Visible Learning presented by Stephen Kendall-Jones to MBIS teachers on 11 June 2013 for staff PLD. Use of VL slides from the VL workshop series (through VLPlus in Auckland) and the Hattie presentation to the Graham Noble foundation.
Does anyone recognise this place? We have someone who has been there. The name should have been a clue not to go but this is death valley!Death Valley is the hottest place in America. It is a desert. 2004 rain. 2005 flowers.It was not dead. Waiting for the right conditions. Teaching is the ability to create the right conditions for our children to bloom.
This is the overview of the what we are trying to achieve by using visible Learning as our self review tool for teaching and learning.
Attention – Hargreaves and Fullan talk about initiative-it is. Teachers are offered programmes for change or improvement all the time. Why is VL worth looking at?
What works? 95% of everything we do in classrooms works. All it takes is a beating heart …But what works best? This leads into the Visible Learning research and Hattie’s point for conducting the research – what actually does work best?
The evidence was collected from existing meta-analyses – the actual research that is the basis of the meta-analyses included published material and quality assured research papers and student projects (e.g. unpublished PhDs theses). In statistics, a meta –analyses combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research. The results are often combined as an effect size. Meta-analyses are often important components of a systematic review procedure. John Hattie took this a step further and his research is a meta-analyses of meta-analyses.
Findings from Hattie‟s synthesis of 1000+ meta-analyses - 95% of all factors within the meta-studies show a positive effect on achievement.When we say “we‟re doing something because it works” then this is almost a trivial claim. Children make progress without us!The hinge point is normally chosen as 0 but all teaching interventions make a difference.Anyone with a pulse can make a difference!The measure of mean effect size is at 0.40.Therefore, 0.40 is the hinge point for desired effects on student achievement
Following John Hattie’s research on effect size, if one of the effects has an effect size over 0.40 then it is really having an influence on student achievement. We know that most of what we do has an impact, but as Professor Hattie asks, what works best?effect size can be used across the school, within teaching areas, across year levels and for individual students to show progress. An effect size can be created for many different assessments and tests.The creation of the effect size is only one aspect though; the more important task is to ask the questions about what the data is telling us.
This is a view of the effect size chart – what happens in the blue area that we could have some control over in our schools/classrooms? Look at the ‘typical teacher effects’ and challenge people to think about what effect sizes they think they are making in the classroom.
We now take some school systems/innovations/general practices and consider which ones have the biggest effects on student achievement.Activity What effect do you think the processes/systems/strategies/events on this slide have on student achievement – list them from the ones that have the greatest effect to the ones that have the least effect
Look at the ranking you gave to each of these items – now look at the effect sizes.Activity - What information does this gives us that our earlier ranking of the effect sizes didn’t tell us? Is there anything here that you find surprising?
The big picture is that Visible Learning schools do not live by hope – they know what they are doing, where they are going and how they are going to get there!
These are three of the top 10 effect sizes and these have been selected as they are most applicable to teacher decision making. You are able to assist students in having high expectations and challenge, give them on-going formative information on how they are doing and reflect with others on your teaching. Student expectationsStudents who are able to articulate what their learning outcomes/test results might be (when they can self-report their grades) are more likely to be successful than other learners. The key premise is that students know their learning so well they will be able to do this. These students will be engaged with their learning and be active participants in their learning. This links to the idea of building students who are assessment capable. They can answer the questions: Where am I going? How am I going? and where to next?From Visible Learning for Teachers (2012):There are at least two groups that are not as good at predicting their performance and who do not always predict in the right direction - Minority students and lower achieving students. These students are less accurate in their self-estimates or self-understanding of their achievement. They tend to under-estimate their achievement, and over time they come to believe their lower estimates and lose confidence to take on more challenging tasks. There have been many studies trying to improve the calibration and to entice students to have higher confidence or efficacy to take on challenging tasks. Changing their predictions of their performance has proved to be very difficult, often because this lower confidence and learned helplessness has developed and been reinforced over a long time. As they move into adolescence, these students often consider another alternative—opting out of the place called school.
Are these questions that we ask ourselves regularly regarding our students results? Does their progress inform our next steps in teaching?
In the Visible Learning program you will hear a lot about feedback and its importance. The key to effective feedback is that it is given in relation to the stated learning intention. It can only be effective if the person receiving the feedback knows where they were meant to be going/what they were meant to achieve.Where am I going?So this is where you were meant to get to.How am I going?This is where you are atWhere to next?This is your next learning stepThe purpose of feedback is close the gap between where you are meant to be and where you currently are (in your learning).
John Hattie¹ outlines a series of mindframes that are pertinent when we think about Visible Learning schools.These mindframes give you a framework for how you approach teaching and learning with a Visible Learning, visible teaching mindframe.
Murrays Bay Intermediate PLD - Visible Learning
Visible LearningStephen Kendall-JonesPresented to Murrays Bay Intermediate School,11th June, 201311/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 1
The right conditions…11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 2
Learning Intentions• Understand the teaching andlearning actions that have thegreatest impact on studentoutcomes11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 3
Success Criteria• We are successful when (WASW) we areable to Assess the key messages fromVisible Learning11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 4
Why Visible Learning?What is Visible Learning?Why pay it any attention?11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 5
Nuthall 2005 research• 40% of what occurs among students is missed by teachers.• 40% of what teachers intend students to learn they alreadyknow!• Teachers assumed that teaching was going well from signsthat students were actively engaged with learningactivities• Too often, the “criteria for successful learning are thesame criteria for successful classroom management”• 80% of feedback is given by other people than theteacher• 80% of that is incorrect11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 6
So, if there are things wecan do better…What worksbest?11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 7
We explored what works the bestHattie’s research1000+ meta-analyses50,000+ studies240+ million students11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 8
The distribution of effects11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 9
Decreased EnhancedZeroEffect on achievement over timeTypical effect size0.400 1.000.20
Influences on achievement0.400.300.2000.500.600.700.800.901.000.10Zoneofdesiredeffects
Please rank these 14 effects in order ofimportance to student achievement…• Acceleration• Feedback• Student –teacherrelationships• Teaching study skills• Reading recovery• Self-reported grades• Formative evaluation ofteachers• Cooperative Learning• Homework• Individualised instruction• Ability grouping• Open vs. traditionalspaces• Mobility (shiftingschools)• Retention (hold back ayear)11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 12
The correct order is….1. Self-reported grades2. Formative evaluation ofteachers3. Acceleration4. Feedback5. Student – teacherrelationships6. Teaching study skills7. Reading recovery8. Cooperative Learning9. Homework10.Individualisedinstruction11.Ability grouping12.Open vs. traditionalspaces13.Retention (hold back ayear)14.Mobility (shiftingschools)11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 13
The ES for the previous factors are…• Self-reported grades 1.44• Formative evaluation ofteachers 0.90• Acceleration 0.88• Feedback 0.73• Student – teacherrelationships 0.72• Teaching study skills 0.59• Reading recovery 0.50• Cooperative Learning 0.41• Homework 0.29• Individualised instruction0.22• Ability grouping 0.12• Open vs. traditional spaces0.01• Retention (hold back a year)-0.16• Mobility (shifting schools) -0.3411/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 14
Some of the Disasters ...Rank Influence Studies Effects ES120 Mentoring 74 74 .15121 Teacher education 85 391 .12122 Ability grouping 500 1369 .12123 Gender 2926 6051 .12124 Diet 23 125 .12125Teacher subject matterknowledge 92 424 .09126 Distance Education 839 1643 .09127Out of school curriculaexperiences 52 50 .09128 Perceptual-Motor programs 180 637 .08129 Whole language 64 197 .0611/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 15
Tests are feedback to the teacherHave myteachingmethodsbeensuccessfulor not?Have mylearningintentionsbeenworthwhileorchallenging?Have mystudentsattainedthe successcriteria?What havemy studentslearnt ornot learnt?Where can Icapitalise onstrengths andminimisegaps?Where aremystudentson thelearningladder?Do we havea sharedidea ofprogress?What is thebest thing toteach next?
Feedback is evidence aboutWhere am I going?How am I going?Where to next?11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 26
don’t blame the kidsget feedback about yourself set the challengeAssessment is feedback to you about youit’sabout everyone being ableto makemistakesit’s about dialog not monologmindframesyou are a change agentleaders are evaluators11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 27
Teachers• Clear learning intentions• Challenging success criteria• Range of learning strategies• Know when students are notprogressing• Providing feedback• Visibly learns themselves11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 28
Students …• Understand learning intentions• Are challenged by success criteria• Develop a range of learning strategies• Know when they are not progressing• Seek feedback• Visibly teach themselves11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 29
The Contrast• An active teacher, passionate for their subject andfor learning, a change agentOR• A facilitative, inquiry or discovery based provider ofengaging activities11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 30
Activator or Facilitator ?An Activator A FacilitatorReciprocal teaching Simulations and gamingFeedback Inquiry based teachingTeaching studen ts self -verbali zation Smaller class sizesMeta-cognition strategies Individualized instructionDirect Instruction Problem -based learn ingMastery learning Differe nt teaching for boys & girlsGoals - challengin g Web-based learningFrequent/ Effects of testing Whole Language ReadingBehaviora l organiz ers Inductive teachin g11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 31
Activator or Facilitator ?An Activator ES A Facilitator ESReciprocal teaching .74 Simulations and gaming .32Feedback .72 Inquiry based teaching .31Teaching students self-verbalization .67 Smaller class sizes .21Meta-cognition strategies .67 Individualized instruction .20Direct Instruction .59 Problem-based learning .15Mastery learning .57 Different teaching for boys & girls .12Goals - challenging .56 Web-based learning .09Frequent/ Effects of testing .46 Whole Language Reading .06Behavioral organizers .41 Inductive teaching .06ACTIVATOR .60 FACILITATOR .1711/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 32
Graham Nuthall’s messagesStephen Kendall-Jones• The world of learning and classroomsfrom the student’s personal viewpointis so often unknown to the teacher• Hence reinforcing the major claimabout how teachers need to spendmore time and energy understandinglearning through the eyes of students.11/06/13 33
Classroom observation• Developing rich Reports about classroominteractionso Who talks to whom, for how long, about whato What is the nature and impact of peer interactionso What is the discussions/dialogue that lead to learningo How do students relate to the teacher during the classsessiono What are the nature of relationships between peers,and student and teachero What is going on in the classroom• And how does this relate to learning11/06/13 Stephen Kendall-Jones 34
Slide credit - James NottinghamThank You! Any Questions?