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World History Ch. 18 Section 1 Notes
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World History Ch. 18 Section 1 Notes

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  • 1. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1
  • 2. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Preview • Starting Points Map: Monarchs of Europe • Main Idea / Reading Focus • The King Becomes Emperor • Artistic Achievements • Spain under Philip II The Power of Spain
  • 3. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.
  • 4. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Reading Focus • What challenges did King Charles I face when he became Emperor Charles V? • What were some artistic achievements of Spain’s golden age? • How did Spain rise and then decline under Philip II? Main Idea 1. Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s, but economic problems and military struggles decreased Spanish power by the 1600s. The Power of Spain
  • 5. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 • Absolute monarchs believed they ruled by divine right • Monarchs received power from God, must not be challenged • 1500 through 1700s, absolute monarchs tried to impose their will across much of Europe, lands beyond • In Spain, Charles struggled to keep empire under control Imposing Their Will • 1516, teenaged Charles became King Charles I of Spain • Inexperienced, but had one kingly trait—as member of ancient, powerful Hapsburg family, prepared to rule as absolute monarch • Absolute monarch, ruler whose power not limited by having to consult with nobles, common people or their representatives Kingly Trait The King Becomes Emperor
  • 6. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 When Charles became king of Spain, he inherited the Low Countries of Belgium and the Netherlands, along with colonies in the Americas. • 1519, throne of Holy Roman Empire became vacant • Position elective; Charles borrowed money to buy votes • Became Holy Roman Emperor Charles V – Holdings expanded to parts of Italy, Austria, various German states – So vast ‘the sun never set” over it Emperor Charles V • Ruling vast territories not easy task for Charles • Faced enemies on all sides— Ottoman Turks, French, rebellious German princes • Also fought for religious control over Europe • Wanted Europe to be Roman Catholic • Growing Protestant movement threatened influence Enemies Everywhere Charles V and the Empire
  • 7. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Peace • Agreement gave each German prince right to decide if his state would be Catholic or Protestant • Charles’ vision of a Catholic Europe never became reality • Constant warfare also brought Charles to brink of bankruptcy Confrontation • 1521, Charles confronted Protestant leader Martin Luther directly • In spite of Charles’ efforts, Protestants gained influence • Rebellions against Catholic rulers spread • After years of warfare, Charles V had to sign Peace of Augsburg
  • 8. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Success in Americas Charles V more successful in Americas than in Europe • During reign, Spanish explorers claimed much of Americas for Spain • Among explorers King Charles supported – Hernán Cortés, who conquered Aztec empire – Francisco de Coronado, who explored American Southwest region • Silver and gold flowed from American colonies • Brought Spain fabulous wealth
  • 9. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 • Brother took over Hapsburg holdings in Austria • Son, Philip II, ruled Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, Spain’s colonies • Charles V moved to monastery, dream of unified empire unfulfilled Imposing Their Will • Frustrated by failures in Europe • 1556, Charles V gave up thrones • Decided to divide large empire • Split between his brother and his son Relinquished Thrones Dividing the Empire
  • 10. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Draw Conclusions In what ways was Charles V successful as an emperor? In what ways was he unsuccessful? Answer(s): successful—exploration of the Americas, which brought fabulous wealth to Spain; unsuccessful—did not maintain religious control over Europe; constant wars brought financial problems
  • 11. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 • 2. From 1550 to 1650, Spanish golden age of artistic achievement • Became known as the Golden Century • One of most prominent painters, Greek Domenicos Theotocopoulos • Became known as El Greco; style famous for elongated figures • Much work religious, reflected Spain’s central role in Counter- Reformation Art • Another Spanish painter, Diego Velázquez • Created masterpieces portraying people of all social classes with great dignity • Velázquez had privilege of being the court painter Court Painter Artistic Achievements
  • 12. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Writers • Spanish golden age also produced fine writers • Greatest was Miguel de Cervantes Colonial Writers • Writers in Spain’s colonies produced works of merit • Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz wrote poetry, prose, plays Cervantes • Most famous work, Don Quixote de la Mancha • About man caught between medieval, modern worlds Church Criticism • Church officials criticized Sister Juana for some of her ideas • She believed women had right to education Literature
  • 13. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Summarize What were some achievements of Spain’s Golden Century? Answer(s): paintings by El Greco and Velásquez, writings by Miguel de Cervantes and Juana Ines de la Cruz
  • 14. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 • 3. Spain at peak of grandeur with reign of Philip II • One reason—stream of gold and silver from colonies in Americas • With wealth came power—but gold could not solve Spain’s problems • King Philip II devout Catholic • Saw himself as leader of Counter- Reformation • Marriage to Queen Mary I of England chance to spread Catholicism Religion and Revolt • Mary died before having heir to return England to Catholic faith • Philip also wanted to secure position of Catholicism in European territories Catholicism in Territories • Philip’s faith clashed with Calvinist Protestantism of northern Low Country provinces • 1560s, bloody revolt began Revolt in the Low Countries Spain under Philip II
  • 15. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Dutch Revolt Dutch refused to declare allegiance to Philip • To punish, Philip sent army under command of Duke of Alba • Alba set up court – Known locally as Court of Blood – Tortured, executed thousands suspected of being rebels – Cruelties made situation worse; rebellion broke out anew • Revolt dragged on for decades • 1609, truce reached • Seven northern provinces formed independent nation, the Netherlands • Southern provinces remained in Spanish hands
  • 16. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 English Aid to Dutch • Dutch revolt deepened another rivalry, between Spain, England • As fellow Protestants, England sent aid to Dutch rebels • England’s assistance to Dutch infuriated Philip Invasion Planned • King Philip II wanted to stop England from raiding ships, return England to Catholic Church • Decided to invade England Attacks on Spanish Ships • Philip also worried about English attacks on his ships • England’s Queen Elizabeth I allowed ship captains to attack Spanish treasure ships, steal gold, silver for England Spain and England
  • 17. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 • Philip ordered navy to assemble great fleet, the Spanish Armada • Totaled about 130 ships, 20,000 soldiers, sailors • 1588, invincible fleet sailed into English channel • Queen Elizabeth I rallied troops and prepared for attack • Spanish packed ships with soldiers for land invasion • Also planned to be joined by Spanish forces in Netherlands • Faced fierce naval battles that severely damaged fleet Naval Battles • English aimed eight fire ships at remaining ships of Armada • Spanish ships fled in panic, disarray • As damaged ships made way home, several were wrecked Armada Not Invincible Philip’s Armada
  • 18. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Relying on traditional agricultural economy, Spain’s economy lagged behind that of other countries. Spain declined as a major power. • The defeat of the Armada was not the end for Spain, which recovered from the loss. • But England remained Protestant, defiant, and undefeated. • Spain’s real problems internal • Philip’s government centralized • He trusted no one • Court riddled by factions, suspicion • Government action practically came to standstill Internal Problems An Empire in Decline • Philip spent wealth from Americas on constant warfare • Borrowed money often; went bankrupt four times • Prices driven up, inflation • Spain did not develop industries Americans Join the Battle
  • 19. The Monarchs of Europe Section 1 Recall What were two events that caused problems for Spain? Answer(s): revolt in the Netherlands; defeat of the Spanish Armada

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