World History Ch. 11 Section 1 Notes


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World History Ch. 11 Section 1 Notes

  1. 1. Cultures of East Asia Section 1
  2. 2. Cultures of East Asia Chinese Empires Preview • Starting Points Map: East Asia • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Sui and Tang Dynasties • Faces of History: Wu Zhao • The Song Dynasty • Map: Tang and Song Dynasties Section 1
  3. 3. Cultures of East Asia Chinese Empires Preview, continued • Cultural Achievements • Quick Facts: Innovations • Prosperity and Society Section 1
  4. 4. Cultures of East Asia Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps. Section 1
  5. 5. Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Chinese Empires Main Idea 1. The Sui dynasty reunified China, after which the Tang and Song dynasties produced an age of prosperity and achievement. Reading Focus • How did the Sui and Tang dynasties reunify China? • How did the Song dynasty strengthen China? • What were some Tang and Song cultural achievements? • How was this period a time of prosperity and social change?
  6. 6. Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Sui and Tang Dynasties The Han dynasty ruled China from 206 BC to AD 220—more than 400 years. After the dynasty collapsed, military leaders split China into rival kingdoms. These events began a period of disorder and warfare that historians call the Period of Disunion. The Period of Disunion Civilization Thrived • Nomads invaded northern China, formed own kingdoms • Despite these events, Chinese civilization thrived, developed • Many northern Chinese fled south to region of Yangzi River • Nomadic invaders in north adopted aspects of Chinese civilization • A number of southern dynasties rose, fell • Northern Chinese immigrants’ culture blended with local cultures in south; arts, philosophy flowered The Period of Disunion lasted more than 350 years, ending when a northern ruler named Wendi reunified China, founding the Sui dynasty.
  7. 7. Section 1 Cultures of East Asia The Sui Dynasty Centralized Government • Wendi worked to build centralized government Grand Canal • Greatest accomplishment of Sui dynasty, completed during reign of Yangdi, Wendi’s son • Restored order, created new legal code, reformed bureaucracy • 1,000 mile waterway linked northern, southern China • Created policies to provide adult males with land, ensure availability of grain • Yangdi forced millions of peasants to work on canal; led to discontent, rebellion • 618, Yangdi assassinated, Sui dynasty ended
  8. 8. Cultures of East Asia Section 1 The Tang Dynasty 2. Period of Brilliance • Tang dynasty ruled 618 to 907; Chinese influence spread • China experienced period of brilliance, prosperity, cultural achievement • Government, other institutions served as models across East Asia Built on Sui Foundations • Established capital at Chang’an, Sui capital • Second capital located at Luoyang • Government control remained centralized, based on bureaucracy of officials Civil Service • To obtain talented officials, Tang expanded civil service examination system • People had to pass written exams to work for government • Created flexible law code; model for law codes in Korea, Japan
  9. 9. Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Foreign Affairs • Tang expanded China, Chinese influence • Regained western lands in Central Asia, gained influence over Korea • Contact with Japan increased; Japanese scholars came to China to study • Expansion, increased contact with others grew foreign trade Expansion • Much of expansion occurred during reign of Taizong, 626 to 649 • Taizong relied on talented ministers to help govern • In addition to military conquests, Taizong had schools built to prepare students for civil service exams • After his death, one of his sons became emperor
  10. 10. Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Wu Zhao New emperor was weak, sickly • Emperor’s wife, Wu Zhao gained power • Following death of husband – Wu Zhao ruled through her sons – Eventually became emperor herself—the only woman to do so in Chinese history • Wu Zhao overthrown, 705 – Dynasty reached height under Xuanzong – During reign, 712 to 756, empire prospered
  11. 11. Cultures of East Asia Section 1
  12. 12. Cultures of East Asia Section 1 The Age of Buddhism From India • Buddhism first came to China from India during Han times • During Period of Disunion many Chinese turned to Buddhism • Taught people could escape suffering, appealed to people in turmoil State Religion • Under Tang rule, Buddhism became state religion • Buddhist temples appeared across land, missionaries spread Buddhism • 400 to 845 in China, Age of Buddhism; ended when lost official favor Tang Decline • 750s, decline began, government weak, nomadic invasions, rebellions • Military defeats lost Tang lands in Central Asia and the north • 907, emperor killed, Tang dynasty ended
  13. 13. Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Summarize How did the Sui and Tang dynasties unite and expand China? Answer(s): built centralized government; reformed laws and policies; built Grand Canal; Tang regained land in Central Asia and gained influence over neighboring states; increased contact with other peoples
  14. 14. Section 1 Cultures of East Asia The Song Dynasty After Tang Dynasty • China split apart after Tang dynasty • Did not reunify until 960 with Song dynasty • Song ruled for about 300 years, created achievement, prosperity • Under Song, Chinese civilization became most advanced in world Government and Civil Service • Song established capital at Kaifeng, restored centralized government control • Enlarged government bureaucracy, reformed civil service examination system • Neo-Confucianism gained favor, emphasizing Confucian ethics, spiritual matters
  15. 15. Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Civil Service Exams • Extremely difficult to pass; those who did became scholar-officials • Scholar-officials received good salary, were respected • Civil service exams became more open to ordinary people • Exams became pathway to gaining wealth, status Southern Song • Song rulers never regained northern, western lands lost by Tang • Tried to buy peace with threatening nomads by sending lavish gifts • 1120s, nomadic people, Jurchen, conquered northern China, founded Jin empire • Song continued in south as Southern Song dynasty 150 more years
  16. 16. Cultures of East Asia Section 1
  17. 17. Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Compare How did the Song strengthen China’s government? Answer(s): established capital at Kaifeng and restored centralized government control, enlarged bureaucracy, reformed civil service exam
  18. 18. Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Cultural Achievements 3. The Tang and Song dynasties were periods of great cultural achievement. Art and literature flourished, and many inventions and advances occurred in science and technology. Literature and Art Painting • Tang period produced some of China’s greatest poets • Reached new heights • Exquisite objects made from clay • Wu Daozi, murals celebrating Buddhism, nature • Tang: pottery figurines, often to go in tombs • Landscapes of great beauty • Song: excelled at making porcelain • Some used only black ink • Admired, sought after worldwide • Du Fu, Li Bo, two most famous • Poems of Confucian ideals, joys of life Artisans
  19. 19. Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Inventions and Innovations Architecture Inventions • Indian Buddhist temples influenced design of Chinese pagoda • During Tang, Song periods, China became a world leader in technology, science • Featured roofs at each floor curving upwards at corners • Gunpowder major invention, used in fireworks, weapons Magnetic Compass Printing • Major Tang technical advance • Paper, ink invented earlier • Uses Earth’s magnetic field to show direction • Tang period, developed woodblock printing • Revolutionized sea travel, contributed to world exploration • Text carved into wood, coated with ink, pressed on paper
  20. 20. Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Moveable Type • Song dynasty invented another type of printing, moveable type • Uses blocks on which letters, characters carved • Blocks rearranged, reused to print many things • Faster than woodblock, spread to Europe, revolutionized printing Paper Money • Another Song invention • Had used bulky metal disks placed on strings • As economy grew, lighter, more useful form of currency developed • Paper money light, easy to use, quickly spread in use in China
  21. 21. Cultures of East Asia Section 1
  22. 22. Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Identify Cause and Effect How did Chinese innovations affect world history? Answer(s): Gunpowder dramatically affected how wars were fought; the compass allowed for world navigation; printing innovations led to increased sharing of ideas.
  23. 23. Section 1 Cultures of East Asia Prosperity and Society In addition to cultural achievements, the Tang and Song periods were a time of growth and prosperity. Agriculture • Chinese agriculture became more productive – New irrigation techniques – New variety of rice – Production of cotton, tea increased • Increased food production contributed to population growth • Tang population 60 million, Song population 100 million Trade • Improvements in roads, canals increased trade within China • Foreign trade expanded, mostly over land routes like Silk Roads • Late Tang: advances in sailing, shipbuilding helped sea trade • Song: merchants became important in society; money, banking began to develop
  24. 24. Section 1 Cultures of East Asia City Life • As farming, trade grew so did China’s cities • China had largest cities in world at the time • Tang capital, Chang’an, population more than 1 million, many cultures • Song dynasty, several cities had million or more; sea trade caused port cities to boom • Despite urban growth, most Chinese still lived, farmed in countryside Society • Power of aristocratic families declined during period • New class developed, gentry • Included scholar-officials, leading landowners • Most still peasants, farmers • Paid most of taxes, little schooling Women • Status of women declined, most visibly in upper classes • Desire for small, dainty feet led to custom of footbinding • Painful process to keep feet from growing, deformed feet over time • Symbol of husband’s authority
  25. 25. Cultures of East Asia Section 1 Draw Conclusions How did footbinding reflect changes in attitudes toward women in China? Answer(s): became symbol of husband's authority over wife; women's status declined