World History Ch. 13 Section 1 Notes


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World History Ch. 13 Section 1 Notes

  1. 1. The Early Middle Ages Section 1
  2. 2. The Early Middle Ages Section 1 Charlemagne’s Empire Preview • Starting Points Map: Europe • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Building an Empire • A New Society • Quick Facts: Charlemagne’s Achievements
  3. 3. The Early Middle Ages Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps. Section 1
  4. 4. The Early Middle Ages Section 1 Charlemagne’s Empire Main Idea 1. Through conquest and social change, Charlemagne tied much of western Europe together in a single empire. Reading Focus • How did Charlemagne and the Carolingians build the Frankish empire? • How did Charlemagne’s actions contribute to shaping a new society?
  5. 5. The Early Middle Ages Section 1 Building an Empire Powerful Kingdom • Crowning of Charlemagne a surprise, but not random decision • His predecessors, the kings of the Franks, worked for 200 years to make kingdom most powerful in Europe Frankish Empire • By 800s Franks ruled much of western, central Europe • Leaders most influential in expansion of Franks all belonged to one family— Charlemagne’s family, the Carolingians Early Carolingians • One of first Carolingians to gain power, Charlemagne’s grandfather • Charles Martel, political adviser, war leader for Frankish king • Led Frankish army in many crushing defeats of opponents, notably Muslims
  6. 6. The Early Middle Ages Section 1 Pippin • Charles’s son, Pippin III, also skilled leader; won many battles, captured new lands for Franks • Became first king of Carolingian dynasty, 751 • Upon death, 768, Pippin passed kingdom to son, ruler known today as Charlemagne 2. Charlemagne’s Rise to Power • Charlemagne, Old French for Charles the Great • Name proved accurate, Charlemagne a great leader • Historically considered one of most important leaders in European history • Foundation of success, his military power
  7. 7. Section 1 The Early Middle Ages Military Power Increased Kingdom Pope Leo III • Assembled army each year, led into battle against a foe • Recognized Charlemagne’s skill, called on him for help when Lombards attacked Papal States, 774 • Incorporated land of vanquished foe into his sphere of influence, formed alliances with local rulers • In this way Charlemagne increased size and power of Carolingian kingdom • Papal states, region in central Italy under control of pope • Franks defeated Lombards; Charlemagne became king of Lombards as well as Franks
  8. 8. Section 1 The Early Middle Ages Helping the Pope Another Cry for Help A Pope’s Thanks • Pope Leo III grateful for Charlemagne’s help against Lombards • Pope Leo III thanked Charlemagne by naming him emperor of Roman people • 799, called on Charlemagne again when angry supporters of previous pope ran Leo out of Rome • Title implied Charlemagne had restored glory of Roman Empire in Europe • Charlemagne had Leo escorted back to Rome, restored to power • Pope’s action suggested that Charlemagne’s rule had backing of church, God
  9. 9. The Early Middle Ages Section 1 Charlemagne’s Rule Powerful • Charlemagne had tremendous power as emperor • Empire large, not easy to rule; changes made government efficient, effective • Established permanent capital at Aachen, in what is now Germany Delegating Authority • Built huge palace, cathedral to reflect own greatness • Chose counts, officials to help rule parts of empire in his name • Counts bound to obey, granted large tracts of land, given much authority Oversight • Inspectors kept tabs on Charlemagne’s counts • Rewarded counts who did jobs well, punished those who did not • Inspectors helped ensure counts remained loyal, empire was well run
  10. 10. The Early Middle Ages Section 1 Summarize How did Charlemagne turn his kingdom into an empire? Answer(s): strong warrior; restored the pope to power; provided stability and order; barons helped him rule
  11. 11. Section 1 The Early Middle Ages A New Society 3. Although Charlemagne is known mostly as a warrior and a political leader, he also made sweeping changes to Frankish society. Education • Charlemagne personally interested in learning, spent much time studying • Wanted leaders in empire to be able to read, write • Ordered churches, monasteries to start schools • Students learned: – Religion – Music – Grammar Scholars • Noted European scholars invited by Charlemagne to Aachen • Spent time teaching, as well as studying, copying ancient texts • Sent copies of texts to monasteries across Europe; monks there made copies • Saved many valuable works for posterity
  12. 12. Section 1 The Early Middle Ages Religion • In addition to improving education, Charlemagne wanted to preserve, spread Christian teachings • Worked closely with church to create unified Christian empire • Used force to accomplish, ordered those he conquered to convert to Christianity under penalty of death • Sent monks to live among conquered to help Christianity take root Law Great Heights • Honored traditional laws of tribes brought under his rule • Western Europe reached great heights under Charlemagne • Most laws existed only in oral tradition • Empire did not survive long after death in 814 • Had many tribal laws recorded • Civil war wracked kingdom, grandsons divided empire • Allowed tribal legal codes to maintain separate existence • Empire weak, invaders poured in
  13. 13. The Early Middle Ages Section 1
  14. 14. The Early Middle Ages Section 1 Find the Main Idea How did Charlemagne change society in his empire? Answer(s): built an education system, preserved ancient writings, expanded religion, developed single law code