The War of 1812

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The War of 1812

  1. 1. THE WAR OF 1812 United States History
  2. 2. The War of 1812 <ul><li>The American leaders who declared war on Great Britain in 1812 firmly believed that they were beginning a second war of independence. Although the United States failed to achieve any of its stated war aims, the War of 1812 confirmed American nationhood and secured a new respect for the infant republic among the powers of Europe. There were several great battles and key figures that would emerge in the next three years, until the war’s end in 1815. The literature and study that follow will lend you some insight into this often overlooked conflict in our country’s history. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The War of 1812 <ul><li>On June 18, 1812, President James Madison signed a declaration of war. The first 18 months were met with no major victories and the failure to secure land in Canada and the northern territory from the British. In the fall of 1813, the Americans would see a turning point in the conflict. Key generals and the victories in battle would forge this change of tide in the war, as well as how the rest of the world would view us as a country. The texts that follow will touch briefly on two such characters of American history and the greatest battles they were known for during the conflict. Following a brief overview of each subject you will be asked to complete a quiz to give you some sense of comprehension of the subject. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Key Figures in the War of 1812 <ul><li>General William Henry Harrison </li></ul><ul><li>General Andrew Jackson </li></ul>
  5. 5. General William Henry Harrison <ul><li>During the War of 1812, William Henry Harrison received the rank of Brigadier General and commanded the Northwest Army on the Detroit frontier. At first, the British enjoyed success against the American forces on the Detroit frontier, as indicated by the Battle of Frenchtown. However, British Major General Henry Proctor had yet to face the rest of General Harrison's invasion army, about 3,500 men strong. General Proctor had less than 900 regulars and his supplies short control of Lake Erie went over to the American fleet there, and Proctor’s situation became much worse. </li></ul>
  6. 6. General William Henry Harrison <ul><li>He successfully pushed back the British forces in 1813, and re-captured Detroit, taken earlier by British General Isaac Brock. Shawnee Chief Tecumseh opposed the retreat, as it would abandon the Western Amerindians who fought alongside their British allies, but General Proctor proceeded nonetheless. The tension between the two leaders grew. The demoralized British soldiers moved slowly, while General Harrison's force was not far behind. Only the Amerindian warriors made any attempt to halt the advancing American troops who defeated the British forces at the Battle of the Thames. General Proctor realized that eventually he would have to stand and fight the American force. The battle took place about three kilometers from Moraviantown on the Thames River. The tired British troops surrendered after the first American charge. Tecumseh's force of 800 Amerindians continued to fight until the Shawnee Chief was mortally wounded, then retreated. </li></ul>
  7. 7. General William Henry Harrison <ul><li>The road to the Niagara peninsula lay open to General Harrison, but the coming winter and shortage of supplies forced him, after burning Moraviantown, to return to Detroit, which he occupied until the end of the war. Tecumseh was buried in a secret grave in the swamp where he died, and with him, died the Amerindian resistance around Lake Erie. The chiefs signed a cease-fire with General Harrison. </li></ul><ul><li>General Proctor gathered what was left of his force and fled to the rest of the British army at Burlington. He was court-martialed for his conduct at the Battle of the Thames. </li></ul><ul><li>After the war, Harrison was nominated for President and died in office in 1841. </li></ul><ul><li>Click here if you are ready for the quiz. </li></ul>
  8. 8. General Andrew Jackson <ul><li>The Napoleonic Wars in Europe had come to an end. Napoleon had been exiled to Elba, and the British government could at last deploy a large enough force to open a new front in the War of 1812. The target for the strike was the city of New Orleans in the southeastern United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States army at New Orleans was under the command of General Andrew Jackson. The American forces were warned of the impending attack and were waiting for the British. After several preliminary skirmishes, the Battle of New Orleans began. </li></ul>
  9. 9. General Andrew Jackson <ul><li>On January 8, 1815, the British advanced at the American lines, but American fire cut them down. Several times the British infantry charged, but could not reach the American troops. Major General Edward Pakenham, the British commander, was killed in the attack. </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome of the battle was disastrous for the British. They lost over 700 men, and over a thousand more wounded. American deaths numbered less than 10. Neither side knew that the war was officially over, and the Peace Treaty of Ghent signed. The last battle of the War of 1812 happened after the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson later went on to be elected President in 1829; he sought to act as the direct representative of the common man. </li></ul><ul><li>Click here if you are ready for the quiz. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Are You Ready? <ul><li>Now that we have explored the War of 1812, you have the option of either returning to the topics reviewed or taking the quiz. Please make your selection below: </li></ul><ul><li>General William Henry Harrision </li></ul><ul><li>General Andrew Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>QUIZ </li></ul>
  11. 11. QUIZ <ul><li>Who was the Brigadier General that commanded the Northwest Army on the Detroit frontier at the beginning of the War of 1812? </li></ul>
  12. 12. QUIZ <ul><li>Who was the Brigadier General that commanded the Northwest Army on the Detroit frontier at the beginning of the War of 1812? </li></ul><ul><li>A: General William Henry Harrison </li></ul>
  13. 13. QUIZ <ul><li>Who was the British Major General that opposed General Harrison’s forces on the Detroit frontier? </li></ul>
  14. 14. QUIZ <ul><li>Who was the British Major General that opposed General Harrison’s forces on the Detroit frontier? </li></ul><ul><li>A: British Major General Henry Proctor </li></ul>
  15. 15. QUIZ <ul><li>Who was the British General originally responsible for capturing the fort at Detroit from the Americans in 1812? </li></ul>
  16. 16. QUIZ <ul><li>Who was the British General originally responsible for capturing the fort at Detroit from the Americans in 1812? </li></ul><ul><li>A: British General Isaac Brock </li></ul>
  17. 17. QUIZ <ul><li>The Western Amerindians were a collective band of Native American tribes fighting alongside the British in the Detroit frontier. Who was their leader? </li></ul>
  18. 18. QUIZ <ul><li>The Western Amerindians were a collective band of Native American tribes fighting alongside the British in the Detroit frontier. Who was their leader? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Shawnee Chief Tecumseh </li></ul>
  19. 19. QUIZ <ul><li>What was the deciding and final battle for the Detroit frontier during the War of 1812? </li></ul>
  20. 20. QUIZ <ul><li>What was the deciding and final battle for the Detroit frontier during the War of 1812? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Battle of the Thames </li></ul>
  21. 21. QUIZ <ul><li>Who was the commander in charge of the American forces in New Orleans during the War of 1812? </li></ul>
  22. 22. QUIZ <ul><li>Who was the commander in charge of the American forces in New Orleans during the War of 1812? </li></ul><ul><li>A: General Andrew Jackson </li></ul>
  23. 23. QUIZ <ul><li>What is significant about the date January 8, 1815 concerning The War of 1812? </li></ul>
  24. 24. QUIZ <ul><li>What is significant about the date January 8, 1815 concerning The War of 1812? </li></ul><ul><li>A: The Battle of New Orleans </li></ul>
  25. 25. QUIZ <ul><li>Who was the British commander that perished in the final battle in The War of 1812? </li></ul>
  26. 26. QUIZ <ul><li>Who was the British commander that perished in the final battle in The War of 1812? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Major General Edward Pakenham </li></ul>
  27. 27. QUIZ <ul><li>In what year was Andrew Jackson elected President of the United States of America? </li></ul>
  28. 28. QUIZ <ul><li>In what year was Andrew Jackson elected President of the United States of America? </li></ul><ul><li>A: 1829 </li></ul>
  29. 29. QUIZ <ul><li>What was the name of the treaty sign at the end of the War of 1812? </li></ul>
  30. 30. QUIZ <ul><li>What was the name of the treaty sign at the end of the War of 1812? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Peace Treaty of Ghent </li></ul>
  31. 31. CONGRATULATIONS <ul><li>If you would like to review the material again, then please click below: </li></ul><ul><li>The War of 1812 </li></ul>
  32. 32. Bibliography <ul><li>www.history.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.gatewayno.com/history/War1812.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.galafilm.com/1812/e/intro/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.42explore2.com/1812war.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhenryharrison </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjackson </li></ul><ul><li>http://search.aol.com/aol/image </li></ul>

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