Scientific Method
  • 9. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution
  • 10. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Find the Main Idea What was the Scientific Revolution? Answer(s): a new way of thinking about the natural world that challenged traditional views and instead relied upon experimentation
  • 11. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Early scientists • Made significant contributions in astronomy, physics and math • Began to explain complexities of solar system, limits of physical world • Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, among first Copernicus’ theory • Idea of earth orbiting sun was not completely new • Copernicus developed detailed mathematical explanation of process • Was first scientist to create complete model of solar system Copernicus • Found geocentric theory of movement of sun, moon, planets not accurate • Concluded sun, not earth, near center of solar system • Heliocentric theory, earth revolves around sun Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics, and Math
  • 12. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Weaknesses of theory • Mathematical formulas did not predict positions of planets well • Copernicus did not want to be ridiculed for weaknesses • Died 1543 after work published, other scientists expanded on ideas On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres • Copernicus’ famous book not published until last year of his life • Knew church would oppose work • Work contradicted teachings of church
  • 13. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Brahe, Danish Astronomer • 2. Wrote book proving bright object over Denmark sky was newly visible star • Called it supernova, distant exploding star suddenly visible on earth • Book impressed Denmark’s King Frederick II • Gave Brahe money to build two observatories • Brahe used observatories • Developed system to explain planetary movement • Believed sun revolved around earth • Other five known planets revolved around sun Observations • Hired as Brahe’s assistant to form mathematical theory from measurements of planets • Published result of measurements of orbit of Mars after Brahe’s death Kepler, German Mathematician Brahe and Kepler
  • 14. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Kepler’s Solution Kepler solved main problem of Copernican theory • Copernicus assumed planets orbited in circle • Kepler found assumption untrue • Proved planets orbited in oval pattern, ellipse • Wanted to prove Copernicus wrong, instead proved heliocentric theory correct • Kepler’s mathematical solar system model also correct
  • 15. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution More support • Italian scientist Galileo Galilei • Built first telescope used for astronomy • Scanned heavens beginning in 1609 Change in science world • Isaac Newton, English scientist • Brought together astronomy, physics, math • Wondered about gravity Starry Messenger • Galileo described discoveries • Craters on moon, sunspots • Saturn, moons of Jupiter • Milky Way made up of stars Principia • Book explained law of universal gravitation • Gravity affects objects on earth, also in universe • Keeps planets in orbit Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics, and Math
  • 16. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Newton’s Findings Newton developed calculus, new kind of math • Used calculus to predict effects of gravity • German philosopher Gottfried von Leibniz also developed calculus at same time • Each accused the other of plagiarism • Historians believe it was simple case of independent discovery
  • 17. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Contrast How did Copernicus and Brahe differ in their views of the universe? Answer(s): Copernicus—all planets orbit the sun; Brahe—sun orbits Earth, other planets orbit sun
  • 18. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution 3. Just as astronomers moved away from the works of ancient Greeks, other scientists used the scientific method to acquire new knowledge and make great discoveries in the fields of Biology and Chemistry. • European Middle Ages doctors relied on Greek, Galen • Galen’s works inaccurate • Flemish doctor Andreas Vesalius became known for work in anatomy Biology • Used bodies of executed criminals for dissection • Hired artists to produce accurate drawings • On the Workings of the Human Body, 1543 Vesalius • English physician, early 1600s • Observed, explained workings of human heart • Described blood, circulatory system functions William Harvey Discoveries in Biology and Chemistry
  • 19. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Robert Hooke • English physician, inventor • Used early microscope to describe appearance of plants at microscopic level • Credited with creating the term cell Antony van Leeuwenhoek • Dutch scientist, 1600s • Used interest in developing magnifying lens to invent microscope • First to describe appearance of bacteria, red blood cells, yeast, other microorganisms
  • 20. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution • French chemist, 1700s • Developed methods for precise measurements • Discovered law of Conservation of Mass, proved matter could not be created, destroyed • Recognized, named oxygen, introduced metric system, invented first periodic table Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier • Father of modern chemistry • First to define element • The Sceptical Chemist, 1661, described matter as cluster of tiny particles (now called atoms) • Changes in matter occurred when clusters rearranged • Boyle’s law - temperature, volume, pressure affect gases Robert Boyle Chemistry
  • 21. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Summarize What were the major contributions made in biology and chemistry? Answer(s): importance of anatomy and dissection; function of blood and circulatory system; invention of microscope; discovery of certain laws of matter
  • 22. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution The church feared reason as an enemy of faith, but eventually began to embrace some of the achievements of the Scientific Revolution. As science assumed greater significance, the question of the role of the Roman Catholic Church in a changing culture became important. While the church opposed the views of many scientists, it benefited from new discoveries that made Renaissance art and architecture possible. • Church most powerful institution in Europe, Middle Ages • Primary resource for knowledge, learning • Cathedral schools, universities trained people to run the church Science and the Church Science and Society • Most scientists did not want to challenge role of Christianity • Church explained world through inspiration, revealed truth • Science explained world through logical reasoning Conflicts
  • 23. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Galileo’s Theories • Brought him into direct conflict with the church • Church leaders pressured him not to support ideas of Copernicus • Dialogue concerning Two Chief World Systems, 1632, showed support House Arrest • Galileo stated would not use Copernican theory in work • Received lenient sentence in return • Pope ordered Galileo under house arrest, where he spent rest of life Trial • Pope Urban VII ordered Galileo to Rome to stand trial before Inquisition • Church wanted to stamp out heresy, or dissenting views • Trial held, April 1633 Science and the Church
  • 24. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution
  • 25. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Renaissance • Study of art, architecture not separate from study of science • Artists learned anatomy in order to paint the body Architecture • Mathematics, physics crucial to great architecture • Also used in engineering achievements of the time Artists • Experimented with chemistry of paints, nature of light • Used math to create compositions of perfect balance Science and religion • Combined to produce great artistic achievements of Renaissance • Most art, architecture dedicated to glory of God Science and Art
  • 26. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Science and Community Scientific Revolution established new way of thinking about physical world • Great advances made in astronomy, physics, biology, chemistry • Advances influenced developments in arts, architecture • Impact of Scientific Revolution soon would cause philosophers, scholars to wonder if reason could solve poverty, war, ignorance
  • 27. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution
  • 28. Section 1Enlightenment and Revolution Draw Conclusions How did the Scientific Revolution have an impact beyond the realm of science? Answer(s): led people to question the Church; inspired great artistic achievements; led to new ideas about government, religion, education, and economics.