World History Ch. 14 Section 1 Notes


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World History Ch. 14 Section 1 Notes

  1. 1. The High Middle Ages Section 1
  2. 2. The High Middle Ages The Crusades Preview • Starting Points Map: Europe,1095 • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Launching the Crusades • Fighting the Crusades • Map: The Crusades • Effects of the Crusades • Quick Facts: Causes and Effects of the Crusades Section 1
  3. 3. The High Middle Ages Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps. Section 1
  4. 4. The High Middle Ages Section 1 The Crusades Main Idea 1. The Crusades, a series of attempts to gain Christian control of the Holy Land, had a profound economic, political, and social impact on the societies involved. Reading Focus • Why did the Europeans launch the Crusades? • What happened during the Crusades? • What were the effects of the Crusades?
  5. 5. Section 1 The High Middle Ages Launching the Crusades Goal of Crusades Muslims Control Holy Land • European Christians launched series of religious wars, Crusades, in Middle Ages • Jerusalem in control of North African Muslims, Fatimids, late 1000s • Goal to take Jerusalem, Holy Land, away from Muslims • Turkish Muslims took control of Persia, other lands, persecuted Christians visiting region • Jerusalem site of Holy Temple of Jews, also where Jesus crucified, buried, was to come again • Vital to Christians to control city • Turks attacked Byzantine Empire, destroyed army, 1071 • Emperor turned to Western Europe, Pope Urban II, for help
  6. 6. The High Middle Ages Section 1 The Council of Clermont Pope Urban II called church leaders to council in Clermont, France • Described dangers faced by Byzantines • Called on Christian warriors to put aside differences, fight against Turks – Effective call to arms – Hundreds of knights, nobles volunteered for Crusade – Set out to meet foes with slogan “God wills it!”
  7. 7. Section 1 The High Middle Ages Sequence What events led to the call for a Crusade? Answer(s): Seljuk Turks conquered Holy Land, threatened Byzantines; Byzantine emperor called on pope for assistance
  8. 8. Section 1 The High Middle Ages Fighting the Crusades 2. Crusaders left France in 1096 in First Crusade. In all, nine Crusades set out between 1096 and 1291 to claim or protect the Holy Land. First Crusade • Crusaders in two groups, peasants and knights • Unskilled peasants answered Pope’s call – Eager to fight non-Christians in Holy Land – On the way attacked and slaughtered German Jews despite protests – Fell to Seljuk Turkish army at Jerusalem Knights • Better trained in warfare than peasants, but unprepared for hardship of journey • Traveled three years • Siege of Jerusalem victory for Crusaders, disaster for city • Renamed four states in Holy Land, intended to be strongholds against future Muslim conquests
  9. 9. The High Middle Ages Section 1 Second Crusade • Muslims began retaking lands lost in First Crusade • Took city of Edessa, capital of one Crusader state, 1144 • European leaders called for Second Crusade, launched in 1147 • Second Crusade a failure, took no lands from Muslims Third Crusade • New leader arose in Muslim world, 1177 • Salah ad-Din, known to Europeans as Saladin • Overthrew Fatimids, took title of sultan • Set out to take back Crusader states, succeeded, drove European Christians out of Jerusalem
  10. 10. The High Middle Ages Section 1 Third Crusade Three Kings • Richard, Philip, Frederick set out from Europe on Third Crusade • Frederick was killed, Philip quarreled with Richard, returned home • Only King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England fought in Holy Land Mutual Respect • Richard, Saladin admired each other as military leaders, gentlemen • Made proposals for peace, including marriage alliance of Richard’s sister, Saladin’s brother; never took place because of religious differences Fierce Fighting • Richard, Saladin fought fiercely for control of Holy Land • Richard won several battles, not able to drive Muslims out of Holy Land • Richard could not take Jerusalem, had to return to England
  11. 11. The High Middle Ages Section 1 Fourth and Later Crusades Fourth Crusade, 1201 Zara • Jerusalem still in Muslim hands • Crusaders could not pay Venetians to take them to Holy Land • In lieu of payment, Crusaders agreed to attack Zara • Zara once belonged to Venice, now held by Christian king of Hungary • Pope angered that Christian city attacked, excommunicated all Constantinople More Failures • Crusaders pushed on • Attacked Christian city of Constantinople • Ransacked city, made one leader new emperor • Disorganization, lack of leadership made Fourth Crusade failure • Five other Crusades followed, none successful
  12. 12. The High Middle Ages Section 1
  13. 13. The High Middle Ages Section 1
  14. 14. The High Middle Ages Section 1
  15. 15. The High Middle Ages Section 1 Find the Main Idea What was the goal of the Crusades? Answer(s): to take Jerusalem and the Holy Land away from the Muslims who controlled it
  16. 16. Section 1 The High Middle Ages Effects of the Crusades 3. Economic Changes • Historic evidence of trade between Muslims, Byzantines, Europeans prior to Crusades • Crusades enhanced existing trade • Returning Crusaders brought more goods, spices, textiles, to Europe • Increase in trade added to changing European economy during Middle Ages Political Changes • Crusades led to deaths of many knights, nobles • Lands left vulnerable • Other ambitious nobles took control of unoccupied lands • Nobles then had more power, influence in Europe Social Changes • Some Europeans respected other cultures, others intolerant • Many viewed non-Christians as enemies, persecuted Jews • Holy Land Jews saw Crusaders as cruel invaders • Relations strained for centuries
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  18. 18. The High Middle Ages Section 1 Draw Conclusions Why did people’s attitudes change after the Crusades? Answer(s): Europeans became more intolerant and saw Jews and Muslims as enemies; Jews and Muslims saw the Crusaders as enemies