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USH 7.3 notes

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  • 1. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 Objectives • Analyze the problems farmers faced and the groups they formed to address them. • Assess the goals of the Populists, and explain why the Populist Party did not last. The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 2. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 Terms and People • Oliver H. Kelley – a Minnesota farmer and businessman who organized the Grange • Grange – an organization of farmers who joined to learn about new farming techniques, to call for the regulation of railroad and grain elevator rates, and to prompt the establishment of the ICC • Populist Party – a political party formed in 1892 on a platform of silver coinage, government ownership of the railroads, and fighting the corrupt and unresponsive elite The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 3. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 Terms and People (continued) • William Jennings Bryan – the Democratic nominee for president in 1896, who supported many Populist principles including silver coinage, and who toured the country to speak directly to voters • William McKinley – the Republican candidate for president in 1896, who followed a traditional strategy of letting party workers campaign for him The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 4. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 What led to the rise of the Populist movement, and what effect did it have? 1. Millions of Americans moved west after the Civil War to pursue the American dream. A variety of factors made their lives extremely difficult, which led to the social and political revolt known as Populism—and created one of the largest third party movements in American history. The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 5. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 People moving to the West and South in the late 1800s knew that their lives would not be easy. low prices for crops Problems facing the farmers of the West and South high transportation, equipment, and loan costs drought reduced influence in politics They did not anticipate many problems that made survival nearly impossible. The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 6. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 Frustrated by these problems, farmers began to organize. The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 7. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 Farmers created groups to address their problems. 2. These groups formed a network called the Granger movement. The Grange was formally organized by Oliver H. Kelley in 1867 and gained a million members. The Grange declined after the 1870s, but Farmers’ Alliances became important reform organizations that continued the Grange’s goals. The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 8. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 The spread of the Farmers’ Alliances led to the formation of the Populist Party in 1892. coinage of silver The Populist platform, outlined at the party’s 1892 convention in Omaha, NE, called for: an income tax government ownership of railroads bank regulations The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 9. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 3. The debate over monetary policy was an important issue of the day. Those who wanted a gold standard were on one side. Those who wanted to use silver—including the Populist Party—were on the other. The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 10. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 The Populists did well in 1892, electing three governors, five senators, and ten congressmen. The Populist candidate for president received one million votes in that election. The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 11. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 An economic depression began in 1893 and labor unrest and violence broke out. The Populist Party grew. In 1896, a young lawyer named William Jennings Bryan spoke at the national Democratic convention. 4. The speech, with its Populist message of “free silver,” moved Democrats to nominate Bryan. The Populist Party chose to give him their support. The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 12. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 5. William Jennings Bryan campaigned against Republican candidate William McKinley in a way that had never been seen before. He toured the country, talking directly to voters. The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 13. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 McKinley won against Bryan in 1896 and in 1900. Bryan’s emphasis on money reform wasn’t popular with urban workers. The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 14. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 The Populist Party was weakened by supporting William Jennings Bryan on the Democratic ticket. It survived another decade, but its viability as an alternative to the two major parties was over. Many of the reforms sought by the Populists became a reality. The new campaigning style used by Bryan became the norm. The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins
  • 15. Section Chapter 3 Section 1 25 Section Review QuickTake Quiz Know It, Show It Quiz The Cold Farmers and Populism War Begins