Water from rock outcrops


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Water from rock outcrops

  1. 1. Water from Rock Outcrops A handbook for engineers and technicians on site investigations, designs, construction and maintenance of rock catchment tanks and damsA rock catchment tank in Lakipia built An earthen dam built at the site a rockby ASALCON Contractors in 1998. at Mutha in Kitui by ALDEV in 1958.A masonry dam, Kaseva Rock Catchment Dam, built by ALDEV at Mutomo in Kitui in1956. The two persons walking on the crest give an idea of the dimensions of the dam. Erik Nissen-Petersen for Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) 2006 1
  2. 2. Technical handbooks in this series :Titles Contents1 Water for rural communities Lessons learnt from Kitui pilot projects2 Water supply by rural builders Procedures for being rural contractors3 Water surveys and designs Survey, design and cost of water projects4 Water from rock outcrops Rock catchment tanks, masonry and earthdams5 Water from dry riverbeds River-intakes, subsurface dams and sanddams6 Water from roads Rainwater harvesting from roads7 Water from small earth dams Ponds and small earth dams built manually8 Water from roofs Various types of roof catchments for domesticuseThese handbooks can be obtained free of charge by either collecting them from the officeof ASAL Consultants Ltd., or by bank transferring the cost of sending the manuals bycourier. For further details, please contact by email : asal@wananchi.com with copy toasalconsultants@yahoo.comPublisherASAL Consultants Ltd. for the Danish International Development Agency(DANIDA)TextErik Nissen-PetersenPhotos and sketchesErik Nissen-PetersenProofsAmin VerjeePrinterEnglish Press, P.O. Box 30127, Nairobi, KenyaWebsite creationLudovic Linas (Fredlink Ltd.) P.O. Box 85976, Mombasa, Kenyadeuxailes@hotmail.frMobile : 0735 663 610DistributionASAL Consultants Ltd. P.O. Box 739, Sarit 00606, Nairobi, Kenyaasal@wananchi.com asalconsultants@yahoo.comFax/Tel : 254 (0) 202 710 296 Mobile nos : 0733 619 066 or 0722 599 165Website : www.waterforaridland.com CopyrightThe copyright of this handbook is the property of the Royal Danish Embassy inKenya. Downloading from the internet and photocopying of handbooks is freeprovided the source is acknowledged. 2
  3. 3. Contents PageAcknowledgement ………………………………………………… vAcronyms ………………………………………………………….. viForeword …………………………………………………………… viiChapter 1. Introduction ……………………………………….. 11.1 How can rocks supply water ? ……………………………… 11.2 The capacity of rock to supply water ………………………. 21.3 Benefits of rock catchments ………………………………... 21.4 Disadvantages of rock catchments …………………………. 31.5 History of rock catchments ………………………………… 31.6 Lessons learnt ………………………………………………. 5Chapter 2. Community Participation …………………………. 62.1 Social and cultural considerations …………………………... 62.2 Health issues ………………………………………………… 72.3 Cost benefits …………………………………………………. 82.4 Environmental feasibility and impact ……………………….. 92.5 Administrative guidelines …………………………………… 102.6 Writing a proposal for a rock catchment project ……………. 112.7 Methods of raising funds locally ……………………………. 12Chapter 3. Rock suitable for rock catchments ……………….. 133.1 Suitable types of rocks ………………………………………. 133.2 How were rocks created ? ........................................................ 143.3 Components of rock catchments …………………………….. 153.4 Where to find suitable sites for rock catchments ……………. 16Chapter 4. Relation between catchment areas and reservoirs .. 174.1 Seasonal rainfall ……………………………………………… 174.2 Evaporation loss from rains falling on rocks ………………… 174.3 Size and slope of catchment areas …………………………… 174.4 Example of run-off water from a catchment of rocks ……….. 204.5 Tools and equipment for survey and design …………………. 21Chapter 5. How to estimate the volume of dam reservoirs ……. 225.1 The simplest method ………………………………………….. 225.2 A more precise but complicated method ……………………… 225.3 Tools and equipment for survey and design ………………….. 24 3
  4. 4. Chapter 6. Water tanks at rocks .……………………………….. 256.1 Site criteria for water tanks …………………………………… 256.2 How to estimate the volume of a cylindrical tank ……………. 256.3 Design of a 50 cubic meter rock catchment tank …………….. 266.4 Bill of quantity and cost of a water tank with dome & gutters .. 266.5 Construction of a water tank built of rubble stone blocks ……. 276.6 Construction of stone gutters …………………………………. 29Chapter 7. Masonry dams on rocks …………………………….. 307.1 The ALDEV design …………………………………………… 307.2 Other types of rock catchment dams ………………………….. 317.3 Site criteria ……………………………………………………. 327.4 Roofs on rock catchment dams ……………………………….. 357.5 Masonry dams built in stages …………………………………. 367.6 Setting out dam walls …………………………………………. 377.7 Calculating the cost of constructing dam walls ………………. 397.8 Bill of quantity and cost of dam walls ………………………… 417.9 Construction of dam walls built of rubble stone masonry ……. 427.10 Construction of draw-off piping ………………………………. 467.11 Roofs of ferro-cement over dam reservoirs …………………… 477.12 Construction of a roof made of ferro-cement …………………. 48Chapter 8. Earth dams at rock outcrops ………………………… 498.1 Design criteria ………………………………………………….8.2 Advantages of a hemi-spherical water reservoir ……………….8.3 Soil sampling …………………………………………………..8.4 Bill of quantity and cost ………………………………………..8.5 Construction procedure ………………………………………...References …………………………………………………………….. 4
  5. 5. AcknowledgementI am very grateful to Ms Birgit Madsen of the Royal Danish Embassy in Kenya for herinterest and full support to publish this handbook on harvesting rainwater from rockoutcrops.Many thanks are also due to Danida and the Ministry of Agriculture in Kenya for havinggiven me the opportunity to design and construct more than 100 rock catchments of 9different types in Kitui from 1982 to 1990.A thousand thanks are also given to the many local and enthusiastic selfhelp groups,especially, in Mutomo Division of Kitui District. They identified suitable rocks andcleared assess roads to them, while also removing all soil and vegetation on the rockoutcrops to facilitate survey and design. People carried voluntarily and without anypayment thousands of tonnes of sand, stones, water and cement on their back to theconstruction sites often situated hundred of metres up on inselsbergs with steep rock sidesduring those 8 years.All this work had only one purpose, namely to create water reservoirs on rock outcropsand inselbergs from where the harvested rainwater was piped down by gravity totapstands at the ground level. Even today, almost 25 years later, all the 400 or so rockcatchments in Kitui District are still supplying water to tens of thousands of people.Although rains are getting more erratic and scarce, rock catchments are still able tosupply large volume of water from little rain showers due to their large and impermeablerocks surfaces.Erik Nissen-PetersenManaging DirectorASAL Consultants Ltd.P.O. Box 739, Sarit 00606, Nairobi, Kenyaasal@wananchi.com and asalconsultants@yahoo.com 5
  6. 6. AcronymsALDEV = African Land Development Board in 1950sASAL = Arid and Semi-Arid LandASALCON = ASAL Consultants Ltd.BQ = Bill of QuantitiesCu.m. = Cubic metresDanida = Danish International Development AgencyKm = KilometresKsh = Kenyan ShillingsMm = MillimetresSida = Swedish International Development AgencyWSB = Water Services BoardsWSTF = Water Services Trust FundForewordIn Arid and Semi Arid Lands (ASAL) where water is scarce and poorly distributed, waterresource availability and its appropriate development and use are key determinants indevelopment.Therefore, community owned development of surface water through rainwater harvesting isemphasized in the Draft National Policy for Sustainable Development of the Arid and Semi AridLands of Kenya.Danida is through the Kenya Water and Sanitation Programme (KWSP) providing support towater resources management based on the objectives of the National Water ResourcesManagement Strategy. A main focus of the strategy is to assist the new institutions, in particularthe Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA) to establish integrated water resourcesmanagement at national, regional and local levels.ASAL Consultants Ltd. has a long history and extensive experience with development of watersupply facilities in Arid and Semi Arid Lands and in particular with construction of more than100 rock catchment dams during the last 25 years.All the rock catchments are still functioning.The skills, knowledge and lessons learnt of ASAL Consultants Ltd. in partnership with engineersof the Government of Kenya provides valuable information on methodology and technicaldesigns, which are useful to share with others.Appropriate calculations and measures to get the right dimension of rock catchments andestimates of dam reservoirs and site criteria, just to mention a few of the technical engineeringconstructions, are essential knowledge and skills to acquire in order to construct sustainablestructures.The Royal Danish Embassy has worked closely with ASAL Consultants Ltd. duringimplementation of 6 pilot projects since 2003 and is convinced that this handbook will be a usefulcontribution infurther development of sustainable surfacewater facilities in Arid and Semi AridLands. Royal Danish EmbassyBirgit Madsen NairobiCouncellor (Dev.) 6
  7. 7. 1 INTRODUCTION1.1 How can rocks supply water?It sounds contradicting that water can be The reservoir of a rock catchment canobtained from rocks, but many people either be rock catchment tank situatedliving in arid and semi-arid (ASAL) near a rock,regions of the world, such as Gibraltarand Kitui in Kenya, are getting theirdomestic water from rocks. Kitui Districthas an impressive concentration of morethan 400 rock catchment tanks anddams.The technique applied for utilizing rocksfor water supply is called rainwater as this tank at Kibwezi,harvesting and the structures built forharvesting rainwater from rocks are or a rock catchment dam built of rubble-called rock catchments. stone masonry onto a rock,The design of rock catchments is simple:Rainwater running off a rock surface(catchment) is gravitated to a reservoirby long lines of garlands made of rocksmortared onto the rock surface. as this dam at Mutomo, or an earth dam built of soil where rain water runs off a nearby rock as this earth dam at Mutomo.Garlands gravitating run-off rainwater tothe reservoir of a rock catchment dam.A water reservoir must always besituated at a lower level than itscatchment area in order to facilitate run-off water to be gravitated to the waterreservoir. 7
  8. 8. 1.2 The capacity of rocks to 1.3 Benefits of rocksupply water catchmentsThe capacity of rocks to supply water is Rock catchments are the mostsignificant, because a rock surface of economical and reliable water source in1 hectare (10,000 square metres = 2.47 ASAL and desert regions with salineacres) can provide 1,000 cubic metres (1 groundwater, low rainfalls, no rivers andmillion litres) from every 100 millimetre large rock outcrops, because small rainof rain (Gould and Nissen-Petersen, showers falling on large rocks can1999). provide huge volumes of run-off water.For example: If an ASAL area has two Usually rock catchments are built andannual rainy seasons and each season used by self-help communities. It is ahas a rainfall of 300 mm, then 1 acre labour-intensive work to construct rock(4,049 square metres) of rock surface catchments sufficient large to supplycan produce: water for many households throughout300 mm rain x 2 seasons x 4,049 sq.m. = dry seasons.2,429,400 (2.4 million) litres of run-offwater annually. Most rock catchments have been constructed during droughts when theIf a family uses 100 litres of water per demand for water is highest and work inday for its household, then the rock in the fields at its lowest, which is the bestthe example can provide water for 66 combination for communal labour-households throughout a year, because intensive activities. Food-for-Work2,429,400 litres / 364 days / 100 litres = programmes are also very suitable for66.7 families. construction of rock catchments.However, some water will be lost as Maintenance of rock catchments consistsevaporation. For a roofed rock only of cleaning the catchment and itscatchment the loss is about 10%, while it reservoir before rainy seasons and tomay be up to 50% for an open water replace watertaps. Some rockreservoir on a windy and sunny rock. In catchments in Kitui are 50 years old andthe above example, an evaporation loss still supplying water withoutof 10 % reduces the supply capacity to maintenance or any recurrent costs.about 59 households and to about 33households for an open reservoir.An open rock catchment at Voi. A roofed rock catchment at Kibwezi 8
  9. 9. 1.4 Disadvantages of rock 1.5 History of rockcatchments catchmentsThe quality of water might be low if a The first time we hear of rocks yieldingcatchment and reservoir are not cleaned is when Moses provided water forbefore rainy seasons, although the Sun’s 40,000 people daily from the HorebUV rays will sterilize most contaminants Rock in the Sinai Desert (Exodus 17.6).Mosquitoes breed in open reservoirs and More recently, but still a few hundredspread malaria. This problem can be years back, caravan travellers passingovercome by raising Tilapia Nilotica through the semi-deserts of thefish in the dam reservoirs, because these hinterland of eastern Africa survived onfish feed on mosquito larvae. rainwater trapped in natural depressions in rocks. Such water reservoirs are calledTanks and dams without roofs have high rock pools.evaporation losses. Two solutions havebeen implemented successfully tocompensate for the evaporation losses:a) The size of water reservoirs have been enlarged to accommodate about twice as much water as required.b) The reservoir of a rock catchment A man standing in a rock pool at Taveta. dam was roofed with ferro-cement as shown on the photo below. One of the rock pools near Mutomo in Kitui is called Yamotomo, which is said to mean an easy place to kill elephants. The reason being, that when a thirsty elephant had climbed into the deep rock pool and filled its stomach with water, it became so heavy that it was difficult for it to climb out of the rock pool. Hence it was fairly easy to kill elephants in the Yamotomo Rock Pool.A rock catchment dam being roofed. A third example of water from rocks, is the Gibraltar Rock neighbouring theAlthough both solutions doubles the south of Spain, where 6 hectares (15construction cost, the roofing solution is acres) of rock and 14 hectares ofpreferable because it is more hygienic corrugated iron sheets are providingthan open reservoirs. 10% of the peninsula’s water requirements since 1869 (Gonzalez, 1972 and Doody, 1980). 9
  10. 10. In the 1950’s, some 40 rock catchmentdams were designed and built in Kitui bythe District Agricultural Officer (DAO),Mr Classen, for a development projectcalled African Land Development Board(ALDEV). All these rock catchmentdams are still supplying water despitelack of maintenance.In the 1970’s, the Kitui County Counciland a few NGO’s built some rock A single arch rock catchment dam.catchment dams of different designs andquality in Kitui. Most of them wererepaired by Danida’s and MoA’sMutomo Soil & Water Conservation inthe 1980’s.Also during the decade of 1980’s, theDiocese of Kitui and Danida constructedseveral hundreds new rock catchmentdams. The communities delivered free A complicated slanting multi-arch rocklabour and local materials in return for catchment dam at Mutomo.ownership of the rock catchments. TheDiocese used a step design, while The communities preferred the ALDEVDanida used 9 different designs. design because of its simplicity that made it easy for the communities to construct rock catchment dams themselves without external assistance.The Kitui Diocese’s step design for a The ALDEV design for a rockrock catchment dam. catchment dam. 10
  11. 11. 1.6 Lessons learned Negative observationsPositive observations 1) The evaporation losses are soThe rural communities in Kitui and high in open dam reservoirs that inMwingi prefer rock catchments more extreme cases half of the water may bethan any other type of water supply, lost to evaporation. Reservoirs can beexcept roof catchments, because rock roofed to reduce evaporation but itcatchments have the advantages of: requires good design and workmanship.1) Even small rain showers falling 2) Water quality may be belowon rock catchments produce large WHO standards, but that is acceptablevolume of run-off water that can easily by the communities concerned. Thebe drawn from their reservoirs. sun’s ultra-violet rays on exposed water sterilize water to an unknown standard.2) Maintenance is simple and cheap;the catchment area and reservoir should 3) Mosquitoes breed in the water ofbe swept and water taps replaced before open dam reservoirs, thereby spreadingrainy seasons. malaria. This can be prevented by one of three methods;3) Rock catchment dams do not occupyFarmland but only rocks that are a) Roof open dam reservoirs.nobody’s property. However, forconstruction of earth dams near rocks, b) Raise Tilapia Nilotica fish in thethe ownership must be settled before any water reservoirs.activities take place. c) Pour a few litres of clean oil onto4) People have been used to draw the surface of a water reservoir.water from rock catchments since thefirst structures were built in the middle 7) Tanks and masonry dams provideof the 1950s. domestic water, but are not capable of supplying water for livestock or irrigation due to their high demands. 8) Water fpr livestock and irrigation can be provided from earth dams situated at the foot or near rocks. Clean water for domestic use can be drawn from earth dams by means of a hand-dug well sunk in a seepage area downstream of dam walls.A girl drawing water directly from thereservoir of a rock catchment dam. 11
  12. 12. 2 COMMUNITY 2.1 Social and cultural PARTICIPATION considerationsExperience has shown that where only a In the semi-arid Machakos and Kitui innarrow technical focus is adopted, many Kenya, the Wakamba communities haveprojects have failed. The reasons for the organized themselves into self-helpfailures are varied; sometimes the high groups, called Mwethya, many decadescost of the systems prevents continued ago. They know that by workingimplementation and replication once together they can cope with the harshdonor funds for the pilot project have climatic conditions. This self-help spirit,dried up. At other times, communal combined with lack of freshsystems fail because responsibility for groundwater, has been the main drive inthe management, maintenance and repair the construction of the hundreds of rockof the system has not been clearly catchments built in that region for thedefined. last 50 years.A key factor in project success is Since boreholes not situated next tocommunity involvement at every stage riverbeds provide saline water, peoplefrom inception to long-term maintenance prefer drinking rainwater from rocks andand operation. Involvement in planning roofs because it is cleaner than waterand construction phases will not only from hand-dug wells, ponds and earthhelp to build skills and a sense of self- dams.reliance within communities, but alsoprepare the community better for any Promotion of rock catchments in regionsfuture maintenance and repair work. where these structures are unknown should include a study tour for theirFor a rock catchment system to succeed, leaders to go to Kitui or Mwingi to seeit must address a real felt need within a for themselves the benefits of rockcommunity and be socially acceptable. catchments.The administrative and leadershipcapacity within a community is alsoimportant factors influencing theprospects for communal water projects.In Kenya, the tradition of Harambee (topull together) on communal self-helpprojects has greatly assisted manyvillages with the affordableimplementation of rock catchment dams. A community building their rock catchment dam at Wote in 1996. 12
  13. 13. 2.2 Health issuesAlthough Water is Life, contaminated e) Baboons, which loves rockwater may cause illness - and perhaps outcrops, must be kept out ofdeath. Rural people in arid and semi-arid catchments and reservoirs.regions often says water is watermeaning that all water, whether clean or f) Mosquito breeding can becontaminated, is drinkable. eliminated by raising Tilapia Nilotica fish in the reservoirs.As a matter of fact, people used to drinkcontaminated water rarely get sick from A new and proven method of sterilizingit. The reason seems to be that the drinking water, called SODIS (Solarconstant exposure to germs and bacteria DISinfection), has been developedhas made the people immune. recently with the arrival of drinking water in transparent plastic bottles.Understandable, people havinginsufficient water supply consider The SODIS method consists of fillingquantity more important than quality. empty transparent bottles with uncleanWomen and girls often often have to water and exposing it to sunshine for atfetch water on their backs many least 5 hours. The Sun’s ultra-violet rayskilometers from home – and often that kill off all germs and bacteria within thatwater is contaminated by people and period.animals sharing the same water in anunlined waterhole or an earth dam. This method is cheaper and more environment-friendly than usingAlthough water in rock catchments firewood or charcoal to boil water forwithout roofs is being sterilized partly by drinking.the Sun’s ultra-violet rays, the waterquality can be improved by carrying outthe following maintenance procedures:a) The surface of the rock catchment should be swept before rainy seasons.b) Silt traps should be emptied after inflow of run-off water. Water can be sterilized in a transparent plastic bottle by the Sun’s UV rays.c) Water reservoirs should be emptied and cleaned before rainy Should water contain dust or dirt seasons. particles, these can be made to settle by applying a few drops of seed oil from ad) People should not enter water Moringa oleifera tree, also called the reservoirs for drawing water but Horseradish Tree or the Drumstick Tree take it from tap stands. that grows well in dryland. 13
  14. 14. 2.3 Cost benefits b) Dam walls get damaged byThe cost benefits of rural water supplies grazing livestock.comprise three components, namely: c) Dam reservoirs get silted up if the silt traps are not cleaned.a) The construction cost of the water project. Rubble-stone masonry dams that gain free storage capacity from natural rockb) The annual cost (recurrent) of pools or gorges are cheap to construct maintenance and repair of the and maintain. water project.c) Compare the construction and recurrent costs of rock catchments with conventional methods of obtaining water such as boreholes, large earth dams or water sold by vendors. These dams have no seepage losses butThe economic viability of rock half of the volume of water mightcatchments depends on the cost of evaporate. Evaporation can be preventedconventional water sources. The local by roofing the reservoirs, as seen below,inhabitants can usually evaluate whether but that doubles the construction cost.a rock catchment is the best option thanfor themComparison of cost of 3 types of rockcatchmentsEarth dams are the cheapest type toconstruct using manual labour or animaldraught. Water tanks are the most expensiveThe disadvantages of earth dams are loss type of rock catchments to construct butof water by seepage and evaporation, since they have no seepage loss orand much maintenance due to: evaporation loss their disadvantage is limited storage capacity of water.a) Spillways get eroded by overflowing surplus water. 14
  15. 15. 2.4 Environmental feasibility and impactFeasibilityThe environmental feasibility dependson two items;a) Availability of rock outcrops, such as whalebacks, inselbergs, pediments, koppies, grund-level rocks and underground rocksb) Rainfall, even low and erratic A man fetching water on a bicycle. showers can supply large volume of water provided the rock area is sufficient large to compensate for the low rainfall. Remember; 1 acre of rock surface can produce 2.4 million liters of water on 600 mm of rainfall. A woman coming home with water.ImpactNo negative environmental impact is It can sometimes be difficult to improveknown for rock catchments. or construct a water project but by following the line of command in theA positive impact is that rock administrative establishment, mostcatchments harvest rainwater that obstacles can be overcome. Usuallyotherwise would create soil erosion and communities have already organisedflooding problems for people living themselves into either:adjacent to the rocks. a) Women groups consisting of women only. These groups are usually2.5 Gender issues well organized, reliable and alwaysUntil recently, one of women’s many interested in water projects that canresponsibilities was to fetch water, often shorten the distance for fetching water.far from their homes. This gender issueis now slowly changing. In places where b) Self-help groups consist of bothbicycles are affordable, it is often the men and women. The majority ofmen who fetch water by carrying 2 or 3 committee members are usually men,jerry-cans of water on their bicycles. while women being a minority.If a husband is working far away from Since fetching water is the responsibilitythe homestead, the wife can usually ride of women, they should be representedthe bicycle for fetching water. equally with men in committees. 15
  16. 16. 2.6 Administrative guidelinesA self-help group, or a women group, is Nowadays in Kenya, proposals formanaged by a committee that has been renovation and construction of waterelected by a group of people who have projects are presented to one of the 7common interest in, for example; the Water Services Boards (WSBs) coveringconstruction of a rock catchment. the parts of the country shown below.A committee consists of:a) A Chairperson, who is usually an elderly and articulate person.b) A Treasurer, who is a person trusted in money matters and in keeping records.c) A Secretary, who can speak, read and write English.d) Deputies for each of the three persons mentioned above.e) A committee might have a Patron, who can be a respected WBS addresses are: politician or a well-to-do Athi WSB, Box 45283, 00100 Nairobi businessman capable of assisting Tana WSB, Box 1343, Nyeri the group with approvals or Coast WSB, Box 90417, Mombasa finances. L.Victoria South, Box 3325, Kisumu L.Victoria North, Box 673, Kakamegaf) The Assistant Chief of the area is Rift Valley WSB, Box 220, Nakuru also a member of self-help- and Northern WSB, Box 495, Garissa women groups.g) Preferably, half of the committee members should be women.For a group to obtain an official status, itmust be registered with the relevantdepartment under a ministry dealingwith community development. A self-help group stands where the wall for their rock catchment dam will be constructed. 16
  17. 17. 2.7 Writing a proposal for a rock catchment projectWhen a community has decided they Should it be too difficult for a committeeneed a rock catchment dam or tank, the to write an acceptable proposal, thefollowing guidelines can assist them to WSB might recommend somebody whowrite a proposal for a rock catchment can write the proposal for a fee to beproject that can be presented to their paid by the community.WSB. When the project proposal beenFirst state the name, postal address discussed and approved by theand physical location of the proposed community members, the final proposalproject. Add some committee members’ is presented to the Water Service Boardtelephone numbers. covering that area.Then state the number of people whowill benefit from the project and the sizeof the area in which they live. Explainwhere they are fetching water at presentand the benefits they will gain from theproposed project.Thereafter describe the water project inwords and with a design sketch and a billof quantity (BQ) that shows the requiredmaterials and labour. A design sketch of a rock catchment dam.Then estimate the cost of materials andlabour and present it as a budget divided After some time when the projectinto two sections: proposal has, hopefully, being approved and financed by WSB, the detaileda) The cost of items to be purchased, survey, design and construction work such as technical assistance, tools, can be implemented by a consultant or training, materials, transport, etc. contractor approved by the WSB.b) The value of providing local labour In the unlikely event of WSB turning and local materials that will be down the proposal, then the committee provided free of charge by the has to solicit funds from elsewhere. community. This value should amount to about 15% of the total If a donor agency cannot be found to cost of training and construction. sponsor the implementation, then the required funding has to be raised locally.Thereafter explain how the community This may not be an easy task, but somewill manage the funds for the training suggestions are mentioned on the nextand construction works as well as for page.future maintenance of the project. 17
  18. 18. 2.8 Methods of raising funds locally found in the country side. People keepSome time ago, the method of raising their capital in livestock and landfunds was to contact a donor and request holdings because the interest gainedthem to finance a proposal. Nowadays, from bank accounts is too smallmost donors give their money to WSBs. compared with the value of offspring ofIf therefore a proposal has not been livestock.granted by the WSB, the communitymust finance their project themselves. Nevertheless, rural people can still donate some cash from selling livestockIn order to minimise the construction or farm produce when they consider thecost, a community can select one of the matter sufficient urgent.3 low-cost types of water projects listedbelow. Each one of them require only a The usual methods of fund raising are:few bags of cement but much unskilledlabour that can be supplied free of 1) Cash raised at Harambeecharge by a community itself. meetings for e.g. students going for further studies, construction ofa) A rock catchment dam made by churches and schools or payment of removing the vegetation and soil someone’s hospital bill or funeral. covering a rock pool. If required, the pool can be enlarged with a low 2) Monthly fees from members of a wall built of rubble-stone masonry. self-help group.b) A subsurface dam built of soil with 3) Merry-go-around payments. a hand-dug well in a dry riverbed. 4) Income from a self-help group’sc) A small earth dam (pond) built of activities, such as making burnt soil and equipped with a hand-dug bricks, sand, stones and ballast, well. rearing goats and chicken, selling tree seedlings, weaving baskets andThese 3 types of water projects can be ropes, selling water from rockconstructed in stages depending on the catchments, etc.availability of cash and labour. The bestseason for construction work is after 5) Fines paid by members for beingharvest when crops can be sold for cash absent or late or failing to carry outand people are not busy in their fields. tasks given by a self-help committee.Another incentive is that the demand forwater is at it highest during dry seasons.The techniques for locating suitablesites, sketching designs, estimating costsand learning construction procedures canbe found in this series of handbooks.Although these 3 types of water projectsare cheap to construct, cash is not easily 18
  19. 19. 3 ROCKS SUITABLE FOR ROCK CATCHMENTS3.1 Suitable types of rocksMost ASAL and desert regions havesuitable rocks for rock catchments.Some rock surfaces are exposed whileothers are invisible due to being coveredby soil and vegetation.Long narrow rocks of granite raisingfrom flat land are called whalebacks Rocks protruding from the ground are called kopjes as this at Dodoma.as this whaleback situated in Tzavo.Inselbergs are large dome-shaped rocksprotruding from flat land Ground-level rocks are, naturally, situated just above ground level such as this ground-level rock at Taveta.as this inselberg at Voi. Underground rocks can usually be identified by the stunted growth ofHills with exposed rock surfaces at the vegetation in the soil covering a rockhighest end are called pedimentsas this pediment at Sagalla. such as this underground rock where some of its soil cover being removed at Wote. 19
  20. 20. 3.2 How were rocks created?Geology is the technical word for the A rock pool partly filled with soil at Voi.subject dealing with rocks. Whenever possible, rock catchment dams should be build around the lowerSome 500 million years ago, Africa side of rock pools togain free storagecollided with another continent. Theslow collision heated up and faulted thegranite bedrock deep undergroundwhereby it was raised up to formmountains and rock outcrops.Granite constitutes the central core ofmany great mountain ranges and graniteis the typical bedrock of the continents,often overlaying Basalt rock. volume for the water reservoir.Rocks made of granite are viable for A three-winged wall has been builtrock catchments. Granite can be around a rock pool at Mutomo.recognized by its coarse-grained texturewith colours of either reddish, white, The surface of granite rocks are alsolight grey and speckled with hornblende weathering thereby make the graniteor black mica. rock surface scale off in loose and thinSofter parts of granite rocks that areexposed to the Sun, rains and varyingtemperatures disintegrate anddecompose by a process calledweathering. Over the millennium,weathering may create depressions ingranite rocks, called rock pools, whererainwater can accumulate. Rock pools stone slabs as seen below.can be used as water reservoirs when Such slabs can be used for building thesoil and vegetation is cleared out. outer sides of dam walls without using formwork of timber as seen below. 20
  21. 21. 3.3 Components of rock catchmentsWhen looking for suitable sites for rockcatchments, keep in mind that rockcatchments consist of four components:1) A catchment area of clean rocksurface from where rainwater can run offwithout obstruction. Rocks can becleaned by removing soil, vegetation,stones and loose parts from the surface.Large fissures can be sealed with cement An aqueduct gravitating run-off watermortar or concrete. Smaller cracks can from a rock to a tank at Kibwezi.be sealed with Bitumen. 3) A water reservoir that can be a water tank, a rock catchment dam, as seen below, or an earth dam.An uncleaned rock catchment at Sagalla.2) Garlands of gutters divert rainwaterrun-off from a catchment to a waterreservoir. Gutters can also be used to 4) Extraction of water from rockincrease the catchment area of rocks.. catchment dams consists of gravitating water via a pipe to a tap stand at the footAqueducts can deliver water from of the rock.gutters to water tanks and run-off waterfrom adjacent rock surfaces to the maincatchment area.A garland of gutter at Kasigau. A tap stand with a self-closing watertap made locally in Mutomo. 21
  22. 22. 3.4 Where to find suitable Chapter 8 deals with earth dams at rockssites for rock catchmentsFor a layman, it may be difficult toimagine how the shapes of a rock can beutilised for harvesting and storing Generally, all three types of rockrainwater because most rocks are catchments can be constructed at almostcovered with vegetation making it any type of rock outcrops provided theydifficult to see the potential places for can produce the required volume ofcatchments and reservoirs. rainwater run-off.Each of the three types of rock However, as explained in Chapter 7,catchments has its specific site criteria masonry dams are more site-specificthat are explained in the following than tanks and earth dams because:chapters: Gorges between two rocks can be closed with a straight dam wall. Rock pools and rock shelves, the latter being nearly flat areas on rock outcrops, can be surrounded with two-winged or three-winged dam walls. Despite being site-specific, masonryChapter 6 deals with water tanks. dams have the following advantages over water tanks and earth dams: • They can be constructed in stages according to the availability of funds and community labour. • They have no problems of erosion.Chapter 7 describes masonry dams, • Maintenance consists only of sweeping the catchment area before rains and occasional replacement of watertaps. • They have no ownership dispute. • They do not occupy farm-or grazing land. 22
  23. 23. 4 Relation between catchment areas and reservoirsIt is important that the catchment area of a rock and the seasonal rainfall of that region can fill itswater reservoir. While the catchment area can be known by following the advice in the nextchapter, the rainfall in arid and semi-arid regions may vary from 100 mm to 1,000 mm in aseason, although its seasonal average is quoted as, say 300 mm.The consequences are that if a catchment is too small and the rainfall is average, then its reservoirwill not be filled up with water. On the other hand, if a catchment is too large and the rainfall isaverage, then most of the run-off water will be wasted by spilling over the water reservoir.It is therefore a balancing act to determine the correct size of a catchment area due to theunpredictable rainfall. Experience has shown that most communities prefer their rock catchmentto spill-over with water when the rainfall is average rainfall and above, instead their reservoir notfilling up with water when the rainfall is below average and when water is in short supplyeverywhere.Three factors can be used to estimate the volume of run-off water from a rock catchment:1) Seasonal rainfall.2) Evaporation loss from rains falling on rock surfaces.3) Size and slope of a catchment area.4.1 Seasonal rainfallWhere the average rainfall of a season is known it is wise to use only half of that figure. Forexample, divide a seasonal rainfall of 300 mm with 2 = 150 mm and use that figure forcalculation the volume of rainwater run-off.4.2 Evaporation loss from rains falling on rock surfacesAlmost all rainwater runs off rocks because they have a hard surface which water cannotinfiltrate. However, some 15% of the rainwater might evaporate when it falls on rocks heated bythe Sun during daytime. Since most rains fall at night or early mornings in the tropics, it can beassumed that the nightly evaporation loss is about 5 %. The evaporation loss might therefore beabout 10% on average.4.3 Size and slope of catchment areasA simple method to measure a catchment area is to use the known practice of one acre of land is asquare measuring 70 steps on all four sides. When each step has length of 1 yard, equal to 3 feetor 91.5 cm, then 91.5 cm x 70 steps = 64,05 m x 64,05 m = 4,102 square meters which is close tothe 4,047 square metres being the correct area of 1 acre.When the area of a catchment is known in square meters, then multiply with 4,047 to convert thearea from acres to square meters.A more accurate method consists of measuring the boundaries of a catchmentarea and the distances in between the boundaries using a long tape-measure andmillimetre paper to draw a sketch as shown below to the left. 23
  24. 24. The catchment area is then divided into triangles and rectangles with corners of 90degrees. The area can then be calculated using the formula of: The area of a triangle = length x height / 2 The area of a rectangle = length x heightThe catchment area in this example can now be calculated as: 1) 170.1 x 69.6 / 2 = 5,919.5 2) 101.2 x 48.9 / 2 = 2,474.3 3) 158.2 x 36.7 = 5,805.9 4) 158.2 x 64.5 /2 = 5,102.0 5) 25.0 x 23.4 / 2 = 292.5 6) 95.7 x 23.4 / 2 = 1,119.7 7) 69.6 x 44.1 / 2 = 1,534.7 8) 36.7 x 7.1 / 2 = 130.3 Total catchment area 22,378.9 sq.m. say 22,380 square meters 24
  25. 25. Since the volume of rainfall falling on a slopingsurface is less per square meter than on a horizontalsurface, the following percentage of square metershas to be deducted from a sloping catchment area.90 degrees gradient minus 100 %80 degrees gradient minus 86 %70 degrees gradient minus 68 %60 degrees gradient minus 47 %50 degrees gradient minus 38 %40 degrees gradient minus 23 %30 degrees gradient minus 13 %20 degrees gradient minus 5 %10 degrees gradient minus 2 % A protractor for measuring slopesThe gradient of a sloping rock catchment can be found using a transparent protractor with a boltor small stone tied to the centre of it with a string.When the string is aligned with the 90 degree mark at the bottom of the protractor, the gradient ofthe rock can be seen by looking at the rock through the scale on the transparent protractor4.4 Example of run-off water from a catchment of rock1) An average seasonal rainfall is quoted as 300 mm. As explained earlier, divide the figure by 2 = 150 mm.2) The catchment area is 22,379 sq.m. and has a gradient of 40 degrees. According to the sketch above; a 40% sloping catchment receives 23 % less rainfall than a horizontal catchment. The horizontal catchemtn area is therefore: 22,379 sq.m. x 23 = 5,147.17 horizontal sq.m. 1003) The evaporation loss is 10 %.Therefore the volume of run-off in this example will be:150 mm rain x 5,147.17 horiz.sq.m. - 10 % loss = 694,868 litres = 694,9 cu.m. water. 1,000As a rule of thumb, the storage volume of a reservoir for, say, 695 cu.m. of water can be reducedwith 20% due evaporation and consumption of water from the reservoir during the rainy season.Therefore, if the total seasonal run-off is 695 cu.m., then the reservoir should have a storagevolume of: 695 cu.m. x 20 = 126 cu.m. which is deducted from 695 cu.m. to get 100the correct answer that the reservoir should have a storage volume of 569 cu.m. 25
  26. 26. 4.5 Tools and equipment for survey and designThe type of tools and equipment required for carrying out surveys of rock catchmentsdepends on the surveyor’s level of sophistication. Since this handbook advocates low-cost and do-it-yourself techniques, the tools and equipment listed below will be sufficientfor the task.Item Specification Quantity Approx. US$Note book Any 1 nos. 1Ball pens 3 colours 3 nos. 2Tape measure 30 metres long 1 nos. 8Protractor Transparent with 1 unit 2 string and nutSpirit level About 120 cm long 1 nos. 3Timber with 2 legs 100 cm long + legs 1 nos. 1Mason hammer Any 2 nos. 3Transparent 1 metre of 12 mm to 1 length 1hosepipe 18 mm diameterTransparent 30 metres or more 1 length 10hosepipeBuilders line 50 metres 1 length 2Calculator Any 1 nos. 5Graph paper A3 Millimetres 1 pad 4Drawing board Size A3 1 unit 70Drawing equipment Secondary schools 1 set 10White oil paint 1 litre 1 tin 8Water Drinking 5 litres 6Approx. Total 136 26
  27. 27. 5 How to estimate the volume of dam reservoirsWhen a design and its construction cost have been made for a rock catchment dam or anearth dam, the volume of its water reservoir should be known so that it can be estimatedwhether it is economically viable to construct the dam.Water reservoirs for rock catchments and earth dams can have many shapes. It istherefore a little complicated to estimate the volume of such water reservoirs. However,the following guidelines describe two methods on how to estimate the volume of damreservoirs.5.1 The simplest methodThe volume of dam reservoirs can roughly be estimated using a simple formula:Volume = width of reservoir x depth of reservoir x length of reservoir / 6For example: The maximum width (w) of the reservoir is 20 meters. The deepest part ofthe reservoir (d) is 4 metres and the length of the reservoir (l), also called the throw-back,is 60 metres.Therefore: (w) 20 m x (d) 4 m x (l) 60 m / 6 = 800 cubic metres5.2 A more precise but complicated methodThe volume of a water reservoir can be estimated more precisely by dividing it intohorizontal layers spaced 100 cm apart. The upper and lower area of each layer ismeasured and its area calculated in square meters. When the two areas are added togetherand divided by 2, it gives the volume in cubic meters of the section between these twolayers. When the volume of all the sections in the dam reservoir are added together, thetotal volume of the water reservoir is known.Practically, this method can be applied by marking the maximum water level onto thesides of the rock, or an earth dam, using either a long transparent hosepipe filled withwater as seen on the photo below or - 27
  28. 28. - or use a short length of a transparent hosepipe bent into a circle and filled halfway with water as shown above. The two water-levels in the transparent plastic pipes give two exact horizontal levels that can be used for sighting and marking the horizontal level of a water reservoir filled to its maximum with water.With the maximum water level marked for every 5 meters, or so, onto the sides of a waterreservoir, the following measurements can be taken. Knots are made for every 5.0 meterson a long nylon string. The string is then inserted in the hook of a 30 meter long tape-measure and drawn tightly across the longest section of the dam reservoir at the height ofthe maximum water level.The tape-measure hanging in the nylon string can now be used for taking verticalmeasurements from the string drawn at the maximum water-level to the bottom of thereservoir for every knot at 5 meters on the string. Similarly, the tape-measure is used fortaking horizontal measurements from the nylon string to each side of the markedmaximum water level of the water reservoir. The vertical and horizontal measurementscan now be transferred to a millimetre graph paper in scale 1:100 as shown below. 28
  29. 29. By counting and adding together the numbers of full, half and quarter squares within thedrawn lines, the surface area and volume for each of the 100 cm high sections and thetotal volume of the water reservoir can be found in cubic meters.In this example, the total volume of the water reservoir was found to be 1,202 cu.m.5.3 Tools and equipment for survey and designThe type of tools and equipment required for carrying out surveys of water reservoirsdepends on the surveyor’s level of sophistication. In this handbook for do-it-yourself thetools and equipment listed below will be sufficient for the task.Item Specification Quantity Approx. US$Note book Any 1 nos. 1Ball pens 3 colours 3 nos. 2Tape measure 30 metres long 1 nos. 8Transparent hosepipe From ½” to 1” 50 meters 25Builders line 50 metres 1 length 2Calculator Any 1 nos. 5Graph paper A3 Millimetres 1 pad 4Drawing board Size A3 1 unit 70Drawing equipment Secondary schools 1 set 10Water Drinking 5 litres 6Approx. Total 133 29
  30. 30. 6 Water tanks6.1 Site criteria for rock catchment tanksWater tanks can be constructed at almost any rock outcrop provided the tank canbe placed on firm ground at a lower elevation than the catchment.The rainfall and area of a catchment should be sufficient large to fill a tank from a rain shower of,say 20 mm. To fill a 50,000 litres (50 cu.m.) tank on 20 mm rain, the catchment must have anarea of:50,000 litres / 20 mm rain + 10 % evaporation loss = 2,750 sq.m.= about 2/3 of an acre.A 50 cu.m. rock catchment tank at Kibwezi. A similar rock catchment tank at LakipiaWater tanks that collect and store rainwater run-off from rocks are being used in many placesbecause the technique is easy to understand and local builders usually know how to constructwater tanks. However, the constraints with rock catchment tanks are:a) they can only storage a limited volume of water and therefore dry up in a few weeks, andb) they are expensive compared with masonry dams and earth dams.It is an economical advantage to build water tanks with a height not exceeding 200 cm. If watertanks are built with a height of more than 200 cm they require more reinforcement thanrecommended in this handbook.6.2 How to estimate the volume of a cylindrical tankThe volume of a cylindrical water tank is calculated using the formula of:Volume = radius x radius x 22 x height = r x r x 22 x h = r2?h 7 7The volume of a 50,000 litres tank is therefore calculated as:Radius 283 cm x radius 283 cm x 22 x height 200 cm = 50,342 litres (50.342 cu.m.). 7 30
  31. 31. 6.3 Design of a 50 cu.m. rock catchment tankFig. 6. Design of a cylindrical rock catchment tank with a storage volume of 50 cu.m..6.4 Bill of quantity and cost of a water tank with dome & guttersItem Specification Quantity Total cost US$Materials 1 tank with dome 50 cu.m. storage 1,660Materials 1 aqueduct 10 m. length 345Materials 2 garlands of gutters 100 m. length 242Tools For tank & gutters For 2 artisans 10Form-work For dome US$ 340 / 20 tanks 34Approx. Total 1 tank w. aqua.gut. 2,291Detailed costs of materials, tools and form-work are shown below.Preferably, the communities should provide free of charge all locally-available materials, such assand, crushed stones, rubble stones, water, store with store-keeper, skilled and unskilled labourersin return for the ownership of the rock catchment tank. Such a cost-sharing divides the cost asfollows:Cost-sharing of expenditureStructure / Item Value of community External financial & Total cost contribution technical assistance US$ US$ US$50 cu.m. water tank 805 855 1,66010 m aqueduct 208 137 345100 m gutters 178 64 242Tools 10 10Form-work 34 34Approx. Total 1,191 1,100 2,291 31
  32. 32. Bill of quantity and cost of materials for a 50 cu.m. water tankItem Specification Quantity Approx. US$Cement 50 kg bags 50 bags 400Sand Coarse river sand 15 tonnes 150Water 200 litres oil-drum 25 oil-drums 75Crushed stones 10 to 20 mm 6 tonnes 180Rubble stones 10 to 15 cm 10 tonnes 10Rubble stone blocks 40 x 19 x 14 cm 510 blocks 150Weld-mesh No.8, 2.4 m x 1.2 m 30 sheets 200Barbed wire Gauge 12.5 4 rolls @ 20 kg 100Galvanised pipe 18 mm 3 metres 20Round iron bars 12 mm 96 metres 50PVC pipe 100 mm 3 metres 10Skilled labour Masons 2 masons x 15 days 180Unskilled labour Trainees 3 persons x 15 days 135Approx. Total 1,660Bill of quantity and cost for 10 metres of aqueductItem Specification Quantity Approx. US$Cement 50 kg bags 10 bags 80Sand Coarse river sand 10 tonnes 10Water 200 litres oil-drum 5 oil-drums 15Crushed stones 10 to 20 mm 5 tonnes 15Rubble stone blocks 40 x 19 x 14 cm 160 blocks 48Weld-mesh 2.4 m x 1.2 m 5 sheets 33Skilled labour Masons 2 x 6 working days 72Unskilled labour Trainees 4 x 6 working days 72Approx. Total 345Bill of quantity and cost of 100 meters of stone guttersItem Specification Quantity Approx. US$Cement 50 kg bags 8 bags 64Sand Coarse river sand 6 tonnes 6Water 200 litres oil-drum 4 oil-drums 12Flat rubble stones 20 to 40 cm long 8 tonnes 8Irregular stones 10 to 20 cm 8 tonnes 8Water 200 litres oil-drums 8 oil-drums 24Skilled labour Mason 1 x 10 days 60Unskilled labour Trainees 2 x 10 days 60Approx. Total 242 32
  33. 33. Tools for building a tank of blocks with a dome of ferro-cementItem Specification Quantity Approx. US$Tape measure 3 m long 1 4Mason hammers Medium 2 6Mason trowels Medium 2 8Square trovels Steel 2 10Mason chisels Flat 2 6Wooden floats Medium 2 4Straight edge 2 m long, 8 x 5 cm 1 2Spirit level 120 cm long 1 6Shovels Medium 3 12Pick-axe Medium 1 6Mould for blocks 40 x 19 x 14 cm 1 36Approx. Total 100Since the tools can be used for building at least 10 water tanks, the cost of tools for 1 tankis about US$ 100 / 10 tanks = US$ 10Tools and materials for form-work for a dome of ferro-cementItem Specification Quantity Approx. US$Carpenter saw Medium 1 5Carpenter hammer Medium 1 3Brace w. drill bits 9 mm drill bits 1 6Old oil-drums Made to flat sheets 30 sheets 160Timber 275 x 20 x 2.5 cm 12 lengths 50Timber 190 x 8 x 5 cm 12 lengths 40Timber 180 x 8 x 5 cm 12 lengths 40Bolts 8 mm, 15 cm long 12 4Plastic basin 50 cm diameter 1 2Skilled labour Carpenter 5 days 30Approx. Total 340The form-work for the construction of a dome of ferro-cement can be reused for buildingabout 10 domes, thereby reducing the cost for 1 tank to US$ 340 / 10 tanks = US$ 34 33
  34. 34. 6.5 Construction of a water tank built of rubble stone blocksRubble stones found near the rock are After a couple of days, the rubble stonecompacted into concrete mixed of 1 part blocks are laid in a circle with equalof cement to 4 parts of sand and 4 parts spacing on the foundation using a radiusof ballast (crushed stones) in a mould. wire attached to a pipe placed in the centre of foundation.The rubble stones save about 50% of the The blocks are mortared onto thecost of cement, sand and ballast. foundation and to each course with mortar of a mixture of 1:4 withoutThe circular foundation for the tank is cutting any of the blocks.excavated down to firm soil and levelledusing a spirit level on a straight edge. When the tank has been built to its final height, barbed wire, gauge 12.5, isA 8 cm thick layer of concrete of wrapped tightly around the wall in amixture 1:4:4 is compacted onto the dry spiral spaces 5 cm at the lower half ofsurface of the excavation. Weld-mesh is the tank and 10 cm at the upper half.then cut, tied together and laid on the The barbed wire is pulled tight using aconcrete. carpenters hammer while being nailed onto the wall of the tank.The draw-off pipe is tied onto the weld-mesh with a wire and a 7 cm thick layer The tank wall is then plastered on the of concrete 1:4:4 is compacted onto the outer side with mortar 1:3 and coveredweld-mesh and levelled with a rough with Polythene sheets for curing.surface. Thereafter the inner side and the floor are plaster with mortar and NIL (cement slurry) for water proofing. 34
  35. 35. The form-work for a dome is made of The basin is placed on the form-work foroil-drums that are cut open, flattened, cut the dome next to the pillar that willinto shape and laid upon a framework of function as a ladder.timbers having the curve of a 6 m radius. The basin is filled with concrete into which a bend iron rod is inserted as aA centre pillar to support the form-work handle in the man-hole lid.and dome is made of a vertical-standingPVC pipe filled with concrete. Short For curing the dome is covered withhorizontal lengths of G.I. pipes are Polythene sheets or sacks covered with ainserted in the PVC pipe before layer of soil for 2 weeks.concreting it to function as a ladder.The form-work is then covered withPolythene sheets or plastic sacks. Sheetsof weld-mesh are cut and tied togetheron the form-work. Nobody should be allowed to walk or stand on the dome while being cured. An aqueduct for gravitating rainwater from the rock to the tank is constructed of a line of pillars, built of rubble stone blocks, that supports a concrete slabMortar mixed of 1 part of cement with 3 sloping towards the inlet of the tank.parts of coarse sand is compacted ontothe form-work in a 5 cm thick layer andsmoothened to an even surface.A circular plastic basin with a diameterof about 50 cm is used as mould for theman-hole.. 35
  36. 36. 6.6 Construction of stone guttersGarlands of stone gutters built onto rock outcrops have two functions:a) they divert rainwater run-off from a rock catchment area to the water reservoirs of tanks and dams, andb) they increase catchment areas by winding their way around rocks. The lines of gutters can even extend to the opposite side of rocks. Run-off water from adjacent rocks can also be gravitated to a water reservoir by aqueducts and garlands of gutters provided a sufficient gradient can be obtained.Fig. 7. Two garlands of gutters start from the aqueduct of a water tank or from the twoends of a masonry dam.The gradient of 3:100 is marked onto arock surface with a spirit level placedhorizontally on a 100 cm length oftimber that has two legs, one being 3 cmlonger than the outer. Fig. 8. Flat stones are supported byGarlands of stone gutters start their smaller stones that are mortared ontoupward gradient from the end of cleaned rock surfaces with a mixture ofaqueducts, or the two ends of dam walls. 1 part of cement to 3 parts of sand. 36
  37. 37. 7 Masonry dams on rocks7.1 The ALDEV (African Land Development) designA series of rock catchment dams were constructed of the ALDEV design during the late1950s in Kitui, the two most famous being Ngomeni built in 1955 near Kyuso and Kasevabuilt in 1956 near Mutomo in Kitui. Kaseva rock catchment had a storage volume ofsome 3,000 cubic metres that was enlarged to about 5,000 cubic metres by a Danidaproject Mutomo Soil & Water Conservation in 1989. The dam reservoir has only dried up4 times during the last 47 years, namely during the long droughts of 1975, 1985, 1995and 2002.More than 100 rock catchment dams of the ALDEV design have been constructed inKitui, Makueni, Taita-Taveta and Zambia without any failure by the author during thelast 20 years. The success being due to the simplicity of the design that does not requireany reinforcement provided the width of the foundation for a dam wall is equal to 3/5 ofthe height of the dam wall.Rainwater falling on a rock is diverted to the dam reservoir by two garlands of guttersbuilt of flat stones mortared onto the rock. The garlands are also used for enlarging thecatchments so even a small rain shower can provide huge volume of run-off water.Fig. 9. A cut-through sketch of an ALDEV rock catchment dam with a garland of stonegutters. No reinforcement of the wall is required when the width of the base is 3/5 of theheight of the wall because the factors of over-toppling and sliding are taken up by theweight of the dam wall. Water can be drawn by gravity through a galvanised pipe to a tapstand at the foot of the rock. A simple siphon device can lift water over a high point. 37
  38. 38. 7.2 Other types of rock catchment damsA dam wall filled with rubble stones packed An underground rock was cleared ofin soil and covered with a coat of plaster was vegetation and soil in Mutomo. Deepbuilt at Kasiga in the 1950s. Twenty years rock pools were found where trees hadlater a large rock rolled down the catchment grown. A low masonry wall was builtbroke through the dam wall. along the lower side in 1985. A single arch rock catchment dam A multi-arch rock catchment dam built of built of concrete blocks in a gorge concrete blocks on a rock shelf in Mutomo between two rocks in Mutomo in 1984. in 1985. A slanting multi-arch rock catchment dam The less beautiful back side of the built of concrete blocks at Mutomo 1986. of the slanting dam wall. 38
  39. 39. 7.3 Site criteriaRock catchment dams should preferably be build on rocks that gives some free storagevolume such as, gorges between two rocks, rock pools and rock shelves.7.3.1 Single-winged masonry dams in gorges A dam wall built in a gorge at Kasigau. Another dam wall in a gorge near KasigauFig. 10. Design of a rock catchment dam built as a straight masonry wall across gorges. 39
  40. 40. 7.3.2 Two-winged masonry dams around rock pools, in gorges and on rock shelves A rock pool near Taveta A V-shaped dam wall with a siphon pipe built around a rock pool at MutomoFig. 11. Design of a rock catchment dam with two walls constructed in gorges, around thelower side of rock pools and on rock shelves. 40
  41. 41. 7.3.3 Three-winged masonry dams around rock pools and on shelvesA rock shelf with trees and vegetation A dam wall with three sides built on a rocknot yet scooped out at Sololo, Moyale. shelf at Kisasai, Kitui.Fig. 12. Design of a rock catchment dam with three masonry walls built on the lowerside of rock pools and on rock shelves. 41
  42. 42. 7.4 Roofs on rock catchment damsEvaporation can consume up to half of the volume of water stored in open rockcatchment dams without roofing. Roofs of galvanised iron sheets can be tied ontogalvanised water pipes that are anchored onto pillars built of concrete blocks in thereservoir. The disadvantages are that: a) rodents can always find their way into a damreservoir and drown there, b) water vapour corrodes the iron sheets and wires.A more permanent option is to erect pillars of PVC pipes filled with concrete onto whichbeams of reinforced concrete carrying vaulted roof sections of ferro-cement is anchored.Fig. 13. A vaulted roof of ferro-cement covering the reservoir of a rock catchment dam. 42
  43. 43. 7.5 Garlands of stone guttersRock catchments require garlands of stone gutters to:a) divert rainwater run-off from a catchment area to the water reservoirs of rock catchment tanks and dams, andb) increase catchment areas by winding their way around rocks, often to the opposite side.Garlands of gutters must have an upward gradient (slope) of at least 3 cm for every 100cm length to allow run-off water to flow towards the water reservoir by gravity.If a dam wall is build in stages, the gutters should start at the points where the final heightof the dam wall will reach.Garlands of stone gutters start their upward The gradient of a 3 cm slope per 100 cmgradient (slope) of at least 3 cm per 100 cm is found by holding a spirit levelfrom the end of a dam wall. horizontal on a 100 cm length of timber that has a leg being 3 cm long.Fig. 14. Garlands of stone gutters for diverting run-off water to water reservoirs. 43
  44. 44. 7.6 Masonry dams built in stagesIt is advantageous to construct masonry dams in stages because:1) A community can provide free labour to build one or two stages during a one dry season without the work being too tiresome for them.2) When the first stage is completed, the dam can provide water from the first rain shower. This performance will encourage a community to build more stages.3) Where funds are insufficient, people can sell some of the water from the first stages and use the money for buying cement for he next stages.4) Any leakage in one stage will be closed by the following stages.The first stage of a masonry wall Detail of the second stage being buildbeing extended by a second stage. onto the first stage.Fig. 16. Construction phases of a masonry dam wall built in four stages. 44
  45. 45. 7.7 Setting out dams wallsWhere a design and an estimate of the construction cost are required, the outline for thefoundation of the dam wall must be marked on the rock. The site criteria are:1) Dam walls may be build on rocks It is advisable to construct dam wallshaving a down- and outward slope less in stages with the first stage being 2 mthan 15 cm depth for every 100 cm . high because: a) the dam is easy to build, b) water will be collected as soon as rains fall thereby encourage people to build the following phases and c) any leakage will be sealed by the next stage. The procedure for marking the foundation for a dam wall is as follows: Mark 2 meters height on a stick. Tie one end of a long transparent hosepipe onto the stick slightly above the 2 m mark. The stick is then hold vertically at theThe gradient of a rock is measured by lowest part of the foundation while theholding a spirit-level horizontal on a 100 other end of the pipe is laid on the rockcm length of timber while measuring the towards the end of the dam wall.distance to the rock. In this case, thegradient is more than 15 cm therebyproving that the gradient is too steep forthe foundation for a dam wall. Water is poured into the pipe until the waterlevel has reached the 2 m mark on the stick. The waterlevel in the other end 2) Foundation for dam walls must of the pipe is now marked onto the rock.consist of solid rock without loose parts. The other end of the wall is marked inLoose sections of a rock surface are the same way.found by sounding the rock with ahammer. Loose parts of rocks are broken Then mark with white paint both ends ofoff with iron rods and hammers. the dam wall and the place with the stick, which is the lowest point of the foundation. 45
  46. 46. Thereafter the width of the foundationcan be marked onto the rock using two When the width of the foundation, 120design criteria: cm, has been marked at the lowest point and the width of the crest, 30 cm, has1) The width of a foundation must been marked at each end of the damalways be 3/5 of the height of the dam wall, strings are drawn between thesewall. points to show the outlines of the foundation.Since the first stage will be 200 cm highat the lowest point on the rock, the The outlines are marked with dots offoundation will be 120 cm wide at that white paint so that the builders canpoint because 200 cm divided by 3/5 is identify the correct place without120 cm. problems.2) The crest must be at least 30 cm wide.Fig. 16. The outline of the foundation for a 200 cm high dam wall has been marked ontothe rock with white paint. 46
  47. 47. 7.8 Calculating the cost of constructing dam wallsThe cost of constructing a rock catchment dam can be calculated when the volume of itsdam wall is known because that determines requirements of materials and labour.Volume of dam wallsThe volume of dam walls can be calculated by drawing sketches with the length andheight of the dam wall bearing in mind that the base of a dam wall must always be 3/5 ofits height and that the crest should always be 30 cm wide.The sketches are then divided into triangular (A) and rectangular (B) units whose volumecan be calculated using the formula below. The volume of the units can then be addedtogether to give the total volume of the dam wall. Fig. 17. A cross section of a dam wall can be divided into a triangle (A) and a rectangle (B) as seen on the right. The formula for calculating the area of a triangle is: Area = base (b) x height (h)/2 The formula for calculating the area of a rectangle is: Area = base (b) x height (h) Fig. 18. The triangular section of a dam wall (A) can be calculated using the formula for a three-sided pyramid with a pointed end: Volume = base area x length (l) /3. Fig. 19. The rectangular part of a dam wall with a pointed end can be calculated using the formula of: Volume = base x height x length/2. Fig. 20. The middle part of a three-sided dam wall can be calculated by adding together the area of the two ends and divide the result with 2. That will give the average area of the cross section which is then multiplied with the length to get the total volume of the wall. 47
  48. 48. Fig. 21. An example of estimating the volume of a dam wall.The measurements of the dam wall in the example are:Height of middle wall 2.0 mBase of middle wall 2.0/ 3/5 = 1.2 mWidth of crest 0.3 mLength of left wall 12.0 mLength of middle wall 10.0 mLength of right wall 14.0 mVolume of left wallArea base: Height 2.0 m x base 2.0 m/ 3/5 + height 2.0 m x base 0.3 m = 3.0 sq.m.Volume: Area base 3.0 sq.m. x length 12.0 m/3 = 12.0 cu.m.Volume of middle wallArea base as left wall: 3.0 sq.m.Volume: Area base 3.0 sq.m. x length 10.0 m = 30.0 cu.m.Volume of right wallArea base as left wall: 3.0 sq.m.Volume: Area base 3.0 sq.m. x length 14.0 m /3 = 14.0 cu.m.Total volume of the three wallsLeft wall 12.0 cu.m. + middle wall 30.0 cu.m. + right wall 14.0 cu.m. = 56 cu.m. ======= 42
  49. 49. 7.9 Bill of quantity and cost of dam wallsWhen the total volume of a dam wall has been found, the numbers of cubic meters ismultiplied with the required materials and labour for 1 cubic meter of rubble stonemasonry which is:75% rubble stones + 25% mortar with a mixture of 1 part of cement to 4 parts of sand.Materials and labour for 1 cubic metre of rubble stone masonryItem Specification Quantity Approx. US$Cement 50 kg bags 4 bags 32Sand Coarse river sand 0.7 tonne 1Water 200 litres oil-drum 1 oil-drum 3Rubble stones Any size up 60 cm 2.1 tonne 2Skilled artisan Mason 1 x 2 man/days 12Unskilled labour Trainees 2 x 2 man/days 12Approx. Total 62Preferably the communities should provide free locally available materials, skilled andunskilled labour as their contribution for their water project. In the above example, thatamounts to US$ 30 which is about 49% of the total construction cost.Bill of quantity and cost for the 56 cu.m. dam wall shown on the former pageItem Specifi- Quantity US$ for Quantity US$ for cation for 1 cu.m. 1 cu.m. for 56 cu.m. 56 cu.m.Cement 50 kg bags 4 bags 32 224 bags 1,792Sand River sand 0.7 tonne 1 39.2 tonne 56Water Oil-drums 1 oil-drum 3 56 oil-drums 168Draw-off 18 mm 100 m pipe, (Average (Average 500piping from galvanised fittings and 500 for a 500 for adam reser- pipe with tap tap stand dam damvoir stand reservoir) reservoir)Rubble Any size up 2.1 tonne 2 117.2 tonnes 112stones to 60 cmSkilled Mason 1 x 2 days 12 112 man 672artisan /daysUnskilled Trainees 2 x 2 days 12 224 man 672labour /daysApprox. 62 3,972Total Say 4,000Preferably the communities should provide free locally available materials, skilled andunskilled labour as their contribution for their water project. In the above example, thatwould amount to US$ 1,680 which is about 49% of the total construction cost. 43
  50. 50. 7.10 Construction of dam walls built of rubble stone masonryThe maximum height and width of adam wall to be constructed is drawn onthe ground. Four pieces of 4" x 2"timbers are cut and nailed together overthe drawn shape of the dam wall so thatthe inner lines of the timbers are evenwith the shape of the dam wall.The width of the base for a wall mustalways be 3/5 of its height and the widthof the crest must be 30 cm as follows:Height Width Widthof wall of base of crest200 cm 120 cm 30 cm300 cm 180 cm 30 cm400 cm 240 cm 30 cm500 cm 300 cm 30 cmTemplates are erected at the deepestpoint of a dam wall and at 90 degrees tothe upstream side of the dam wall.Remember that the foundation of wallscannot be build onto a rock surfacesloping downwards more than 15 cm per100 cm and that the rock must not haveany loose parts.Where a dam wall has a bend, twotemplates are erected, both being at 90degrees to the upstream side of the wall.Where more than one template isrequired, their crest must be at the samelevel.Templates are mortared onto the rocksurface with their upstream sides beingvertical. 44
  51. 51. When the template, or templates, are mortared into their vertical position the level of thecrest is transferred from the template(s) onto the two places on the rock where the twoends of the dam wall will be mortared onto. The two places should be protruding parts ofthe rock that can provide good support for the dam wall.The crest level of the dam wall can be transferred onto the rock using a transparent hose-pipe. One end of the pipe it tied to the upper part of the template while the other end ofthe pipe is laid on the rock where the dam wall will end.Water is filled into the pipe until the water-level reaches the height on the crest on thetemplate. The water-level in the other end of the pipe laying on the rock is now horizontalwith the crest and is marked onto the rock. Both ends of the dam wall are marked on therock using the two water-levels in the pipe.Strings are now drawn along the inner sides of the templates to the two places on the rockwhere the 30 cm wide crest has been marked. All loose sections on the rock are removedand the rock surface is roughen with hammers within the strings. 45