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Au Psy492 M7 A3 E Port Lentz S

  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio<br />Sarah Lentz<br />Psychology, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Personal Statement<br /> I am strong willed, patient and determined to achieve my goals. I enjoy challenges in my personal and professional life because they require me to think creatively and encourage new learning and research opportunities. I accept and welcome change because I believe it promotes personal and professional growth. I work well with groups or individually as the task requires. Collaboration with other individuals encourages new thinking and offers different perspectives for the same issue. I have worked on many teams from entry level to middle management so I feel I have a strong background on team dynamics and utilizing individual strengths. I like to have multiple tasks at the same time because it keeps me on task, focused and proactive. I have worked in finance, customer service, retail and administration. I have developed and administered employee evaluations, conducted interviews and worked through problem resolution situations with subordinates and colleagues. I found that I truly enjoy working with people in changing environments because it provides consistent challenges. I offer a wide variety of experience that combines to form a genuine, caring person with a desire to help others achieve their goals and transition from the confusing state of adolescents into fully functioning healthy adults. <br />
  3. 3. Resume<br />Sarah K. Lentz<br />17081 Larkspur Lane, Big Lake, MN 55309<br />651-248-2816<br />slentz@live.com<br />Objective<br />I am interested in beginning my career in the health services field working for the benefit of youth in any community where I can expand the skills I have gained through my education and previous work experience. I am self-motivated and compassionate with a strong understanding of cultural diversity and ethics. <br /> eDUCATION<br />Argosy University, Chicago, IL<br />Bachelor of Arts:Psychology, 1/2009 – 4/2011<br /> GPA 3.87<br />Studies focused on psychoanalytical, behavioral, and cognitive development theories.<br />Maladaptive and psychopathology diagnosis and treatment options for adults and children<br />Sharpened interview and listening skills as well as written communication and organizational skills<br />Studied the influence of violence on children, child development and learning techniques successful in helping children with a range of psychological disorders<br />Strong understanding of the impact of environment influences on behavioral and psychological development of children and adults.<br />Strong understanding of the ethical codes of the ACA and APA <br /> <br />Century College, White Bear Lake, MN<br />Associate of Applied Science:Interior Design, Graduated 12/2006<br />GPA 3.8<br />Marketing and sales skills<br />Influence of color and esthetics on human psychology<br /> <br /> <br />
  4. 4. Resume<br /> Professional experience<br />LSG Sky Chefs – Minneapolis, MN<br />Financial Billing Coordinator (2008 - Present)<br /> <br />Supervise and coordinate third-party billing and account management for multiple customers. Maintain confidentiality between customers account information and records. <br />Customer Service, maintain integrity, adhere to policies and procedures. <br />Develop and maintain monthly billing reports as required, utilizing MS Excel or equivalent accounting system platform(s) (i.e. LINK, ARIS, Cbase).<br />Work closely with the COE Manager on aging reconciliations, cash applications and billing data reconciliations.<br /> <br />Don pablo’s – Woodbury, MN<br />Hourly Manager (2004 - 2007)<br /> <br />Human resource management, participated in interviewing, hiring, training, scheduling and termination processes<br />Demonstrated the ability to establish rapport and interact with a diverse multicultural staff and customer base. <br />Managed daily operations, customer service and problem resolution<br />Managed daily deposits and reporting to sales, labor and inventory to corporate and into database. <br /> <br />aWARDS/ Honors<br />Dean’s List – Century College 2004-2006<br />National Society of Collegiate Scholars member since June 2010<br /> <br />affiliations<br />American Counseling Association <br />American Psychological Association<br />
  5. 5. Reflection<br />Through my time at Argosy University I feel that I have developed a strong understanding of my strengths and weaknesses and how to continue to change and develop professionally and personally. I have a great foundation of ethical practices, psychological theories, communication and critical thinking skills. <br />
  6. 6. Table of Contents<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />Research Skills<br />Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Foundations of Psychology<br />Applied Psychology<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />**Include work samples and projects with a Title Page and organized accordingly to demonstrate each of the Program Outcomes above<br />
  7. 7. Critical Thinking<br />Attention is a cognitive process that involves perceiving, selecting, thinking, and comprehending sensory stimuli in our environment (Argosy, 2009). By attending, we are focusing our mental resources on either an external stimulus or an internal thought (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2006).<br />Based on the results of the CogLab exercise, if the time between the appearance of the first and second objects increases it is more likely that the second object will be seen (Francis & Neath, 2009). If there is a clear separation between the appearances of two objects it is more likely that your attention will be ready to capture the second object. <br />During the exercise, the time between target letters decreased. According to the findings, the probability of seeing the second target decreased as the time between decreased. When the first target is seen the participant must attend to it to ensure it will be recalled later, if the second letter follows too closely it will not even be noticed (Francis & Neath, 2009). <br />In this experiment we are using selective attention to focus or attention on a specific target stimulus such as the letters K and J used in this experiment (Argosy, 2009). In a situation where a person is sleep deprived or under stress the expected results will likely vary. A person who is tired and or under stress are likely to experience slowed reaction times (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2006). If the reaction time is slowed, then may be harder to pay attention to the target stimulus. Just as if you are driving and talking on a cell phone, you are more likely to ignore road signs because your attention is divided between driving and the conversation (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2006). While playing a video game it is likely that a person will “zone out” in between targets if the time is too long. So instead of having a steady incline in the second target as is the standard, the second target results may increase and then decrease again (Francis & Neath, 2009).<br />Use of alcohol or drugs can inhibit reaction times as well as perception. The effects of alcohol and drugs on the human mind are widely understood. Use of drugs and alcohol decrease the ability to focus on a specific task as well as inhibit motor skills, speech, sight and sound. Air Traffic controllers need to focus all of their attention on their responsibilities. Controllers are responsible for multiple planes in the air and on the ground at any given time and must be able to switch his/her attention to another task quickly. It is important to avoid action slips which can be done if full attention is given to specific tasks (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2006). <br />References<br />Ashcraft, M. H. & Radvansky, G. A., (2006). Cognition (5th ed.). Prentice Hall, USA.<br />Argosy University (2009). Cognition and Learning: Module 3: Retrieved: September 24, 2009, from: http://myeclassonline.com.<br />Francis, G. & Neath, I., (2009). Cog Lab – Online with access code (2.0). Attentional Blink. Wadsworth, USA.<br />
  8. 8. Research Skills<br />Relationship between Spanking and Reasoning<br />Sarah Lentz<br />Argosy University<br /> <br /> Abstract<br />Corporal punishment has been a topic among researchers and the public for many years. The study examines the impact providing a reasonable and calm explanation along with a spanking can have on the reoccurrence and comprehension of the child. In this study we are addressing the question; does spanking accompanied by a constructive explanation have a more positive impact on a child’s behavior than spanking alone? Parents were given a journal to record transgressions, disciplinary actions and outcomes. Data was collected and rated on rate of reoccurrence. The parents were also given questionnaires on how behavior patters before, during and after the study. As predicted, the children that participated in the group that were exposed to multiple discipline techniques concurrently were more likely to comply with behavioral expectations in future incidents. Children that received an explanation following the spanking also reported a better understanding of why the behavior was unacceptable. If a child receives an explanation after being spanked their behavior will improve faster than those who receive spanking alone.  In the heat of the disciplinary action the child may not understand why they are being spanked. If the child is given a valid and reasonable explanation for the spank they will likely develop a better understanding of the transgression they engaged in and the negative consequences that will result from repeating the transgression. The Cox Regression Model and the Discipline Record Book were used as instruments of measurement in this study. Both instruments have previously been used and proven instruments in the study of child behavior research. <br /> Introduction / Literature Review<br />The spanking controversy continues among parents and professionals as we attempt to determine the effectiveness of spanking in every aspect. Many parents believe that spanking can be an appropriate, effective and justifiable form of discipline as long as it is not perceived and excessive and abusive (Holden, Miller, & Harris, 1999). Studies have shown a variety of effects that physical punishment can have on children and adolescents immediately and subsequently. Discipline is an important part of parenting because it teaches children moral and cultural limitations as well as self control and respect for authority. <br />The most closely related research has investigated how punishment enhances reasoning’s effectiveness as a disciplinary tactic for toddlers. This study shows that there is an enhancing effect on the combination of punishment and reasoning over reasoning alone (Larzelere, et.al., 1998). In another study, the combination was associated with longer delays of reoccurring transgressions than instances of punishment only or reasoning only (Larzelere, et.al., 1996). The correlation between spanking first and reasoning or explaining second has not specifically been studied. This leads me to ponder another question; if there is a difference in effectiveness of the order of punishment technique. <br />Reference<br />Larzelere, R., Sather, P., Schneider, W., Larson, D., & Pike, P., (1998). Punishment enhances reasoning's effectiveness as a disciplinary response to toddlers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60(2), 388-403. <br />Larzelere, R., & Kuhn, B. (2005). Comparing Child Outcomes of Physical Punishment and Alternative Disciplinary Tactics: A Meta-Analysis. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 8(1), 1-37.<br />Larzelere, R., Schneider, W., Larson, D., & Pike, P., (1996). The Effects of Discipline Responses in Delaying toddler Misbehavior Recurrences. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 18(3), 35-57.<br />Holden, G., Miller, P., & Harris, S. (1999). The Instrumental Side of Corporal Punishment: Parents' Reported Practices and Outcome Expectancies. Journal of Marriage & Family, 61(4), 908-919<br />Christie-Mizell, C., Pryor, E., & Grossman, E.. (2008). Child Depressive Symptoms, Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African American and European American Youth. Family Relations, 57(3), 335-350. <br />Smith, B., Ray, G., Stefurak, T., & Zachar, P., (2007). College Students Evaluations of Parent-Child Disciplinary Situations. Journal of Family Violence, 22(8), 757-768. <br />Slade, E. P., & Wissow, L. S., (2004). Spanking in Early Childhood and Later Behavior Problems: A Prospective Study of Infants and Young Toddlers. Pediatrics; 113: 1321 - 1330.<br />Shaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B., Zechmeister, J. S., (2009). Research Methods in Psychology, Eighth Edition: McGraw-Hill, USA<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Cognitive Abilities<br />Example<br /> <br />Running Head: Blink<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Attentional Blink<br />Sarah Lentz<br />Argosy University<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Attention is a cognitive process that involves perceiving, selecting, thinking, and comprehending sensory stimuli in our environment (Argosy, 2009). By attending, we are focusing our mental resources on either an external stimulus or an internal thought (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2006).<br />Based on the results of the CogLab exercise, if the time between the appearance of the first and second objects increases it is more likely that the second object will be seen (Francis & Neath, 2009). If there is a clear separation between the appearances of two objects it is more likely that your attention will be ready to capture the second object. <br />During the exercise, the time between target letters decreased. According to the findings, the probability of seeing the second target decreased as the time between decreased. When the first target is seen the participant must attend to it to ensure it will be recalled later, if the second letter follows too closely it will not even be noticed (Francis & Neath, 2009). <br />In this experiment we are using selective attention to focus or attention on a specific target stimulus such as the letters K and J used in this experiment (Argosy, 2009). In a situation where a person is sleep deprived or under stress the expected results will likely vary. A person who is tired and or under stress are likely to experience slowed reaction times (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2006). If the reaction time is slowed, then may be harder to pay attention to the target stimulus. Just as if you are driving and talking on a cell phone, you are more likely to ignore road signs because your attention is divided between driving and the conversation (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2006). While playing a video game it is likely that a person will “zone out” in between targets if the time is too long. So instead of having a steady incline in the second target as is the standard, the second target results may increase and then decrease again (Francis & Neath, 2009).<br />Use of alcohol or drugs can inhibit reaction times as well as perception. The effects of alcohol and drugs on the human mind are widely understood. Use of drugs and alcohol decrease the ability to focus on a specific task as well as inhibit motor skills, speech, sight and sound. Air Traffic controllers need to focus all of their attention on their responsibilities. Controllers are responsible for multiple planes in the air and on the ground at any given time and must be able to switch his/her attention to another task quickly. It is important to avoid action slips which can be done if full attention is given to specific tasks (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2006). <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />References<br /> <br />Ashcraft, M. H. & Radvansky, G. A., (2006). Cognition (5th ed.). Prentice Hall, USA.<br />Argosy University (2009). Cognition and Learning: Module 3: Retrieved: September 24, 2009, from: http://myeclassonline.com.<br />Francis, G. & Neath, I., (2009). Cog Lab – Online with access code (2.0). Attentional Blink. Wadsworth, USA.<br /> <br /> <br />
  9. 9. Research Skills<br />Other research warns of the mental health issues that can impact a child when spanking is interpreted as a chronic stressor for the child. The research shows that parental support is positively related to high achievement and lower rates of behavioral problems. The studies show that there is no significant difference between African American and European Americans in terms of depressive symptoms related to spanking (Christie-Mizell, Pryor, & Grossman, 2008). The negative affects of spanking and physical punishment are often topics of debate among scholars and parents alike. Each social entity and demographic group has tailored how the group perceives spanking which can cause conflict between different groups. <br />Researchers have defined conditional spanking as spanking under limited conditions that have been defined and customary physical punishment is the manner in which parents typically use spanking (Larzelere & Kuhn, 2005). Severe physical punishment is considered abuse because it includes the use of excessive force, hitting with an object or slapping the face (Smith, et.al, 2007). Conditional spanking is similar to matching the punishment to the proportional transgression. Defining what constitutes as abuse is important in this study because it is important to make an appropriate match between transgression and punishment in order to use spankings in an effective manner (Smith, et.al, 2007). <br />There has been extensive research on the topic of spanking, punishment, alternative discipline tactics and their affects on the behaviors of children. There has been less research on the combination of various disciplinary techniques. The challenge facing researchers is the lack of a clear, normative definition of child abuse to separate that from constructive physical punishment (Smith, et.al, 2007). There are only 26 previous studies that investigate the use of physical punishment in combination with alternative discipline tactics in children under 13 years of age (Larzelere & Kuhn, 2005). This opens the opportunity to research younger groups of children. Toddlers seem to be the largest population of spanking recipients. Physical discipline reaches an astounding 90% during the toddler years and begins to decline after age 5 (Christie-Mizell, Pryor, & Grossman, 2008). One limitation is the weak empirical support of previous conclusions about parental discipline. In many of the studies fathers or other care giving adults do not participate in the research so their spanking participation and impact on disciplining the child is not taken into consideration (Slade & Wissow, 2004). The behavioral problems were reported by the mother in most cases, instead of a trained observer. A final limitation that would need to be addressed is the sample group. In most of the studies the sample group consists of mostly white, middle class, educated mothers. It is important to expand the current research to include more minority cultures, socioeconomic groups and religions to gain a more composite result. <br />The consensus with the included research indicates that there are no detrimental child outcomes as related to spanking as long as it is not severe or excessive. Research has also shown that children exposed to conditional spanking are less likely to participant in defiance or anti social behavior (Larzelere & Kuhn, 2005). It is also important to state that the emotional support offered by an explanation and reasoning for the child reduces the mental health risks that can be associated with children (Christie-Mizell, Pryor, & Grossman, 2008). <br />It is important to determine if there is a relationship between spanking first and explanation second so there is a more accurate and defined directive of effective discipline techniques for toddlers and their parents. The sequence of reasoning then physical punishment shows evidence of being more effective than either discipline tactic alone. This study intended to examine the reverse sequence of discipline to determine if the order of punishment is critical in gaining behavioral compliance. In further research of this topic, using a diary method of reporting for parents is more accurate than requesting them to recall the incident at a later date (Larzelere, et.al., 1998).<br />Other research warns of the mental health issues that can impact a child when spanking is interpreted as a chronic stressor for the child. The research shows that parental support is positively related to high achievement and lower rates of behavioral problems. The studies show that there is no significant difference between African American and European Americans in terms of depressive symptoms related to spanking (Christie-Mizell, Pryor, & Grossman, 2008). The negative affects of spanking and physical punishment are often topics of debate among scholars and parents alike. Each social entity and demographic group has tailored how the group perceives spanking which can cause conflict between different groups. <br />Researchers have defined conditional spanking as spanking under limited conditions that have been defined and customary physical punishment is the manner in which parents typically use spanking (Larzelere & Kuhn, 2005). Severe physical punishment is considered abuse because it includes the use of excessive force, hitting with an object or slapping the face (Smith, et.al, 2007). Conditional spanking is similar to matching the punishment to the proportional transgression. Defining what constitutes as abuse is important in this study because it is important to make an appropriate match between transgression and punishment in order to use spankings in an effective manner (Smith, et.al, 2007). <br />There has been extensive research on the topic of spanking, punishment, alternative discipline tactics and their affects on the behaviors of children. There has been less research on the combination of various disciplinary techniques. The challenge facing researchers is the lack of a clear, normative definition of child abuse to separate that from constructive physical punishment (Smith, et.al, 2007). There are only 26 previous studies that investigate the use of physical punishment in combination with alternative discipline tactics in children under 13 years of age (Larzelere & Kuhn, 2005). This opens the opportunity to research younger groups of children. Toddlers seem to be the largest population of spanking recipients. Physical discipline reaches an astounding 90% during the toddler years and begins to decline after age 5 (Christie-Mizell, Pryor, & Grossman, 2008). One limitation is the weak empirical support of previous conclusions about parental discipline. In many of the studies fathers or other care giving adults do not participate in the research so their spanking participation and impact on disciplining the child is not taken into consideration (Slade & Wissow, 2004). The behavioral problems were reported by the mother in most cases, instead of a trained observer. A final limitation that would need to be addressed is the sample group. In most of the studies the sample group consists of mostly white, middle class, educated mothers. It is important to expand the current research to include more minority cultures, socioeconomic groups and religions to gain a more composite result. <br />The consensus with the included research indicates that there are no detrimental child outcomes as related to spanking as long as it is not severe or excessive. Research has also shown that children exposed to conditional spanking are less likely to participant in defiance or anti social behavior (Larzelere & Kuhn, 2005). It is also important to state that the emotional support offered by an explanation and reasoning for the child reduces the mental health risks that can be associated with children (Christie-Mizell, Pryor, & Grossman, 2008). <br />It is important to determine if there is a relationship between spanking first and explanation second so there is a more accurate and defined directive of effective discipline techniques for toddlers and their parents. The sequence of reasoning then physical punishment shows evidence of being more effective than either discipline tactic alone. This study intended to examine the reverse sequence of discipline to determine if the order of punishment is critical in gaining behavioral compliance. In further research of this topic, using a diary method of reporting for parents is more accurate than requesting them to recall the incident at a later date (Larzelere, et.al., 1998).<br />
  10. 10. Research Skills<br />Methods<br />Previous research has shown that combining two forms of punishment such as reasoning and spanking is more effective than either tactic alone. In the heat of the disciplinary action the child may not understand why they are being spanked. If the child is given a valid and reasonable explanation for the spank they will likely develop a better understanding of why that specific behavior is unacceptable and reform their behavior faster.<br />Setting<br />Behaviors change depending on the context of the situation as well as the environment (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister & Zechmeister, 2009). Participants in this study will report behaviors as they happen in the natural setting of their home. Using in home reporting from parents allows the data to be collected across different situations and in different settings which results in a more accurate description of behaviors (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister & Zechmeister, 2009). <br />Participants<br /> Participants in this study will consist of a sample set of 100 parents with children from 3 years old to 5 years old. Our sample set of parents are volunteers that responded to an ad posted at 3 local clinics and 3 local child care facilities that offers a $50 United States Savings Bond to participants of the study (Larzelere, et.al., 1998). The participants included families from a variety of areas surrounding and including the Saint Paul/Minneapolis metro area. In previous studies only mothers that were home makers or worked outside the home less than 24 hours a week were included in the sample population (Larzelere, et.al., 1998). In this study mothers and/or fathers are allowed to participate, as long as they live in the same home as their child full time. The only restriction on hours worked outside of the home in that they can not exceed 45 hours per week. The participants are divided into groups of 50. Group A disciplines as normal and Group B disciplines with an explanation for the punishment after a spanking occurs.<br />Instruments/Procedures<br /> The Discipline Record booklet (Larzelere, et.al., 1996), is a structured diary where parent participants record each transgression, the disciplinary action, time and date along with an area to record the child’s reaction to the occurrence. In this diary parents record times when they were apart and when the child is sleeping along with the recordings of the transgressions (Larzelere, et.al., 1998). Prior to the study beginning, parents must participate in a 60 minute training session in their own home in order to familiarize themselves with the Discipline Record booklet and discuss general interactions between parent and child. Researchers contact parents throughout the week in order to ensure compliance and address any issues that may arise with record keeping (Larzelere, et.al., 1998). <br /> Researchers collect the booklets from the participants after the 6 week time frame of the study. All discipline types except spankings are excluded from the results. Instances involving spankings are further separated into two groups, one where an explanation was provided and the other was no explanation. The dependent variable that the child will not repeat the transgression is recorded simultaneously with the type of discipline administered as well as date and time of the occurrence. The data allows researchers to determine if there is a significant deviation delay that correlates the (IV) spanking /reasoning with the (DV) reduction in transgression.<br />
  11. 11. Research Skills<br />Results<br />The Cox regression model was used to determine if there was any impact of discipline sequence on the behavior of the child participants. In previous studies the Cox regression model was used and the results indicate that there is an impact on behavior if reasoning is backed up by spanking (Larzelere, et.al., 1998.) The 2 x 2 (discipline response x child reaction/future transgression) ANOVA was used. Results showed that there was a negative correlation between future reoccurrences and parents offering an explanation for the discipline (-.68). We compared the subsequent behaviors of the children participants that were reported by their parents. The time between transgression occurrences after the prior discipline, measured by the Cox regression model allowed us to analyze the data to form our results. The results indicate that there is a significant difference between the recurrences of transgressions when spanking is accompanied by reasoning. There was no significant difference between the sequences in which the discipline techniques were administered. However, children that received an explanation following the spanking seemed to have a clear understanding of good and bad behavior after the study. Children seem to develop a better understanding of why they were disciplined when offered a reasonable explanation after the spanking. The combination of spanking and explanation offers children insight into why they are being punished so the likelihood of any mental distress for the child is reduced.<br />Discussion<br />While spanking is ranked as the least appropriate disciplinary technique it has been proven to be an effective tool in parenting for both mothers and fathers (Holden, Miller & Harris, 1999). This study was intended to provide some insight as to how spanking can be incorporated into mainstream accepted discipline techniques in a constructive manner. When a spanking is administered in a non-abusive way it immediately and clearly sends the message to the child that there preceding behavior was unacceptable and will be punished.<br />Threats to the validity of this study include participant reporting. This study depends on the parents to accurately report all disciplinary actions and the child’s subsequent behaviors and transgressions. Parents may forget the journal or may choose which encounters they want to report and not include all disciplinary actions during the study. Another validity issue is that the researchers did not spend much time discussing proper development of emotional support for children after they are disciplined. <br />Future research should look at defining appropriate emotional support guidelines for parent-child disciplinary interactions. How disciplinary tactics are administered by the parents should be considered in future research. This study provided the field with a clearer idea of how spanking and explanation, when used together can actually assist in teaching children right from wrong. Establishing social and societal norms and boundaries is a very important part of raising children. Each child and each parent is different so not every technique works for every situation but it is beneficial for all to have clearly defined acceptable techniques that have been proven to work. The main goal of this study is to provide parents with proven disciplinary techniques and the knowledge and confidence to use them properly. <br />
  12. 12. Research Skills<br />Reference<br />Larzelere, R., Sather, P., Schneider, W., Larson, D., & Pike, P., (1998). Punishment enhances reasoning's effectiveness as a disciplinary response to toddlers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60(2), 388-403. <br />Larzelere, R., & Kuhn, B. (2005). Comparing Child Outcomes of Physical Punishment and Alternative Disciplinary Tactics: A Meta-Analysis. Clinical Child & Family Psychology Review, 8(1), 1-37.<br />Larzelere, R., Schneider, W., Larson, D., & Pike, P., (1996). The Effects of Discipline Responses in Delaying toddler Misbehavior Recurrences. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 18(3), 35-57.<br />Holden, G., Miller, P., & Harris, S. (1999). The Instrumental Side of Corporal Punishment: Parents' Reported Practices and Outcome Expectancies. Journal of Marriage & Family, 61(4), 908-919<br />Christie-Mizell, C., Pryor, E., & Grossman, E.. (2008). Child Depressive Symptoms, Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African American and European American Youth. Family Relations, 57(3), 335-350. <br />Smith, B., Ray, G., Stefurak, T., & Zachar, P., (2007). College Students Evaluations of Parent-Child Disciplinary Situations. Journal of Family Violence, 22(8), 757-768. <br />Slade, E. P., & Wissow, L. S., (2004). Spanking in Early Childhood and Later Behavior Problems: A Prospective Study of Infants and Young Toddlers. Pediatrics; 113: 1321 - 1330.<br />Shaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B., Zechmeister, J. S., (2009). Research Methods in Psychology, Eighth Edition: McGraw-Hill, USA<br />
  13. 13. Communication Skills<br />Sarah Lentz<br />Argosy University, 2009<br />Prior to the actual interview, both the interviewer and interviewee form unique perceptions of the situation (Stewart & Cash, 2007). Many factors influence the perception that is formed by either party including the purpose, place, setting and time. <br /> A criminal investigator conducts interviews on a regular basis so an upcoming interview may be routine and unexciting (Stewart & Cash, 2007). Although, in some special cases the investigator may have a connection to the case or it may be a rare case that causes some excitement and anticipation for the interviewer. On the other end of the spectrum, a crime investigation interview is not a normal everyday occurrence for most interviewees. The perception of the interview for the interviewee will be highly influenced by the context and situation of the interview (Stewart & Cash, 2007). The interview could directly impact the interviewees’ future or that of a friend or family member, which is likely to cause some anxiety (Stewart & Cash, 2007).<br /> Timing of an interview influences the interview process and efficiency (Argosy, 2009). Everyone interacts and communicates better at different times of the day, week and year. Most people consider themselves to be one of the following, a morning, afternoon or evening person (Stewart & Cash, 2007). The interview will prove more effective if conducted during the interviewees’ best time of day. The beginning of the week may not be an optimum time for an interview because moods tend to be dark and motivation low (Stewart & Cash, 2007). Fridays are equally unappealing because most people are distracted with weekend plans and tired from a busy week. During holiday seasons personal stress is higher and the ability to focus on details of a crime may be more difficult causing important details to be unintentionally omitted. Interviewing witnesses as soon as possible is important for crime scene investigation because the details are still fresh in the mind of the witness. <br />
  14. 14. Communication Skills<br />The place and setting of an interview can highly impact the comfort level of an interviewee. Depending on the individual, the interviewer may ask where the interviewee would prefer to be interviewed. Offering some control over the interview creates a level of comfort for the interviewee. The tactic of offering control to create comfort may not be effective when investigating a crime. Interviewing witnesses as soon as possible is important consequently the opportunity to select the ideal place and setting may not be feasible. The importance of limiting distractions and noise in an investigation is critical (Stewart & Cash, 2007). If the witness has visual contact with the accused they may not be willing to disclose as much information because of safety concerns. In general practice an investigative interview would produce the best results in an office setting with negative influences and distractions eliminated.<br /> One aspect of investigative interviews I would like to further explore would be the effectiveness of impromptu interviews and questions asked in that particular interview. I am interested in exploring how witnesses are questioned at the actual scene of a crime. In particular, what questions prove most productive for on scene interviews based on the perspective of the investigator. <br /> I would like to interview an officer with a local police department that has experience in criminal investigation. My local police department has an investigator but the local patrol officers also participate in the interview process and questioning of individuals involved in a crime. I only have two main concerns in regards to conducting an interview with a professional investigator. First concern is the time constraints of my busy schedule. I work full time an hour away from home, I am taking two classes in school, raising a child, managing a household and planning a wedding. My time is valuable and I am worried that I will attempt to rush the interview. My second concern is somewhat related to my first concern in regards to rushing the interview. I am afraid I will not ask the best questions about the details of this profession and may miss some important details because did not take adequate time to prepare. The most efficient way to conduct this interview would be to properly prepare clear and concise questions and schedule an specific time and length for the interview. <br />  <br />Reference<br />Argosy University (2009). Interviewing Techniques: Module 2: Interviewing Principles: Retrieved: March 14, 2009, from http://myeclassonline.com.<br />Stewart, C. J., & Cash, W. B., (2007). Interviewing principles and practices (12th ed.). Hill, USA.<br />
  15. 15. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Low Income Women and Health Care<br />Sarah Lentz<br /> Argosy University<br /> General health care and sexual health are important issues in any community but impact low-income communities greatly. Nearly one in every five women in the United States is uninsured (Health Insurance and Women, 2010). Low income women are at a higher risk of being uninsured because if they loose employment or insurance through a spouse but do not qualify for Medicaid they can not afford private coverage (Health Insurance and Women, 2010). Medical professionals and nurses in the community can assist in teaching illness prevention. The agency could provide an open forum once a month to discuss health care concerns for women and answer question from those in the community. To better benefit women I would recommend that the health care workers offer uninsured women and children well-checks once a year at the agency’s location. <br /> Food banks and other resources such as WIC offer information on proper nutrition for women and children in low-income families. Fresh fruits and vegetables are not provided by local food banks. The agency could promote monthly fresh food drives instead of canned food drives in effort to provide low-income families with the nutrients they lack from only receiving canned or boxed fruits and vegetables. Inviting a Nutritionist to teach low-income women about the value of fresh fruits and vegetables and how to properly prepare them can maximize nutritional values for those with limited access (Laracy, 2010). <br /> I would also recommend that the agency work with organizations such as Planned Parenthood to provide sexual health education for the community as well as providing yearly exams and STI screening. Sexual health is important for everyone. People often do not know that they have an STI because they are often asymptomatic in both men and women (Hock, 2010). STI’s can be passes to unborn children during delivery which can cause blindness and other health problems for the infant (Hock, 2010). Proper education about safe sex, birth control and STI’s through seminars, private counseling and literature in the community can decrease the risk that women are unprotected and untreated.<br /> Women of low-income status that are uninsured are the target of this outreach program. Unfortunately there are many women and families in the United States that do not have medical coverage at all (Health Insurance and Women, 2010). Uninsured women may not be aware of simple prevention techniques that can reduce chances of infections and illnesses. Simple prevention and home remedies can reduce, but not eliminate the need for clinic visits. Also, by providing well care checks yearly for uninsured members of the community will eliminate the financial strain that inhibits families from seeking needed medical attention. <br />
  16. 16. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br /> It is important that all professionals assisting in the outreach program participate in training as well. Volunteers should be trained in cultural sensitivity. It is important that the women in the community feel comfortable participating in the outreach program and with the volunteers. Women in low-income situations often feel more comfortable with nurses because they spend more time with the nurses and other staff than the actual doctor (Laracy, 2010). <br /> I would consult the local chamber of commerce for resources and support with the outreach programs. The reason I would work with the Chamber of Commerce is because local businesses that are active in the Chamber are easier to contact. Chamber members are often well known in the community and work with the government as well as actively improving the community. Local therapists can also be beneficial in educating the community about the importance of health care and sexual health. It is important to consume as much knowledge and information about the culture and history of the community in order to better relate with the people that make up the community. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />References<br />Argosy University (2010). Psychology of Women: Module 1: Retrieved: May 11, 2010, from: http://myeclassonline.com.<br />Brannon, Linda (2010). Gender: Psychological Differences, Fifth Edition: USA. <br />Hock, Roger (2010). Human Sexuality, Second Edition: Pearson, USA. <br />Health Insurance and Women (2010). Department of Health and Human Services, Retrieved on May 14, 2010; from: www.womenshealth.gov. <br />Laracy, Michael (2010). Social Innovation for Low-Income Communities: Turning Risk Into Reward: The Huffington Post. Retrieved on May 14, 2010; from www.huffingtonpost.com. <br />
  17. 17. Foundations of Psychology<br />Freud vs. Jung<br />Sarah Lentz<br />Argosy University<br /> <br />Freud and Jung actually shared the belief that the unconscious was important in understanding human personality and behavior (Argosy, 2011). Freud believed that the unconscious mind was primarily driven by sexual urges and aggression and the unconscious can only enter the conscious mind if it is disguised or distorted enough to pass the preconscious which serves as a filter to protect the conscious. Freud also believed that the unconscious was a comprised of instincts beyond our awareness that motivated our actions, thoughts and words that stemmed from childhood experiences of anxiety and repression as well as experiences of our early ancestors or phylogenetic endowment (Feist & Feist, 2009). <br />Jung believed that the unconscious was driven by urges beyond only sexual and aggressive to include everything that drives a person to achieve self – fulfillment. Jung believed that the unconscious was comprised of personal experiences of the individual as well as collective or cultural influences. The collective influences did not lie dormant as Freud’s phylogenetic endowment, but instead they play an active role in each person’s thoughts, emotions and actions. Jung also believed that the unconscious can be easily recalled at any time unlike Freud’s belief that the unconscious has to disguise itself to pass through the preconscious into the conscious (Feist & Feist, 2009).<br />I think Freud would focus on examining Mary’s childhood experiences to see if there is a trigger that would recall a significant event that might be the source of her anxiety and other problems, likely through free association. He would likely link her relationship problems to the female Oedipus complex and penis envy (Feist & Feist, 2009). Freud would examine Mary’s dreams in an effort to find a link between a childhood experience and her current struggle with relationships and fears. I believe Jung would address each problem separately by examining her relationship history, traumatic events throughout all stages of her life and current anxieties that she may not be addressing in her conscious through word association and dream analysis. Jung would likely look for areas in Mary’s life where she is not gaining fulfillment. I think he would also examine her interpretation of the events of her life and culture to see how the events have actually impacted her thoughts and behaviors (Feist & Feist, 2009). <br /> <br />Reference<br />Argosy University (2011). Personality Theory: Module 3 Retrieved: January 26, 2011 from: http://myeclassonline.com.<br />Feist, J, & Feist G., (2009). Theories of Personality, 7th Edition: McGraw-Hill, USA. <br /> <br />
  18. 18. Applied Psychology<br />Case Study<br />Sarah Lentz<br />Argosy University<br /> <br />Recent events in Katherine’s life and behavior indicate that there may be a deeper anxiety disorders as well as a possible dissociative disorder that she is struggling with. Katherine has shared many more symptoms that she is experiencing which lead me to believe she does is struggling with more than just normal stress or life changes.<br /> Panic disorders are extreme anxiety reactions that occur suddenly with no apparent reason (Argosy, 2010). According to the APA some of the symptoms of a panic attack include shortness of breath, dizziness, nausea, racing heartbeat, chest pains, and choking (APA, 2010). Panic attacks can cause people to avoid situations or objects out of fear of another panic attack. Katherine’s experience as she was traveling to her parent’s house included the symptoms of dizziness, nausea and difficulty breathing. To qualify as a panic attack 4 of the 13 symptoms must be experienced suddenly with no apparent reason (Butcher, Mineka, Hooley, 2010). Katherine qualifies because along with the physical symptoms she also experienced depersonalization, feelings of being detached from one’s body and avoiding the situation out of fear that the feelings will reoccur which identifies 5 of the 13 symptoms. <br /> It is also important to evaluate the possibility of dissociative disorders in regard to Katherine and her recent behaviors and emotions. Dissociative disorders commonly only surface when an individual is in as stressful situation and is normally used as a coping mechanism. The dissociation allows a person an escape from their conscious reality (Butcher, Mineka, Hooley, 2010). Individuals with dissociative disorders experience symptoms that include significant losses or changes in memory, consciousness, identity, and perception of their surroundings, all without any apparent physical cause (Argosy, 2010). The DSM-IV-TR offers the following criteria to identify depersonalization disorder; persistent or recurring feeling of being detached from one’s own body, reality testing remains intact and the event causes serious distress in daily functioning (Butcher, Mineka, Hooley, 2010). <br />
  19. 19. Applied Psychology<br />Katherine’s experiences during her attempted trip to her parent’s home clearly indicate that she likely suffered from a panic attack. Depersonalization is a symptom that can occur during or along with a panic attack (Butcher, Mineka, Hooley, 2010). I feel it may be a bit premature to accurately diagnosis Katherine with a dissociative disorder because from the information we have gathered thus far it is not clear if she does in fact meet all of the criteria required. One of the criteria associated with depersonalization disorder is that the out of body experience is recurring and or persistent and this is Katherine’s first know occurrence.<br />I feel that Katherine may also suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PTSD criteria include exposure to a traumatic event, re-experiencing the event, avoidance, increased arousal all over a significant period of time (Butcher, Mineka, Hooley, 2010). The reason for this is because of the recurring flashbacks, reduced responsiveness with her husband and avoidance of her parents (Argosy, 2010). Katherine also struggles to even discuss the events of the abuse she endured which indicates avoidance of the source as well. The increased irritability with her husband may also be a result of increased arousal due to the acute stress Katherine has endured for such a long time. Many people that have experienced childhood sexual abuse experience PTSD later in life Katherine has experienced all of these symptoms and they continue to increase in intensity over time (Butcher, Mineka, Hooley, 2010). I strongly feel that it is important to examine this disorder in relation to Katherine and her experiences further before making a clear and definite diagnosis. <br />Reference <br />Argosy University (2010). Maladaptive Behavior and Psychopathology: Module1: Retrieved: October 29, 2010, from: http://myeclassonline.com.<br />Butcher, J. N., Mineka, S., Hooley, J. M., (2010). Abnormal Psychology, Fourteenth Edition: Allyn & Bacon, USA<br />APA, (2010). Answers to Your Questions about Panic Disorders. Retieved from: http://www.apa.org/topics/anxiety/panic-disorder.aspx<br />
  20. 20. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />Initiating the Interview<br />Sarah Lentz<br />Argosy University<br /> <br />  Prior to the actual interview, both the interviewer and interviewee form unique perceptions of the situation (Stewart & Cash, 2007). Many factors influence the perception that is formed by either party including the purpose, place, setting and time. <br /> A criminal investigator conducts interviews on a regular basis so an upcoming interview may be routine and unexciting (Stewart & Cash, 2007). Although, in some special cases the investigator may have a connection to the case or it may be a rare case that causes some excitement and anticipation for the interviewer. On the other end of the spectrum, a crime investigation interview is not a normal everyday occurrence for most interviewees. The perception of the interview for the interviewee will be highly influenced by the context and situation of the interview (Stewart & Cash, 2007). The interview could directly impact the interviewees’ future or that of a friend or family member, which is likely to cause some anxiety (Stewart & Cash, 2007).<br /> Timing of an interview influences the interview process and efficiency (Argosy, 2009). Everyone interacts and communicates better at different times of the day, week and year. Most people consider themselves to be one of the following, a morning, afternoon or evening person (Stewart & Cash, 2007). The interview will prove more effective if conducted during the interviewees’ best time of day. The beginning of the week may not be an optimum time for an interview because moods tend to be dark and motivation low (Stewart & Cash, 2007). Fridays are equally unappealing because most people are distracted with weekend plans and tired from a busy week. During holiday seasons personal stress is higher and the ability to focus on details of a crime may be more difficult causing important details to be unintentionally omitted. Interviewing witnesses as soon as possible is important for crime scene investigation because the details are still fresh in the mind of the witness. <br />
  21. 21. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />The place and setting of an interview can highly impact the comfort level of an interviewee. Depending on the individual, the interviewer may ask where the interviewee would prefer to be interviewed. Offering some control over the interview creates a level of comfort for the interviewee. The tactic of offering control to create comfort may not be effective when investigating a crime. Interviewing witnesses as soon as possible is important consequently the opportunity to select the ideal place and setting may not be feasible. The importance of limiting distractions and noise in an investigation is critical (Stewart & Cash, 2007). If the witness has visual contact with the accused they may not be willing to disclose as much information because of safety concerns. In general practice an investigative interview would produce the best results in an office setting with negative influences and distractions eliminated.<br /> One aspect of investigative interviews I would like to further explore would be the effectiveness of impromptu interviews and questions asked in that particular interview. I am interested in exploring how witnesses are questioned at the actual scene of a crime. In particular, what questions prove most productive for on scene interviews based on the perspective of the investigator? <br /> I would like to interview an officer with a local police department that has experience in criminal investigation. My local police department has an investigator but the local patrol officers also participate in the interview process and questioning of individuals involved in a crime. I only have two main concerns in regards to conducting an interview with a professional investigator. First concern is the time constraints of my busy schedule. I work full time an hour away from home, I am taking two classes in school, raising a child, managing a household and planning a wedding. My time is valuable and I am worried that I will attempt to rush the interview. My second concern is somewhat related to my first concern in regards to rushing the interview. I am afraid I will not ask the best questions about the details of this profession and may miss some important details because did not take adequate time to prepare. The most efficient way to conduct this interview would be to properly prepare clear and concise questions and schedule an specific time and length for the interview. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Reference<br />Argosy University, Lecture, module 2, (2009). Unit 2, Interview setting. Retreived on March 14, 2009, http://myeclassonline.com. <br />Stewart, C. J., & Cash, W. B., (2007). Interviewing principles and practices (12th ed.). Hill, USA.<br /> <br />
  22. 22. My Future in Learning<br />I intend on returning to school for a Masters in Counseling after I have the opportunity to begin my professional experience in mentoring troubled youth. I also plan to continue researching topics that interest me such as diversity and social psychology.<br />
  23. 23. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. <br />slentz@live.com<br />

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