World History Ch.7.3 Notes


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World History Ch.7.3 Notes

  1. 1. Section 3 The Americas South America Preview • Main Idea / Reading Focus • Early Cultures in South America • Map: South American Cultures • The Inca Empire • Faces of History: Pachacuti • Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts • Video: The Impact of Mayan Achievements on Math and Astronomy
  2. 2. Section 3 The Americas South America Main Idea 1. Several early cultures in South America adapted to extreme environmental conditions. One of them, the Incas, built one of the biggest and most powerful empires in the Americas. Reading Focus • How did early cultures of South America adapt to their environments? • How was the Inca Empire organized?
  3. 3. The Americas Section 3 Early Cultures in South America The western region of South America is one of environmental contrasts where early peoples learned to adapt and build civilizations. The Chavín Chavín Crops • Lived in Peruvian highlands, 800 to 400 BC • Warmer valleys had irrigation systems, grew corn • Chavin de Huantar • Cooler higher in mountains, grew potatoes – Urban religious, trading center of culture – Home to about 3,000 farmers, craftspeople • Several different ecological zones represented in Andes • High-altitude grasslands, raised llamas and alpacas • Other Andean peoples later adopted these methods of farming
  4. 4. The Americas Section 3 Early Cultures in South America The Moche 2. The Nazca • Lived in coastal desert of Peru in farming, fishing villages 400 BC to AD 600 • Desert people, 200 BC to AD 600, best known for huge designs on desert floor • Built irrigation canals in desert, channeled flow of Andean streams to crops • Many theories, including having to do with location of water • Best known for skilled metalwork in gold, silver, pottery • Pottery depicted scenes of everyday life, including warfare • Built irrigation canals and relied on springs, flooding of streams to water crops • Farming supported large population
  5. 5. The Americas Section 3
  6. 6. The Americas Section 3 Identify Problem and Solution What problems did the environments of South America create, and how did early cultures solve those problems? Answer(s): extremely dry area, high mountain range, rain forest; planted crops based on zone, built irrigation canals so streams would flow from mountains to crops
  7. 7. Section 3 The Americas The Inca Empire Inca’s expansive empire • Brought entire South American region into one empire • Began as small Andean tribe • Early 1500s, empire expanded along Pacific coast, Andes Ruling a large empire Government • Period of rapid expansion began 1400s from Cuzco • Pachacuti used political alliances, military force • Expanded by later leaders Creating stability • Incas needed strong government • Emperor had most power • Moved leaders of conquered areas out • Moved loyal new leaders in • Did not want conquered people to rebel • Military used to protect against rebellion, external attacks
  8. 8. The Americas Section 3
  9. 9. Section 3 The Americas The Inca Empire Economy • Strictly controlled by government • Common people required to pay labor tax, called the mita • Government told each household what work to do to pay tax Mita • Paid by weaving cloth, working on government farms, mines, building roads • No merchants, goods distributed by government • Extra food, goods stored in government warehouses for emergencies Tracking goods • Inca used quipu, colored and knotted cords representing numbers, dates • No written language, quipu used to record taxes, number livestock, census • Road system improved communication, helped government control economy
  10. 10. Section 3 The Americas The Inca Empire The government also played a big role in Inca society. Each family was grouped with others into a cooperative community called an ayllu. Ayllu • Members shared activities like farming, building canals, rituals • Each group of ten ayllus had chief • Chain of command from emperor down to local level Class Divisions • No slaves • Most belonged to lower class – Farmers – Artisans – Servants • Wore plain clothes • Could not own more than needed • Served upper class Upper Class • King, government officials, priests • Lived in capital, Cuzco – – – – Stone houses Fine clothes Did not pay tax Attended school to prepare to be officials
  11. 11. Section 3 The Americas The Inca Empire Religion a key element of Inca society People allowed to worship local gods – Sun god was most important of all – Believed kings related to sun god • Main temple located in Cuzco – Mummies of dead kings worshipped – Religious ceremonies often included sacrifices of llamas, cloth or food, rarely humans
  12. 12. Section 3 The Americas The Inca Empire 3. The level of organization of Inca government and society led to significant achievements in the areas of engineering and the arts. The Incas were particularly talented builders of temples, forts and roads. Many Inca structures were built so well they still stand today. Metalwork • Especially skilled in metalwork • Artisans made intricate ornaments of gold, silver • Created a life-sized field of corn out of gold, silver in temple courtyard Weaving • Weavers worked with wool, cotton • Divided cloth into three categories oPlain for households oFiner for taxes and trade oSpecial for royal and religious purposes • Variety of patterns used In spite of the high level of achievement, the Inca Empire lasted only about 100 years. Arrival of Spanish in 1532 marked end of Empire.
  13. 13. Section 3 The Americas Summarize What methods did the government use to control the Inca Empire? Answer(s): relocation of local leaders, the mita, organized society into ayllus
  14. 14. The Americas Section 3
  15. 15. Section 3 The Americas Video The Impact of Mayan Achievements on Math and Astronomy Click above to play the video.