Green ICT


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Sklubi AlumniWeekend 23.10.2010:
Reijo Maihaniemi
Electricity Consumption: General
Electricity Savings Through DC Power Feed
DC Data Center Projects in the World
ICT Energy saving actions

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Green ICT

  1. 1. Green ICT Reijo Maihaniemi President and CEO Efore Plc October 23, 2010
  2. 2. Content • Electricity Consumption: General • Electricity Savings Through DC Power Feed • DC Data Center Projects in the World • ICT Energy saving actions
  3. 3. Electricity Consumption General
  5. 5. Power Consumption Need during a day Power consumption Traffic
  6. 6. ICT Electricity Consumption in Finland • Developed country, population 5.3 milj., 7 milj. mobile phones, 2.2 milj. broadband lines, 1.5 milj. ordinary lines • ICT power consumption 6.7 TWh representing 7.4% of all electricity consumption – Data Centers: 0.8 TWh > 2015: 1.6 TWh (1.7%) – Telecom: 1.3 TWh > 2015: 2.6 TWh (2.7%) – CPE equipment: 4.6 TWh > 2015: 6.0 TWh (6.3%) • ICT consumption means to use 800 GW nuclear power station whole capacity. In 2015 even 1200 GW is needed • CAGR 15%, doubling in 5 years, especially due to mobility growth and rapid increase of broadband lines. Further on, several new large Data Centers are under planning, their power needs >10 MW/unit • Finland is an ideal place for Data Centers due to political support, chilly climate as well as good availability of quality electricity and experienced ICT engineers
  7. 7. Broadband consumes extensively electricity • Higher used frequence and higher bandwidth need exponentially more electricity per unit than low frequence/low bandwidth • 2G > 3G > LTE coverage will need 2 >4 >16 times electricity • adsl >vdsl lines will need 2 >4 times electricity • Broadband has come to stay, both wireline and wireless • Data storage is moved from homes and offices to Data Centres, thanks to Internet and broadband connections
  8. 8. Price of Electricity, c/kWh
  9. 9. Electricity Savings Through DC Power Feed
  10. 10. Energy Saving in Data Center Power Architecture • Minimize number of conversion steps • Efficiency near load is more critical
  11. 11. DC Power Feed: advantages/disadvantages • Advantages – DC is a native powering mode for any electronics. In high power consumption, higher voltage DC should be used – DC/DC conversion is simpler and more cost efficient conversion than AC/DC or DC/AC – DC-UPS on simpler, more reliable and clearly more energy efficient UPS than equivalent AC-UPS due to less hardware and power conversions needed. Should be implemented e-2-e. Distribution cabling is more simple – DC feed does not generate magnetic fields, corrupting server and router memories. DC provides many further advantages in reduced electrical noise and improved transient protection. All these issues escalate in high power solutions – High energy efficiency means less heat dissipation, which means less cooling arrangements, which means less floor space – DC breakers and distribution switchboards are readily available with appropriate regulatory approvals – Easier to connect alternative energy sources and energy storages like fuel cells, wind and solar energy sources
  12. 12. DC Data Center Projects in the World Kick Off: Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency Public Law 109-431 EPA Report, August 2, 2007 130 pages
  13. 13. LBNL & Sun demonstrator (the “Bible”) • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Sun demonstrator, March 2008 • Availability of DC Equipment: The Demonstration Project showed that DC-powered servers exist in the same form factor as AC servers or can be built and operated from existing components with minimal effort • Reliability: Anecdotal data shows that DC-powered data centers have the potential to be more reliable than AC-powered data centers • Efficiency improvement from “typical” US 480Vac system to “best in class” 380Vdc system is reported to be 26% (61%  87%). An improvement of over 28% is possible in an average data center. This means the DC distribution system, as demonstrated, will have the potential of using 28% less energy than the typical AC system found in today’s data centers (Note: Efore has also calculated 28% savings well possible!) • Integration with Other Sources: The use of DC in data center can also simplify the integration of alternative energy sources, such as solar and other forms of renewable energy, as well as fuel cells and distributed generation, which are all DC-based • Educational Issues: Of significant concerns is the lack of industry knowledge of the advantages of DC distribution, as well as misconceptions about DC power
  14. 14. Power Consumption Reduction with DC Feed in Japan Source: Tech-On, Mar 5, 2009
  15. 15. DC Feed Vision for Japan Source: Tech-On, Mar 5, 2009
  16. 16. Example of DC System Development: NTT • June 2008: NTT Group announced officially it would implement a phased switch to DC supplies group wide. NTT will aim at launching dc power demonstrations within fiscal 2009. Data centers will begin introducing 300V to 400Vdc supplies from 2010 by NTT Group. NTT Facilities, Inc. will conduct verification tests of the developed 400Vdc power system, protection system, engineering, and plug & socket keeping pace with the NTT group, which has been working on the promotion of direct current distribution, and aim to commercialize them by 2010. • February 2009: NTT DoCoMo Testing DC-powered Data Center (48Vdc) NTT DoCoMo unveiled its Tachikawa ICT Ecology Center, which was established in the NTT DoCoMo Tachikawa Building (in Tachikawa City, Tokyo), to the press Feb 19, 2009. … "We aim to reduce CO2 emissions by 50% compared with existing facilities," the company said. … NTT DoCoMo adopted three measures to cut CO2 emissions. They are the introductions of (1) servers that consume less power, (2) DC power supply technologies and (3) new air conditioning technologies. … …. The voltage value for the DC supply technologies is -48V, which is widely used for communication facilities of the NTT Group. The power supply devices for DC distribution were newly developed by NTT Facilities Inc and have a higher conversion efficiency than existing devices, according to NTT DoCoMo. … … The proving tests will be completed by the end of March 2009, but NTT DoCoMo will continue to introduce new technologies and test their CO2 reduction effects. One of those technologies is the high voltage direct current (HVDC) technology, which uses a voltage as high as 400V. But the schedule for its proving tests is yet to be decided. "In respect to the HVDC technology, the voltage varies depending on region, and there are few types of servers that support the technology," the company said. "So, we will not start proving tests in the near future though we are still interested in them. Some companies in the NTT Group, like NTT Facilities and NTT Data are developing technologies related to the HVDC. In light of the results of them, we will conduct proving tests at an appropriate time. Source: • October 2009: NTT Facilities presents 400Vdc equipment at Intelec 2009 conference, Korea 400Vdc equipment: rectifiers (9kW and 13kW), voltage compensator, battery charger (cooperation with Origin Electric and Shindengen); connector plug and power strip (cooperation with Fujitsu). Several papers covering various aspects of a 400Vdc system. Deployment to NTT datacenters in 2010.
  17. 17. SYRACUSE, N.Y. & BROOKFIELD, CT - 19 January 2010 • Syracuse University, in partnership with IBM and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), have gone live with the world's greenest data center (GDC) powered with direct current (DC) • When the GDC becomes fully operational, it is anticipated to use about 50 percent less energy than a typical data center in operation today, making it one of the world's "greenest" computer centers • By leveraging modern DC power technology designed for today's energy-conscious organizations, Syracuse University is running its systems at a fraction of the cost of a conventional AC-powered data center • With the new Green Data Center, Syracuse implemented the system with Validus DC Systems technology, allowing the AC power generated by micro-turbines and/or the utility to be efficiently converted only once to direct current •
  18. 18. DC Data Center in Hammarö/Karlstadt Source: Netpower 2010 12 kV 500 kVA
  19. 19. Netpower building blocks Hexaformer, efficiency 98,5% 1,5 kVA rectifier module, efficiency 98% 400 V socket Power Control unit/software System Cabinet
  20. 20. AC/DC vs. DC/DC Power Supply Unit
  21. 21. ICT Energy Saving Actions
  22. 22. ICT goes for Green: Save Energy 1/2 • Full deployment of hardware (networking and computing) – simplify architecture at telecom and datacom sites – use virtualization and power management in servers – increase payload by cutting overhead traffic: less transmission control protocols – reduce network complexity – reduce oversizing, reduce doubled configurations • Increase Power Efficiency – reduce cascaded power conversions – use converters of high energy efficiency – use intelligent power units to manage load – consider alternative energy sources: wind, solar, water – reuse the heat generated
  23. 23. ICT goes for Green: Save Energy 2/2 • Invest in new technology – DC driven power solution – apply sleep-mode in network nodes: variable power – fuel cells, supercaps, new technology batteries and flywheels to replace old back up technologies: avoid contaminating diesels and lead acid batteries – measure payload efficiency and power consumption – invest in better control and management solution • User energy saving attitude – switch off CPE equipment when not in use – apply sleep-mode in CPE units – increase teleworking, videoconferencing, etc. – apply decentralized offices
  24. 24. A new-technology research and development laboratory at Helsinki University of Technology • At TKK Efore is doing research on renewable and alternative energy sources and carrying out various R&D projects aimed at improving energy efficiency • Combination of wind- and solar- energy sources as well as fuel cells are tested together with new Li-Ion battery technologies. All connected to an intelligent Efore OPUS centralized management system
  25. 25. Efore Group web-site: Power Innovation GmbH Efore USA Inc. Efore (Suzhou) Electronics Co., Ltd. Efore PlcEfore AB Efore AS
  26. 26. Thank You For Your Attention !