Submitted to: - Submitted by:-Renu Sharma Vipin Kumar Maru Date:-21/09/2012 Sri Aurobindo Institute of Technology Indore
• INTRODUCTION TO ADHOCNET AND MANET• HISTORY OF MANET• ROUTING PROTOCOLS REACTIVE PROTOCOL PROACTIVE PROTOCOL HYBRID PROTOCOL• PROBLEMS OF MANET• SECURE DATA TRANSMISSION IN MANET• APPLICATIONS OF MANET• CONCLUSION
Ad-Hoc is a decentralized wireless network.The network is ad hoc because it does notrely on a preexisting infrastructure, such asrouters in wired networks or access points inmanaged (infrastructure) wireless networks.Instead, each node participates in routingby forwarding data for other nodes, and sothe determination of which nodes forwarddata is made dynamically based on thenetwork connectivity.
StartNode send the signal to find the no. of other nodeswithin range. Synchronization b/w nodes Sender node send msg. to receiver node YES Receiving Is NO node send receivin Wait for back g node sometime Ready Ready signal Comm.begins Term. process Stop
• A mobile ad-hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes forming an ad-hoc network without the assistance of any centralized structures. These networks introduced a new art of network establishment and can be well suited for an environment where either the infrastructure is lost or where deploy an infrastructure is not very cost effective. There are quite a number of uses for mobile ad-hoc networks which can be discussed later .
The whole life-cycle of ad-hoc networks could be categorized into the first, second, and the third generation ad-hoc networks systems. FIRST GENERATION:- The first generation goes back to 1972. At the time, they were called PRNET (Packet Radio Networks). In conjunction with ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) and CSMA (Carrier Sense Medium Access), approaches for medium access control and a kind of distance- vector routing PRNET were used on a trial basis to provide different networking capabilities in a combat environment.
The second generation of ad-hoc networks emerged in 1980s,when the ad-hoc network systems were further enhanced and implemented as a part of the SURAN (Survivable Adaptive Radio Networks) program. This provided a packet-switched network to the mobile battlefield In an environment without infrastructure. This program proved to be beneficial in improving the radios performance by making them smaller, cheaper, and resilient to electronic attacks. In the 1990s, the concept of commercial ad-hoc networks arrived with notebook computers and other viable communications equipment. At the same time, the idea of a collection of mobile nodes was proposed at several research conferences. The IEEE 802.11 subcommittee had adopted the term "ad-hoc networks" and the research community had started to look into the possibility of deploying ad-hoc networks in other areas of application.
Present ad-hoc networks systems are considered as the thirdgeneration.
Mobile ad hoc network’s routing protocols are characteristicallysubdivided into three main categories. These are proactive routingprotocols, reactive routing protocols and hybrid routing protocols.
AD HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VESTOR(AODV) DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING(DSR) ADMISSION CONTROL ENABLED ON DEMAND ROUTING(ACOR) ASSOCIATIVITY BASED ROUTING(ABR)
DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR(DSDV) OPTIMISED LINK STATE ROUTING(OLSR) WIRELESS ROUTING PROTOCOL(WRP) CLUSTER HEAD GATE WAY SWITCH ROUTING(CGSR)
One of many possible uses of mobile ad-hoc networks is in some business environments, where the need for collaborative computing might be more important outside the office environment than inside, such as in a business meeting outside the office to brief clients on a given assignment. A mobile ad-hoc network can also be used to provide crisis management services applications, such as in disaster recovery, where the entire communication infrastructure is destroyed and resorting communication quickly is crucial. By using a mobile ad-hoc network, an infrastructure could be set up in hours instead of weeks, as is required in the case of wired line communication.
Another application example of a mobile ad-hoc network isBluetooth, which is designed to support a personal areanetwork by eliminating the need of wires between variousdevices, such as printers and personal digital assistants.
I have presented a detailed performance comparison of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc wireless networks. Reactive protocols performed well in high mobility scenarios than proactive protocol. High mobility result in highly dynamic topology i.e. frequent route failures and changes. Both proactive protocols fail to respond fast enough to changing topology. Security is one of the fundamental issues in mobile ad-hoc networks. Ive highlighted different security requirements, along with a possible solution to secure transmission in these types of networks. The proposed security solution is one of several ways to protect data communication in mobile ad-hoc networks. However, theres a solid need to deploy more efficient strategies to resolve various issues besides security in mobile ad-hoc networks.