World History Ch. 12 Section 3 Notes


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World History Ch. 12 Section 3 Notes

  1. 1. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 Christianity in Western Europe Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • New Kingdoms in Europe • Christian European Society • Monks and Monasteries • Map: Missionaries and Monasteries in Europe • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of Christianity as a World Religion
  2. 2. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 Christianity in Western Europe Main Idea 1. The spread of Christianity, largely through the work of missionaries and monks, helped unify western Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire. Reading Focus • What new kingdoms arose in Europe, and how did they become Christian? • What characteristics defined Christian European society? • What roles did monks and monasteries play in European religion and society?
  3. 3. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 New Kingdoms in Europe The fall of Rome had different results. In the east, the Byzantine Empire flourished. In the west, no single empire arose from Rome’s ashes. Germanic groups established many small kingdoms. Angles, Saxons • Angles, Saxons among Germanic peoples establishing kingdoms in Europe • 400s, migrated to Britain and seven small, independent kingdoms established Anglo-Saxon England Christianity Slowly Spread • Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were not Christian at first • Augustine converted many people of Kent • Late 500s, group of monks led by Augustine of Canterbury arrived in kingdom of Kent • Named Archbishop of Canterbury • Christianity slowly spread through rest of England
  4. 4. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms Threat to Independence • Remained independent for several centuries • Threat arose that forced them to band together • Danes invaded northern England, began to march south Alfred the Great • Anglo-Saxons united under Alfred the Great, king of Wessex • Under Alfred, Anglo-Saxon forces pushed Danes back to north • Later Alfred recognized as ruler of all England Accomplishments • As king, Alfred reorganized army, issued own code of laws • Also improved his court’s financial system • Greatest achievement, establishing system of schools for adults, children
  5. 5. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 The Franks • 400s, another Germanic kingdom established in former Roman province of Gaul—modern France—by Franks • Led by king named Clovis, Franks defeated neighbors to build powerful kingdom Major Power • Clovis vowed to become Christian if troops won • 496, Clovis, 3,000 Franks baptized in massive public ceremony • Franks became major power in western Europe • 800s, height of Frankish power, led by Charlemagne
  6. 6. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 Summarize How did the Anglo-Saxons and Franks become Christians? Answer(s): Monks brought Christianity to Kent, and it slowly spread throughout England. Clovis was king of the Franks. He vowed to become a Christian if his troops won.
  7. 7. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 Christian European Society When Rome fell in late 400s, Christianity mostly confined to southern Europe • By about 600, Christianity had spread northward into other parts of continent • Conversion of Anglo-Saxons, Franks helped make western Europe into largely Christian society • Following fall of Rome, Christianity appealed to many Europeans – Period known as Middle Ages, or medieval times – Many people’s lives filled with doubt, suffering hardship – Christianity offered comfort, promise of happy afterlife, sense of community
  8. 8. Section 3 Kingdoms and Christianity Spreading Christianity Missionaries • Appeal of Christianity led many Europeans to want to share beliefs with others • Some became missionaries, people who travel to spread their religion • In addition to Augustine of Canterbury, many others went to new lands to spread Christian beliefs Patrick • Among most famous, Patrick • Went to Ireland in 400s; faced opposition, hostility, but continued to preach • At time of death around 460, nearly all Ireland was Christian • Through missionary work, Christian society, Christendom, linked most western Europe
  9. 9. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 Strengthening the Papacy Pope’s Influence Gregory the Great • Early in Middle Ages, most popes had little authority • Lack of authority ended with Gregory the Great • Most saw pope as just another bishop • Worked to change views of papacy, increase influence Supreme Patriarch Gregory’s Reforms • Gregory thought, as successor to Peter, pope should be supreme patriarch of church • Encouraged missionary work and monasticism, voluntary separation from society • Undertook reforms to strengthen papacy, canon law • Encouraged people to care for poor, less fortunate
  10. 10. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 Sharing Beliefs Interpretations of Faith • As Christianity spread through diverse populations, people interpreted faith in different ways • Debates arose over questions like humanity, divinity of Jesus Written Explanations • To prevent, resolve conflicts, influential theologians wrote explanations to set forth church’s official positions • Most influential of medieval theologians, Augustine of Hippo Used Ideas of Plato • Augustine’s writings helped shape Christian doctrine for centuries • City of God: people should pay less attention to material world than to God’s plan for world; attempted to convince Romans God had not abandoned them
  11. 11. Section 3 Kingdoms and Christianity Infer How did Christianity change in the early Middle Ages? Answer(s): Christianity spread throughout Europe, the pope became one of the most influential figures in Europe, and different interpretations arose.
  12. 12. Section 3 Kingdoms and Christianity Monks and Monasteries •Gregory the Great increased emphasis on monasticism •Believed monks played important role in church •Monasticism gained popularity in the early Middle Ages. Monasticism • Not new, first Christian monks in Egypt in the 200s • Lived alone as hermits, or in small groups • During Middle Ages, new form of monasticism developed Monasteries • Groups of monks lived in monasteries, abided by strict code of rules • Two monastic forms common in Europe in early Middle Ages: Benedictine, Celtic Both forms had similar rules about communal life, but the organization and details of life in their monasteries were quite different.
  13. 13. Section 3 Kingdoms and Christianity Monks and Monasteries The most common form of monasticism in most of Europe during the Middle Ages was Benedictine monasticism. Benedictines • Benedict of Nursia lived in Italy early 500s • Son of Roman noble, abandoned city to become hermit – Inspired others to live as he did – 529, persuaded Benedict to establish monastery with himself as first abbot • In time other monasteries adopted Benedict’s teachings as guidelines • Benedictine Order; vows of poverty, obedience Benedictine Rule • Benedict’s rule, collection of guidelines for monks, called Benedictine Rule • Based on daily schedule; combination of prayer, labor • Organization of Benedictine Order – Each monastery a distinct entity – No central authority – Each run by abbot chosen by monks, or local noble
  14. 14. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 Benedictine Monks 2. Benedictine monasticism made tremendous contributions to Europe • Monks ran schools that trained some of finest minds of Middle Ages • Copied ancient manuscripts, helped preserve knowledge of Greece, Rome • Monasteries became centers of wealth, power – Kings, nobles donated money, gifts in exchange for prayers said on their behalf – As they became wealthier, monasteries drawn into local politics – Many monks acted as advisers, aides to local, national rulers in Europe
  15. 15. Section 3 Kingdoms and Christianity Celtic Monasteries • 3. Other branch of monasticism developed in Ireland • Celtic monks more ascetic, or severe, than Benedictines • Fasted and spent days in solitary contemplation • Built monasteries on small islands to separate monks, rest of society; believed isolation helped focus on faith Abbots’ Authority • Led by abbots with more authority than Benedictine counterparts • Since Ireland had no large cities, people looked to abbots of local monasteries for spiritual guidance Scholars, Missionaries • Lindisfarne Gospels among greatest artistic achievements of Middle Ages • Monks were scholars, ran schools; preserved ancient knowledge • Others active missionaries in British Isles; built monasteries in Europe
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  17. 17. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 Make Generalizations What contributions did monks make to Europe? Answer(s): ran schools, preserved the knowledge of Greece and Rome, served as advisers and aides to European rulers
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  19. 19. Kingdoms and Christianity Section 3 Video The Impact of Christianity as a World Religion Click above to play the video.