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    • 1. Section Chapter 2 Section 1 25 Objectives • Analyze the issue of corruption in national politics in the 1870s and 1880s. • Discuss civil service reform during the 1870s and 1880s. • Assess the importance of economic issues in the politics of the Gilded Age. The Cold War Begins Political and Economic Challenges
    • 2. Section Chapter 2 Section 1 25 Terms and People • spoils system – a system in which politicians awarded government jobs to loyal party workers with little regard for their qualifications • civil service – a system that includes federal jobs in the executive branch • Pendleton Civil Service Act – a law passed in 1883 that established a Civil Service Commission, which wrote a civil service exam • gold standard – using gold as the basis of the nation’s currency The Cold War Begins Political and Economic Challenges
    • 3. Section Chapter 2 Section 1 25 Why did the political structure change during the Gilded Age? 1. Congress passed few laws between 1877 and 1900, in an era marked by inaction and political corruption. The Gilded Age raised questions about whether or not democracy could succeed. The Cold War Begins Political and Economic Challenges
    • 4. Section Chapter 2 Section 1 25 2. Between 1877 and 1897, party loyalties were evenly divided. • Neither political party achieved control of both the White House and Congress for more than two years in a row. • Presidents during the Gilded Age were elected only by slim margins. The Cold War Begins Political and Economic Challenges
    • 5. Section Chapter 2 Section 1 25 Corruption plagued national politics as many officials accepted bribes. The Cold War Begins Political and Economic Challenges
    • 6. Section Chapter 2 Section 1 25 Writers, such as Mark Twain, expressed concerns over the corruption. 3. The spoils system, in which party supporters received government jobs regardless of their qualifications, shifted power to a few. The Cold War Begins Political and Economic Challenges This system made the political parties extremely powerful.
    • 7. Section Chapter 2 Section 1 25 A movement arose to promote civil service reform. Ending the spoils system was difficult. 4. Change finally happened, in part, because President James Garfield was assassinated by a man who believed the Republican Party owed him a job. The Cold War Begins Political and Economic Challenges
    • 8. Section Chapter 2 Section 1 25 Chester A. Arthur became President and supported civil service reform. In 1883, he signed into law the Pendleton Civil Service Act, which established a merit-based system for government employment. The Cold War Begins Political and Economic Challenges
    • 9. Section Chapter 2 Section 1 25 The economic issues of tariffs and monetary policy caused debate during the Gilded Age. Tariffs taxed imported goods, which supported American industry but increased consumer prices. Monetary policy disputes concerned the gold standard, where gold became the basis of the nation’s currency. The Cold War Begins Political and Economic Challenges
    • 10. Section Chapter 2 Section 1 25 Monetary policy centered on a debate over the Coinage Act of 1873. Some people wanted to use only gold as money. Some wanted to use both gold and silver. 5.Bankers were worried silver would undermine the economy. Farmers favored it to create inflation and raise their income. The Cold War Begins Political and Economic Challenges
    • 11. Section Chapter 2 Section 1 25 Section Review QuickTake Quiz Know It, Show It Quiz The Cold War Begins Political and Economic Challenges

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