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Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures
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Operation and Maintenance of RWH Structures

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  • 1. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF RWH STRUCTURES Presentation by ; M.Oduor-Opondo
  • 2. OBJECTIVE OF PRESENTATION <ul><ul><li>To understand how to improve on the operation of RWH structures under FFA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To differentiate between repair and maintenance of RWH structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve on maintenance of RWH structures through performance based maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Outline of Presentation <ul><ul><li>What do we know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FFA- RWH structures, the design and development/ construction of water pans, bunds, terraces, irrigation schemes, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will we know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to enhance operation of RWH structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance based maintenance of water and irrigation facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the challenges.. and opportunities…? in improving operation and maintenance of structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion and Recommendation! </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. FFA –RWH STRUCTURES <ul><ul><li>Water Pans and Dams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terraces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bunds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small scale irrigation schemes- canals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures/ illustrations of each structure- working and non working structures, bunds, terraces, pans, and small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. WHAT IS OPERATION IN RELATION TO RWH Structures <ul><ul><li>During operation and maintenance, its assumed a committee or individual has already taken responsibility for the structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entails balancing water demands and supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling withdrawal/ abstraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures of working FFA-RWH structures, bunds, pans, terraces, small-scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. REPAIR <ul><ul><li>What is repair in relation to RWH structures? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing breakages whenever they occur </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. MAINTENANCE <ul><ul><li>What is maintenance in relation to RWH structures? </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. WHY DO OPERATION &MAINTENANCE OF RWHS <ul><ul><li>Balancing water needs and abstraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the life span of structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get maximum performance from structure </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. OPERATION OF FFA PROJECTS <ul><ul><li>What participants have you found working? For FFA-RWH structures, bunds, terraces, pans, small-scale irrigation schemes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you make it work? </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. HOW TO OPERATE BUNDS/ TERRACES, AND PANS <ul><ul><li>RWH Structure made to satisfy some need- PURPOSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal operation is desired to make it serve the purpose for longer periods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation of bunds and terraces is easy-end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating water pans involve water getting into the pan/dam then to the crop/pasture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entail activities that make water get to pasture/crop fields or storage tanks </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. OPERATING SMALL- SCALE IRRIGATION SCHEMES <ul><ul><li>Involves opening and closing water flow to fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even distribution to fields based on crop water requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promptness of distribution/ on time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detecting system problems and being able to address problems promptly as they are detected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated operation is effective –as in Japan </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. BEST PRACTICES IN O &M <ul><ul><li>Coach/ train communities from planning, design, and construction of structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize practical based training to communities on operation of the structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to challenges of illiteracy, emphasize pictorials and translation to Kiswahili and local languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build capacities in terms of equipment, resources. </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. BEST PRACTICES IN O&M <ul><ul><li>Link beneficiaries with relevant service providers- public and private </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate economic empowerment aspect to enable them raise money for operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project exit strategy should have adequate arrangements for operating small-scale irrigation schemes and pans </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. DESIGN and CONSTRUCTION <ul><ul><li>Purpose of structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifications based design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance based design </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. OPERATING THE FFA PROJECTS <ul><ul><li>Routine or day- to- day activities :the ACTION OF USING the structure- Know how to use it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening and closing water flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage- diversion to cover all the paddocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions on running the RWH structure to get benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs/ resources required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group organization- management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training on operation and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual for reference </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. REPAIR OF FFA –RWH STRUCTURES <ul><ul><li>Why do repair of FFA-RWH structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What participants have found working? For FFA-RWH structures, bunds, pans, terraces, zai pits, small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you make it work? </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. REPAIR OF RWH SYSTEM <ul><ul><li>Due to breakages in the system-structures such as bunds or the components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured by structure down time, running time or hours in use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the hours in use the better- hence make immediate repairs as they occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By how much will an irrigation system with 80% down time affect food security during dry spell? </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. REPAIR: BEST PRACTICES <ul><ul><li>Make available or information on spare parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who or where to refer to for technical assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make available spare parts and how to fit them- where, costs or resources for it. Use same or superior material like ECC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize maintenance to prevent breakages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilize communities/ experts to repair on time to the same technical specification </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. MAINTENANCE <ul><ul><li>Why do maintenance of RWH structures? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What participants have found working? For bunds, terraces, pans and small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did you make it work? </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. MAINTENANCE-PHILOSOPHY <ul><ul><li>Optimal capacity / performance of RWH structure often realized during 1 st year of operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This performance is deemed to reduce with time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This call for recovery to improve performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show diagram/Illustration </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. COST OF MAINTENANCE <ul><ul><li>Maintenance of RWH Structure is not free- it has a cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The opportunity cost is high- ignoring to do it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You must prepare and attach a budget for maintenance of RWH structure with proposal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare a maintenance schedule- what to do, after what period, by who and by using what resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of maintenance should inform project approval. </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. DECISION MAKING BASED ON MAINTENANCE <ul><ul><li>High initial cost and low cost of maintenance, APPROVE project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low initial cost and high cost of maintenance, DISAPPROVE project. </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. PERFORMANCE BASED MAINTENANCE <ul><ul><li>Technical verse performance based design and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional (descriptive) verses performance based (quantitative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the performance to the level as per design performance, measured by three elements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. WATER USE PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Keep getting same amount of water as was set to meet desired needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g discharge of 1m3 per hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What to check for in Pans, bunds, terraces, small-scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to ensure water use in pans, bunds, terraces and small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>De-siltting water pans; divert water into the structure, or run off if too much </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. WATER USE PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Water sharing performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational performance of control device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water management performance of system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance of maintenance management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to ensure water use performance of bunds, pans, terraces, irrigation schemes? </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. HYDRAULICS PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Water flow and resistance- speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrasive/friction forces on surface of structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on lining material, e.g concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What to check for in pans, bunds, terraces, and small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to ensure/ maintain hydraulic performance </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. HYDRAULICS PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Performance that transports agricultural water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmissivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic safe performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running water control function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water sharing control function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to ensure hydraulic performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce friction by filling cracks </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Stability of structure :Determine size and Seal cracks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance to maintain structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic safe performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Durability performance </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE <ul><ul><li>Performance to maintain structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What to check for in pans, bunds, terraces, small scale irrigation schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to ensure stability </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. REINFORCING STABILITY OF RWH STRUCTURES <ul><ul><li>Pans/ dams: plant trees and shrubs around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bunds: plant grass, Napier grass, crops like pumpkins, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terraces: plant Napier grass, other grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilize embankments after construction </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVING ON O &M <ul><ul><li>Skills available to do operation and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project proposals- inclusion as an aspect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual work plan and budget- plan and budget for O and M </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of local resources and technologies such as reinforcement using grass </li></ul></ul>
  • 32. CHALLENGES TO IMPROVING ON O &M OF STRUCTURES <ul><ul><li>Changing the existing attitude of professionals / communities -where O&M are not given adequate attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and maintenance usually left to communities without close supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funds/ resources for operation and maintenance not readily available due to poverty levels of beneficiaries </li></ul></ul>
  • 33. CONCLUSION &RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><ul><li>Provide activities and budget for operation and maintenance of FFA-RWH structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare and implement a maintenance schedule for operation and maintenance of RWHM structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt Performance based maintenance to help ensure water use, hydraulics and stability of RWH structures </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. PLENARY <ul><ul><li>Any comments, suggestions, complements, experiences, best practices, etc </li></ul></ul>

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