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Chocolate

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Chocolate Chocolate Presentation Transcript

  • TRUFFLE MAKING SEMINAR15 July 2012 by Timothy Crum
  • Cocoa Beans & Chocolate 52% of the world says chocolate is their favorite flavor. (Euromonitor, 2006) Chocolate standards are set by the FDA in the U.S.  To be real chocolate and not chocolate flavoring, the product must contain both cocoa butter and chocolate liquor  Both of these products are found in cocoa beans  ByUS standards, “chocolate” cannot contain any other fat besides cocoa butter.
  • Cocoa vs. Cacao Cocoa and Cacao are not interchangeable but have the same origin.  Cacao refers to the bean, the source of chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, and cocoa powder.  Cocoa is the remainder after the cacao beans have had their cocoa butter removed.
  • Types of Chocolate Extra bittersweet, bittersweet, and semi-sweet are all types of dark chocolate  The difference is the amount of sugar, not fat.  Extra bittersweet has the least amount of sugar. Bittersweet & semi-sweet contain at least 35% chocolate liquor as well as cocoa butter, and is typically labeled as 50% cacao. Dark chocolate contains at least 15% chocolate liquor as well as cocoa butter, and it typically labeled as 60% cacao.
  • Types of Chocolate, continued Milk chocolate is a combination of 10% chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar, and 12% milk or cream. It is labeled as 35% cacao. White chocolate isn’t “chocolate.” It does not contain chocolate liquor, though it does contain cocoa butter, sugar, cream, and vanilla.
  • Cocoa Powder Natural cocoa has a natural red-brown color and a bitter, fruity, chocolate flavor. Dutch processed cocoa has been treated with alkali (in chemistry, a base) which reduces the acidity of the cocoa. This turns the cocoa dark brown and gives it a mellow, mild flavor. However, this process removes phenols and antioxidants.
  • Ancient Chocolatiers Ancient civilizations as far back as 1400 BCE began using cocoa.  Anthropologists believe humans first observed monkeys eating the sweet pulp of the cacao pod. An ancient tribe called the Olmecs from the lowlands of central Mexico (1200-1300 BCE) were the first known group to bake cacao pods to sweeten them. The Mayans cultivated and processed cacao next, and it spread to other civilizations from there.
  • Chocolate in WesternCivilization During the Anglican Reformation, strictly conservative Protestants fled England for the Netherlands in 1690. Ironically, they took up residence next to a noisy chocolate factory and bakery.  They dubbed the products “Devil’s Food” These same pilgrims banned chocolate in Plymouth colony once in America.  Years later, chocolate cakes in the Netherlands were dubbed “Devil’s Food” referring to these pilgrims.
  • A Few (Historical) HealthBenefits Joseph Bouchat, a French physician of the 1600’s declared cacao a treatment for kidney disease, liver illness, faintness, and overall health. He called it a “a treatment that is a gift from God.” Other countries in Western Europe also believed in cacao’s medicinal effects in the treatment of colds, diarrhea, exhaustion, gout, infertility, lack of sexual appetite and erectile dysfunction.
  • Current Known Health Benefits Flavonoids: same substance found in dark vegetables. Acts as antioxidant and prevents cancers. 8 times as much antioxidants as fresh strawberries.  Known to lower blood pressure by producing nitric oxide. Reduces LDL (bad) cholesterol. Stimulates endorphin (a “feel good” chemical) production.
  • …More Health Benefits Contains serotonin, a known anti-depressant Contains theobromine and caffeine, stimulants Only 1/3 of the fat in dark chocolate is bad for you!  PalmiticAcid is the “bad” fat that effects cholesterol.  The other 2/3 of the fat is…  Oleic acid – the same fat as in olive oil  Stearic acid – a neutral plant fat  These fatty acids are important for many body systems and especially vitamin absorption.
  • Chocolate as a Commodity Dark chocolate sales have gone up 60% in the last decade.  The most cited reasons are health benefits, availability of premium chocolate, and availability of organic and free trade chocolates. Euromonitor reports chocolate sales worldwide are $74 billion, $17.6 billion in the US alone  The average American eats 13 lbs/year  The Irish eat the most, around 23 lbs and the Swiss come in 2nd
  • Chocolate as a Commodity Asian countries are increasingly finding it rewarding to blend traditional Asiatic flavors with chocolate  Shienzen Le Conté has combined milk chocolate and rice in a bar.  Nestlé Japan now manufactures green tea Kit Kat bars. Trade magazines report that in China and Indonesia, chocolate is the fastest growing “impulse purchase.”
  • Chocolate and the Environment Cacao cultivation plays an important role in maintaining rainforests and their inhabitants local economies.  Through agroforestry, local farmers are able to produce valuable foods while maintaining habitats for wildlife and rainforests. Cacao trees are picky. They thrive in constant warmth – within 15 degrees of the Equator – and plenty of rainfall: at least 80 inches a year! They also need the shade of the taller rainforest trees.
  • Map of Cacao ProducingNations
  • Isn’t a Truffle a Mushroom? Chocolate truffles gain their name because when dusted in cocoa they resemble the rich, luxurious mushroom found in the wild, especially France andn northern Italy.  Realtruffles (tuber magnatum) grow underground and are sniffed out by specially trained pigs. Truffles are a prized gourmet food around the world now and are known for their distinct aroma and rarity.  Beware: “You normally get what you pay for.”
  • Black French Truffle
  • Truffles-Making, finally! Truffles contain two primary, imperative ingredients:  Chocolate  Heavy Cream It is also very common to find butter in truffle recipes for richness and firmness. Flavorings are also possible.  Vanilla extract, almond oil, hazelnut oil, etc.
  • Equipment Large glass bowl Pot in which the bowl will sit nicely Rubber spatula Teaspoon or small dough scoop Parchment paper Baking sheet
  • Basic Ganache Recipefrom Tartine Bakery, San Francisco 1 pound (455g) finely chopped bittersweet chocolate 2/3 cup (150ml) heavy cream 1 Tbsp (15ml) light corn syrup 5 Tbsp (70g) unsalted butter
  • Preparing the Chocolate http://youtu.be/nLYVuzQUVPA
  • Adding the Heavy cream http://youtu.be/BGvbwKFpY7U
  • Incorporating the Ganache http://youtu.be/HlfeDvUrxew
  • Shaping the Truffles http://youtu.be/B3c5vSo6-VE
  • Classic – Dusted in CocoaPowder
  • Rolled in Toasted Coconut &Wrapped
  • Caramel GanacheDipped in Pure Milk Chocolate with Fleur de Sel
  • Storage of Chocolate andTruffles Cool, dry place. 65 degrees is best with 50% humidity Airtight container  Chocolate will absorb other flavors. Freeze chocolate up to 6 months  Trufflesup to 1 month  Thaw in airtight container in fridge then in airtight container at room temperature.  This prevents cloudiness.
  • Thank you!Any questions?