World History Ch. 11 Section 4 Notes


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World History Ch. 11 Section 4 Notes

  1. 1. Cultures of East Asia Section 4 Civilizations of Southeast Asia Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Influences on Southeast Asia • Map: Southeast Asian Kingdoms • Early Kingdoms and Empires • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of Chinese Culture on Japan
  2. 2. Cultures of East Asia Section 4 Civilizations of Southeast Asia Main Idea The early civilizations of Southeast Asia were influenced by geography and the cultures of India and China. Reading Focus • What factors influenced early civilizations in the region of Southeast Asia? • What early kingdoms and empires developed in Southeast Asia?
  3. 3. Cultures of East Asia Section 4 Influences on Southeast Asia 1. India and China shaped the development of civilization in the region of Southeast Asia. Geography and trade also played important roles. Two Parts of Southeast Asia • Southeast Asia divided in two parts—mainland Southeast Asia, and island Southeast Asia • Mainland—modern nations of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, part of Malaysia • Island—Sumatra, Borneo, Java, rest of Malaysia, Brunei, East Timor, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore Geography • Several rivers flow south on mainland • Valleys, deltas of rivers supported farming, home to early civilizations • Separating rivers, rugged mountains, limited contact among people • Islands surrounded by seas, straits; provided sources of food, travel, served as trade routes
  4. 4. Cultures of East Asia Section 4
  5. 5. Cultures of East Asia Section 4 Trade • Southeast Asia waterways, main trade routes between India, China • Two most important: Malacca Strait between Malay Peninsula, Sumatra; Sunda Strait, between Sumatra, Java • Control of these, other important trade routes, brought wealth, power Winds • Monsoons, seasonal winds, shaped trade • Winds blow northeast in summer, southwest in winter • Ships relied on monsoons to sail from place to place, often had to wait in port until winds shifted to resume voyage • Many Southeast Asian port cities became important economic centers
  6. 6. Cultures of East Asia Section 4 Sea Trade in Southeast Asia • By AD 100s, Indian merchants had begun prosperous sea trade with Southeast Asia • Overland trade routes through Central Asia more dangerous after fall of Han dynasty, 220 • Seaborne trade between China, India increased • Traders passed through Southeast Asia; exchanged goods for local products
  7. 7. Section 4 Cultures of East Asia India and China Traders and Missionaries • Chinese, Indian traders influenced Southeast Asia • Indian influence spread through trade, missionaries • Indian missionaries introduced Hinduism, Buddhism; many kingdoms adopted the religions, built temples in Indian style • Eventually Indians brought Islam; remains strong today Other Influences • Indian ideas on writing, science, government, art spread to Southeast Asia • Ancient Indian language, Sanskrit, came into wide use • Chinese influences spread by conquest, trade, migration • China controlled northern Vietnam at different times, strongly influenced that region
  8. 8. Cultures of East Asia Section 4 Identify Cause and Effect How did trade influence Southeast Asia? Answer(s): Ports became the economic centers of Southeast Asia; Indian and Chinese influence spread to Southeast Asia through trade
  9. 9. Cultures of East Asia Section 4 Early Kingdoms and Empires Small but Powerful • Several early kingdoms, empires arose in Southeast Asia • Most small, a few quite powerful • Blended influences from India, China to create own unique societies, cultures 2. The Pagan Kingdom • AD 800s, Burmans established kingdom of Pagan, in what is now Myanmar • Located in fertile Irrawaddy River valley, ideal for rice farming • First king, Anawrahta, ruled 1044 to 1077, conquered surrounding areas Conquests • 1057, Anawrahta united much of what is now Myanmar under his rule • Conquests provided Pagan with access to trading ports • Anawrahta’s kingdom prospered
  10. 10. Cultures of East Asia Section 4 The Pagan Kingdom • Anawrahta, successors supported Theravada Buddhism, built thousands of Buddhist temples • Pagan became center of Buddhist learning • 1287, Kublai Khan’s Mongols demanded tribute from Pagan; king refused and attacked; was crushed • One of king’s own sons killed him, then agreed to pay tribute to the Mongols • Pagan survived, but lost power • Today Myanmar people consider Pagan classical age of history, culture
  11. 11. Section 4 Cultures of East Asia The Khmer Empire • Powerful Khmer empire arose southeast of Pagan, in what is now Cambodia • Early 800s, Khmer people began to conquer kingdoms around them, build great empire • Empire reached height between 850 and 1250, controlled much of Southeast Asian mainland • Expensive building projects, invaders contributed to empire’s decline Indian Influence Rich from Rice • Khmer Empire reflected strong Indian influence • Built vast temple complexes; Angkor Wat ruins still stand • Adopted Hindu, Buddhist beliefs, ruled as gods • Empire grew prosperous from rice farming • Empire’s capital city, Angkor, symbolized shape of Hindu universe, temple at its center • Built irrigation system covering 12.5 million acres, grew several crops per year
  12. 12. Section 4 Cultures of East Asia Trading Kingdoms Trading Kingdoms • Several developed on islands of Southeast Asia • Kingdom of Sailendra on Java flourished, 750 to 850 • Relied on agriculture, trade Srivijaya • Wealthy empire on Sumatra, flourished 600s to 1200s • Gained wealth from control of overseas trade through Malacca, Sunda straits • Also Buddhist learning center Sailendra • Adopted Mahayana Buddhism, known for impressive Buddhist art, architecture • Borobudur monument with terraced levels most famous Control Reduced • 1025, empire attacked by Indian kingdom • Empire survived, but weakened • Control of trade reduced • Islam spread; Muslims came to dominate trade in region
  13. 13. Section 4 Cultures of East Asia Vietnam 3. While most of Southeast Asia was strongly influenced by India, Vietnam was strongly influenced by China. In 111 BC the Han dynasty of China conquered the kingdom of Nam Viet, in what is now northern Vietnam. They ruled the region off and on for the next 1,000 years. Chinese Rule • Chinese forced Vietnamese to adopt Chinese language, clothing, hairstyles • Confucianism, Daoism influenced Vietnamese society • Adopted Chinese government features, including bureaucracy Traditional Customs • Vietnam embraced Buddhism, but still maintained traditional customs • Continued to worship nature spirits alongside other belief systems • Chinese rule shaped life in early Vietnam, but people determined to preserve own culture, identity In hopes of regaining their independence, the Vietnamese sometimes rebelled when Chinese rule grew weak.
  14. 14. Cultures of East Asia Section 4 Rebellion in Vietnam Rebellion • AD 39, one of most famous Vietnamese rebellions took place • Two sisters, Trung Trac, Trung Nhi raised army, briefly drove Chinese out • Chinese soon regained control; sisters remain heroes in Vietnam today Independence • Early 900s, fall of China’s Tang dynasty provided Vietnamese another chance at independence; this time successful • 939, established independent kingdom in what is now northern Vietnam Dai Viet • Rulers of Dai Viet sent tribute to China, but remained independent • Chinese failed in attempts to reconquer Vietnam; 1285, Mongols invaded; Dai Viet prince Tran Quoc Toan defeated them, became a hero
  15. 15. Section 4 Cultures of East Asia Contrast How did the development of early Vietnam differ from the development of kingdoms and empires in the rest of Southeast Asia? Answer(s): was ruled by China; influenced by China rather than India
  16. 16. Cultures of East Asia Section 4
  17. 17. Section 4 Cultures of East Asia Video The Impact of Chinese Culture on Japan Click above to play the video.