World History Ch. 10 Section 2 Notes


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World History Ch. 10 Section 2 Notes

  1. 1. African Kingdoms Section 2 Trading States of East Africa Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Aksum and Ethiopia • Map: Aksum and Ethiopia • Coastal City-States • Great Zimbabwe
  2. 2. African Kingdoms Section 2 Trading States of East Africa Main Idea 1. The growth of trade led to the development of wealthy kingdoms and city-states in East Africa. Reading Focus • How did trade and religion influence the development of Aksum and Ethiopia? • How did trade lead to the rise of coastal city-states in East Africa? • What do historians know about the African kingdom of Great Zimbabwe?
  3. 3. Section 2 African Kingdoms Aksum and Ethiopia In East Africa, the kingdom of Aksum began to grow in power around the first century AD. Aksum lay south of Egypt and Kush and alongside the Red Sea and was ideally situated to control Red Sea trade. At its height Aksum was the most powerful kingdom in East Africa. The Rise of Aksum Geographic Advantages • People of Aksum descended from African farmers, as well as migrants from Middle East • Geographic location provided advantages: well suited for agriculture; Red Sea proximity ideal for trade, access to Indian Ocean • By AD 100, Aksum was wealthy trading kingdom • Two main cities: Aksum, capital; Adulis, thriving Red Sea port • Seaport attracted merchants from African interior, Mediterranean region, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India At Aksum’s markets, foreign traders exchanged luxury goods for African goods. By about AD 300, Aksum had amassed great wealth from this trade.
  4. 4. Section 2 African Kingdoms Aksum at Its Height King Ezana Military Victory • Over time, Aksum became not only wealthy trading kingdom, but also strong military power • Under Ezana’s rule, Aksum attacked, defeated rival trading kingdom of Kush, about 350 • Reached height under King Ezana, whose reign began about 320 • Defeat gave Aksum control of trade in region • Ezana held direct power only in capital city; outside, collected only tribute from local rulers • Aksum soon became greatest power in East Africa
  5. 5. Section 2 African Kingdoms Culture of Aksum • • • • • African-Arab heritage, trade connections gave Aksum diverse culture Merchants who came to Aksum brought new ideas as well as goods Among new ideas, beliefs in 300s, Christianity King Ezana converted, made Christianity official religion of Aksum Recorded that he would “rule the people with righteousness and justice…” Language Preserved Coins Minted • Historians know about statement because it was inscribed on stone monument, called a stela • Ge’ez one of first written languages developed in Africa, basis of written language used in Ethiopia today • Stelae often inscribed with records of important events • Aksum also first African kingdom south of Sahara to mint own coins • Inscriptions provide examples of Ge’ez, Aksum’s language • Merchants found it practical to use coins because of thriving trade
  6. 6. African Kingdoms Section 2 The Decline of Aksum Muslim Invaders • 600s, Aksum began to decline, partly because of arrival of Muslim invaders – 600s, 700s invaders conquered parts of East, North Africa – Aksum itself was never conquered • Nearby areas became Muslim; Christian Aksum isolated – Muslims destroyed Aksum’s port city, Adulis, took over Red Sea trade – Cut off from trade, Aksum lost main source of wealth – Aksum people eventually retreated inland, settled in what is now northern Ethiopia
  7. 7. Section 2 African Kingdoms Ethiopia 2. The people of Aksum sometimes referred to their kingdom as Ethiopia, and this name came to apply to the region where they lived. Ethiopia • By 1100s, descendants of Aksum established new kingdom in Ethiopia • 1150, kingdom grew under Zagwe dynasty • Most famous king, Lalibela – Ruled during 1200s – Known for building 11 stone Christian churches – Impressive works of architecture; many still stand Christianity in Ethiopia • Lalibela churches also showed continued importance of Christianity in Ethiopia • Provided unifying identity for Ethiopian people • Ethiopian Christianity developed own unique characteristics, including elements of local African customs
  8. 8. Section 2 African Kingdoms Second Dynasty Solomonid Dynasty • 1270, second dynasty of Christian kings came to rule Ethiopia • Kings claimed to be descendants of Hebrew King Solomon, Queen of Sheba • Dynasty is also known as Solomonid dynasty; ruled Ethiopia for 700 years Religious Wars • During first centuries of Solomonid rule, kings engaged in religious wars • Beta Israel Jews lived in Christian Ethiopia; kings fought, tried to make leave • Effort mostly unsuccessful; Jews remained, although faced persecution Kingdom of Adal • Meanwhile, rival Muslim kingdom formed to east, near Horn of Africa • Muslim Arab merchants settled in kingdom of Adal; fought Christian Ethiopia • Muslim forces never conquered Ethiopia, which remained independent
  9. 9. African Kingdoms Section 2
  10. 10. Section 2 African Kingdoms Summarize What religions had an effect upon Ethiopia during this period? Answer(s): Christianity, Islam, Judaism
  11. 11. Section 2 African Kingdoms Coastal City States 3. South of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa, a number of Muslim citystates developed along the East African coast. Like the Aksum, these coastal city-states made their wealth from overseas trade. Monsoon Winds Trade Network City-States • Overseas traders because of influence of Indian Ocean • Sailors used winds to move around Indian Ocean • Arab traders called East African coastal region land of Zanj • November to March, monsoons blew southwest toward Africa • Trade network linked East Africa with Persia, Arabia, India, even Southeast Asia • Used monsoon winds to visit port towns • April to October, monsoons reversed, blew toward India • Market towns sprang up along East African coast • By AD 1100, coastal market towns were thriving city-states: Mogadishu, Kilwa, Mombasa, Sofala
  12. 12. Section 2 African Kingdoms Links to Trade Coastal Trade • Coastal city-states linked overseas merchants with traders from Africa’s interior; merchants sold luxury items like glassware, porcelain, silk, cotton • In exchange obtained raw materials, coconut oil, copper, skins, ivory, gold Slave Trade • Enslaved Africans also exported through coastal city-states to slave markets in Arabia, Persia, India; then sent to regions across Asia • Trade of slaves would later increase after Europeans began coming to Africa Kilwa Trade • Trade reached peak during 1300s, 1400s • Kilwa had become wealthiest, most powerful city-state; located at southernmost point on coast a ship could reach in single monsoon season • All goods from south of Kilwa exported from Kilwa’s market, including gold
  13. 13. African Kingdoms Section 2 Arab Influences • Trade led to blending of African, Arab, Asian cultural influences • Over time, many Muslim Arabs, Persians settled in coastal city-states • Groups intermarried with local African population • Arab influences began to shape local culture and ways of life Blended Cultures • Architecture featured African and Arab characteristics • Local Africans adopted Arab words; two languages blended into new language called Swahili; Swahili also came to refer to blended African-Arab culture of East African coast • Because many foreign traders were Muslim, Islam also gained hold along coast; many African rulers adopted Islam; mosques appeared in cities, towns
  14. 14. Section 2 African Kingdoms Analyze How did trade shape life in the East African coastal city-states? Answer(s): created wealth, brought Arab influences, contributed to the development of an Arab-Bantu language called Swahili
  15. 15. Section 2 African Kingdoms Great Zimbabwe The growing wealth of Africa’s overseas trade stimulated developments in Africa’s interior also. There, ancestors of the Shona people established a kingdom called Great Zimbabwe around the 1100s. This kingdom was located between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers in southeastern Africa. Part of Trade Network • Scholars think Great Zimbabwe was part of thriving trade network because of its location • Lay along trade route linking interior gold mines to city-states on coast Middleman Role • Great Zimbabwe served as middleman between gold miners, ivory hunters in southern Africa, traders on coast • Middleman is person who buys something from one person, sells to another, making profit on sale A number of archeological discoveries support this role for Great Zimbabwe.
  16. 16. African Kingdoms Section 2 Examples of Great Zimbabwe Archaeological discoveries • Glass beads from India • Coin minted in Kilwa Kingdom’s rulers likely taxed trade goods that passed through their territory • Through control of trade, Great Zimbabwe rose to prosperity between 1200 and 1400, about same time as Africa’s coastal city-states
  17. 17. Section 2 African Kingdoms The Great Enclosure Zimbabwe • Shona word zimbabwe means “stone houses” • Today all that remains of Great Zimbabwe are mainly stone ruins Construction of Enclosure • Inner wall runs along part of outer wall, forms narrow passage about 180 feet long • Stones well fitted, no mortar needed in construction Description of Remains • Largest, most impressive is structure called the Great Enclosure • Includes thick, circular outer stone wall 35 feet high Purpose of Enclosure • Inside walls, 33-foot high stone tower, soapstone bird figurines • Historians not certain of purpose, but think it might have shown kingdom’s power
  18. 18. Section 2 African Kingdoms The Mutapa Empire Scholars think as many as 18,000 people lived in Great Zimbabwe at its height. Yet sometime during the 1400s they abandoned the area. Reasons Power Shift • People of Great Zimbabwe raised cattle • Oral tradition has Mutota as founder of Mutapa Empire • Possible that land became overgrazed • Became known as Mwene Mutapa, “master pillager” • Soil may have lost fertility • Built his empire in the 1400s • By the 1500s, when first Europeans saw site, Great Zimbabwe already in ruins • By 1500, Mutapa Empire controlled much of what is now Zimbabwe • Grew wealthy exporting gold, controlling trade in large area
  19. 19. African Kingdoms Section 2 Find the Main Idea How do scholars think Great Zimbabwe participated in trade? Answer(s): location served as the role of middleman, taxing trade goods that passed through its territory