Draper presentation on dark sky

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Eric Draper

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  • The International Dark-Sky Association defines 4 categories of light pollution. Urban sky glow —the brightening of the night sky over inhabited areas. Light trespass —light falling where it is not intended, wanted, or needed. Glare —excessive brightness which causes visual discomfort. High levels of glare can decrease visibility. Clutter —bright, confusing, and excessive groupings of light sources, commonly found in over-lit urban areas. The proliferation of clutter contributes to urban sky glow, trespass, and glare
  • The length of night at various times of year will determine an animal’s instinctual behavior from breeding and feeding to migration. Light pollution can throw disrupt this internal timing and create confusion and disorientation in wildlife. Million birds a year killed by light pollution 80% could be saved by light pollution remediation efforts http://www.terrain.org/articles/15/kousky.htm
  • Most active at dawn and dusk. Artificial light can cause confusion to times of sunrise/sunset. This can affect food foraging ability, increased predation and breeding/nesting difficulty -- may be linked to species’ population decline.
  • Amphibians are susceptible to light pollution in wetlands far away from urban areas. Light pollution affects amphibians: A decrease in reproduction, resulting in lower populations Reduced foraging for food and lower body weight Confusion of natural instincts that protect against predators and the elements
  • Sea Turtles are greatly affected by light pollution. Mother Sea Turtles choose remote and dark beaches to make their nests. Any kind of bright light can interfere with their ability to choose a safe nesting spot for their eggs. When her hatchlings surface, they instinctively head towards the brightest light in the sky. If this light is not the moon, the hatchlings could find themselves wandering into streets or other dangerous areas. Volusia County Sea Turtle Monitoring Data through: 9/10/2010 Total Number of Nests: 608 http://turtlepatrol.com/
  • The darkness of night is a perfect time for many birds to migrate or hunt. These birds are often dependent on darkness to successfully complete migration or to find a meal. When artificial lights intrude on what should be a very dark area, birds can become disoriented. This can cause them to crash into structures or become focused on a distant light source. Artificial light can also disorient migratory birds, throwing them off course. Experts suggest that the navigation of birds using the horizon as orientation for the direction is disrupted by lighting and sky glow Offshore oil / Gas platforms / Light induced fisheries Due to the fact that oceans have less artificial light sources compared to terrestrial environments, the effect and range of single artificial lighting is much higher. As a consequence of these circumstances marine birds are highly attracted by these sources. The birds are attracted by the flares of the platforms and can be directly injured or killed by heat, collision and oil; but also indirectly by the trapping effect of the light that leads birds to circle around the light source reducing their energy reserves and making them unable to reach the next shore or decreasing their ability to survive the winter or reproduce. Light induced fisheries use their light to attract fishes and squids but also have an effect on birds. Hooks then can injure these birds12. Over 450 North American Birds Migrate at night. Including, Owls, thrushes, thrashers, wood warblers, nuthatches, creepers, wrens, gnatcatchers, cuckoos, buntings, rails, woodcocks, tanagers, orioles, blackbirds, bobolinks, and most species of sparrows.
  • Insects affected by light pollution in turn affect all species who rely on insects as a source of food. Light pollution causes confusion, disorientation and increases predation, causing unbalanced decrease in insect populations.
  • It is estimated that some 90,000 birds die annually in New York City, because of collisions with buildings,” says Susan Elbin, NYC Audubon director of conservation. In downtown Chicago, about 100 buildings go dark after 11pm for six months during spring and fall migrations — “virtually all of the buildings downtown over 40 stories,” according to Annette Prince, director of Audubon’s Chicago Collision Monitors. And in May, Minnesota’s governor signed a bill that requires structures owned or leased by the state to turn out the lights after midnight during spring and autumn migrations. Other bills supporting Audubon lights-out efforts have been passed or sponsored in Michigan, Massachusetts, and San Francisco.
  • Earth Hour is a global event organized by WWF and is held on the last Saturday of March annually, asking households and businesses to turn off their non-essential lights and other electrical appliances for one hour to raise awareness towards the need to take action on climate change . Earth Hour was conceived by WWF and The Sydney Morning Herald in 2007, when 2.2 million residents of Sydney participated by turning off all non-essential lights. [1] Following Sydney's lead, many other cities around the world adopted the event in 2008. [2] [3] Earth Hour 2011 will take place on March 26, 2011 from 8:30p.m. to 9:30p.m., at participants' respective local time.
  • Draper presentation on dark sky

    1. 1. THE IMPACT OF LIGHT POLLUTION ON WILDLIFE Presentation by, Eric Draper, Executive Director, Audubon of Florida Contact Information: [email_address] 850-222-2473 -office 850-251-1301 -cell
    2. 3. Florida’s Light Pollution Signature Florida’s Wildlife Ecosystems Affected by Light Pollution Conservation Corridor Daytona Beach Orlando Metro Area
    3. 4. Wildlife <ul><li>The length of night at various times of year will determine an animal’s instinctual behavior from breeding and feeding to migration. </li></ul><ul><li>Light pollution can throw disrupt this internal timing and create confusion and disorientation in wildlife. </li></ul>http://www.friendsofsherwoodisland.org/Photos/Hand/BoP/AJH-BarredOwl-talonsclose.jpg Barred Owl Strix varia
    4. 6. Light pollution is trespassing into wildlife habitat Wildlife Concerns From Exposure to Light Pollution Habitat Disturbance Wildlife Behavior Wildlife Survival Wildlife Issue
    5. 7. Birds <ul><ul><ul><li>The darkness of night is a perfect time for many birds to migrate or hunt. These birds are often dependent on darkness to successfully complete migration or to find a meal. When artificial lights intrude on what should be a very dark area, birds can become disoriented. This can cause them to crash into structures or become focused on a distant light source. Artificial light can also disorient migratory birds, throwing them off course. </li></ul></ul></ul>Night Hawk Chordeiles minor Common Night Hawk Chordeiles minor
    6. 8. sunrise sunset Natural night sky light pollution Compare Lighting from Natural and Artificial Sources “ what the critters see ”
    7. 9. NOCTURNAL WILDLIFE owls gray tree frog yellow crowned night heron spotted sea trout bats <ul><li>Active at night, roost by day. </li></ul><ul><li>Some species species are rare, threatened and endangered species. </li></ul><ul><li>Some species provide human and ecological health benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Some species provide economic benefits </li></ul><ul><li>What are the effects of light pollution on their habitat and behavior? </li></ul>
    8. 10. Wetlands
    9. 11. DIURNAL WILDLIFE frogs songbirds waterfowl dragonfly <ul><li>Active by day, roost at night. NOCTURNAL WILDLIFE </li></ul><ul><li>Some species are rare, protected and endangered species. </li></ul><ul><li>Some species provide human and ecological health benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Some species provide economic benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the effects of light pollution on their habitat and behavior? </li></ul>squirrels
    10. 12. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Caretta caretta
    11. 13. Endangered Sea turtles in Florida Life cycle consists of birth on land, spending life in ocean, returning to land only to nest <ul><li>LIGHT POLLUTION IMPACTS </li></ul><ul><li>Beach nesting habitats exposed to bright outdoor shoreline lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Adults won’t come ashore to nest </li></ul><ul><li>Hatchlings emerge from sand nests, normally orientate towards starlit ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial lights on beaches, coastal roads, and buildings disorientate hatchlings and adults that crawl away from the beach towards inland light sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Migratory disruptions from light pollution leads to death from dehydration, wildlife, domestic animals and human predation, and vehicle collusions </li></ul>USA’s First Outdoor Lighting Ordinance for Wildlife Conservation
    12. 14. Migratory Birds http://www.flickr.com/photos/danielorn/3556785997/sizes/l/in/photostream/
    13. 15. LP Problems for Urban Habitats Homeowners Backyard Habitat Habitat Guide <ul><li>Light pollution increases domestic animal activity at night; increases domestic animal predation on wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Birds venture away from nests at night, may abandoned nests; hatchlings fall out. </li></ul><ul><li>Alters behavior of wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases survival of young wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Makes habitat less suitable for good wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous trees and plants experience delayed winter dormancy that increases susceptibility to stress and diseases on light polluted properties </li></ul><ul><li>People cannot enjoy night landscape and wildlife benefits of their own properties if there are lights trespassing from other properties. </li></ul>
    14. 16. Insects Insects http://farm1.static.flickr.com/138/338920303_87cca266de.jpg
    15. 17. <ul><li>Public Action Precedents in Wildlife Conservation Involving Light Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEATURTLES - first identified light pollution indicator organism. Led to nation’s first public outdoor lighting ordinance in Florida for wildlife conservation purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIRDS – FLAP (Fatal Light Awareness Program) Highly successful Canadian public program aimed at reducing birds kills from collusions with lighted city buildings. Program identifies numerous bird species at risk from light pollution. Visit www.flap.org </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SW USA ENDANGERED CAT SPECIES - US Border Patrol proposes putting up bright lights along US-Mexico border inhabited by endangered cats. USFWS presses for Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. <ul><li>Innovative Communities with Light Pollution Control That Benefit Wildlife and Public </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean Reef, Florida - private development in Key Largo, Florida with no street lights. Surrounding mangrove and waterway habitats enhanced. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harmony, Florida - In 2009, was recognized by the International Dark Sky Association (IDA) as the world’s first Dark Sky Developments of Distinction. The award is given to communities whose planning actively promotes a more natural night sky. . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Palm Beach County and Sanibel Island, Florida - public outdoor lighting ordinances for coastal wildlife conservation and tourism. Beach and shore habitats enhanced. </li></ul>
    17. 20. Mammals Earth Hour Toronto
    18. 21. Restore the Nightsky Wildlife Conservation Enhance Wildlife Habitat Through Light Pollution Control

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