Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures

  1. 1. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF RWH STRUCTURES Presentation by ; M.Oduor-Opondo
  2. 2. OBJECTIVE OF PRESENTATION <ul><ul><li>To understand how to improve on the operation of RWH structures under FFA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To differentiate between repair and maintenance of RWH structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve on maintenance of RWH structures through performance based maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Outline of Presentation <ul><ul><li>What do we know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FFA- RWH structures, the design and development/ construction of water pans, bunds, terraces, irrigation schemes, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will we know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to enhance operation of RWH structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance based maintenance of water and irrigation facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the challenges.. and opportunities…? in improving operation and maintenance of structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion and Recommendation! </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. FFA –RWH STRUCTURES <ul><ul><li>Water Pans and Dams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terraces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bunds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale irrigation schemes- canals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures/ illustrations of each structure- working and non working structures, bunds, terraces, pans, and small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT IS OPERATION IN RELATION TO RWH Structures <ul><ul><li>During operation and maintenance, its assumed a committee or individual has already taken responsibility for the structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entails balancing water demands and supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling withdrawal/ abstraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures of working FFA-RWH structures, bunds, pans, terraces, small-scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. REPAIR <ul><ul><li>What is repair in relation to RWH structures? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing breakages whenever they occur </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. MAINTENANCE <ul><ul><li>What is maintenance in relation to RWH structures? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. WHY DO OPERATION &MAINTENANCE OF RWHS <ul><ul><li>Balancing water needs and abstraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the life span of structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get maximum performance from structure </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. OPERATION OF FFA PROJECTS <ul><ul><li>What participants have you found working? For FFA-RWH structures, bunds, terraces, pans, small-scale irrigation schemes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you make it work? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. HOW TO OPERATE BUNDS/ TERRACES, AND PANS <ul><ul><li>RWH Structure made to satisfy some need- PURPOSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal operation is desired to make it serve the purpose for longer periods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation of bunds and terraces is easy-end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating water pans involve water getting into the pan/dam then to the crop/pasture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entail activities that make water get to pasture/crop fields or storage tanks </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. OPERATING SMALL- SCALE IRRIGATION SCHEMES <ul><ul><li>Involves opening and closing water flow to fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even distribution to fields based on crop water requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promptness of distribution/ on time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detecting system problems and being able to address problems promptly as they are detected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated operation is effective –as in Japan </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. BEST PRACTICES IN O &M <ul><ul><li>Coach/ train communities from planning, design, and construction of structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize practical based training to communities on operation of the structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to challenges of illiteracy, emphasize pictorials and translation to Kiswahili and local languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build capacities in terms of equipment, resources. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. BEST PRACTICES IN O&M <ul><ul><li>Link beneficiaries with relevant service providers- public and private </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate economic empowerment aspect to enable them raise money for operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project exit strategy should have adequate arrangements for operating small-scale irrigation schemes and pans </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. DESIGN and CONSTRUCTION <ul><ul><li>Purpose of structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifications based design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance based design </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. OPERATING THE FFA PROJECTS <ul><ul><li>Routine or day- to- day activities :the ACTION OF USING the structure- Know how to use it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening and closing water flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage- diversion to cover all the paddocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions on running the RWH structure to get benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs/ resources required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group organization- management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training on operation and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual for reference </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. REPAIR OF FFA –RWH STRUCTURES <ul><ul><li>Why do repair of FFA-RWH structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What participants have found working? For FFA-RWH structures, bunds, pans, terraces, zai pits, small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you make it work? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. REPAIR OF RWH SYSTEM <ul><ul><li>Due to breakages in the system-structures such as bunds or the components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured by structure down time, running time or hours in use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the hours in use the better- hence make immediate repairs as they occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By how much will an irrigation system with 80% down time affect food security during dry spell? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. REPAIR: BEST PRACTICES <ul><ul><li>Make available or information on spare parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who or where to refer to for technical assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make available spare parts and how to fit them- where, costs or resources for it. Use same or superior material like ECC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize maintenance to prevent breakages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilize communities/ experts to repair on time to the same technical specification </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. MAINTENANCE <ul><ul><li>Why do maintenance of RWH structures? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What participants have found working? For bunds, terraces, pans and small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you make it work? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. MAINTENANCE-PHILOSOPHY <ul><ul><li>Optimal capacity / performance of RWH structure often realized during 1 st year of operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This performance is deemed to reduce with time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This call for recovery to improve performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show diagram/Illustration </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. COST OF MAINTENANCE <ul><ul><li>Maintenance of RWH Structure is not free- it has a cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The opportunity cost is high- ignoring to do it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You must prepare and attach a budget for maintenance of RWH structure with proposal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a maintenance schedule- what to do, after what period, by who and by using what resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of maintenance should inform project approval. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. DECISION MAKING BASED ON MAINTENANCE <ul><ul><li>High initial cost and low cost of maintenance, APPROVE project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low initial cost and high cost of maintenance, DISAPPROVE project. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. PERFORMANCE BASED MAINTENANCE <ul><ul><li>Technical verse performance based design and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional (descriptive) verses performance based (quantitative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the performance to the level as per design performance, measured by three elements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. WATER USE PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Keep getting same amount of water as was set to meet desired needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g discharge of 1m3 per hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What to check for in Pans, bunds, terraces, small-scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to ensure water use in pans, bunds, terraces and small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>De-siltting water pans; divert water into the structure, or run off if too much </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. WATER USE PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Water sharing performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational performance of control device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water management performance of system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance of maintenance management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to ensure water use performance of bunds, pans, terraces, irrigation schemes? </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. HYDRAULICS PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Water flow and resistance- speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrasive/friction forces on surface of structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on lining material, e.g concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What to check for in pans, bunds, terraces, and small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to ensure/ maintain hydraulic performance </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. HYDRAULICS PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Performance that transports agricultural water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmissivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic safe performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running water control function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water sharing control function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to ensure hydraulic performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce friction by filling cracks </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Stability of structure :Determine size and Seal cracks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance to maintain structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic safe performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Durability performance </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Performance to maintain structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What to check for in pans, bunds, terraces, small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to ensure stability </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. REINFORCING STABILITY OF RWH STRUCTURES <ul><ul><li>Pans/ dams: plant trees and shrubs around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bunds: plant grass, Napier grass, crops like pumpkins, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terraces: plant Napier grass, other grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilize embankments after construction </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVING ON O &M <ul><ul><li>Skills available to do operation and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project proposals- inclusion as an aspect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual work plan and budget- plan and budget for O and M </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of local resources and technologies such as reinforcement using grass </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. CHALLENGES TO IMPROVING ON O &M OF STRUCTURES <ul><ul><li>Changing the existing attitude of professionals / communities -where O&M are not given adequate attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and maintenance usually left to communities without close supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funds/ resources for operation and maintenance not readily available due to poverty levels of beneficiaries </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. CONCLUSION &RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><ul><li>Provide activities and budget for operation and maintenance of FFA-RWH structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare and implement a maintenance schedule for operation and maintenance of RWHM structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt Performance based maintenance to help ensure water use, hydraulics and stability of RWH structures </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. PLENARY <ul><ul><li>Any comments, suggestions, complements, experiences, best practices, etc </li></ul></ul>