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  • Crystal Clear title was a mistake.
  • Solutions must be at least as varied and variable as the problems they are trying to solve
  • Meta framework or meta methodology Main foundation or basis – Co-operative game
  • Scrum uses this analogy –
  • You plan and map Plan changes once you see the terrain
  • Habitability may run against efficiency but they often converge in the end. Upfront modelling to avoid recoding, refactoring  Enough code to discover a model worth documenting You will know when you reach the point of diminishing return.
  • Unrealistic for many projects Scrum treats a project as a black box with complexity ready to be discovered Question How many practice scrum How many deal work with projects that have Fixed-Deadlines, Fixed-Scope, Both, Scrum
  • Team enforces
  • Business accepts empirical nature of Scrum Business accepts impossibility of fixed-scope within a fixed-price and fixed-date
  • Scrum is the art of what is possible How can you make this possible? Through efficiency – minimizing waste
  • Efficiency is a 5 th variable Deficient or Barely Sufficient – for project safety Processes, Strategies and Techniques The point of too much process, too many strategies and techniques
  • Efficiency is a 5 th variable Deficient or Barely Sufficient – for project safety The point of too much process
  • The point of too much process Sensitive to the point of diminishing returns
  • Lighter methodologies are better until they run out of steam The sweet spot
  • Habitability may run against efficiency but they often converge in the end. Upfront modelling to avoid recoding, refactoring  Enough code to discover a model worth documenting You will know when you reach the point of diminishing return.
  • Not in priority Grouped to Primary and
  • Properties can be measured. Properties are the point Use properties as a ubiquitous language
  • Increased frequency of delivery - how often – versus “We are doing three week sprints” How many new practices have we added or old practices removed - versus – “Are we holding retrospective meetings (process)” How long does it take for me to get a question answered by someone on my team? – versus – “Are we doing have daily standup” How much turnover? How many interruptions per day? How long does it take for me to get a definitive answer to a user-oriented question? How many bugs per.. How much time between when the bug is created and when it is reported?
  • Think of strategies
  • Think of techniques
  • Techniques Work product examples Strategies
  • Establish a lead to avoid the “wrong” type of conflict. Necessary to outline responsibility and accountability

Transcript

  • 1. Crystal A Remedy for Prescriptive Agile Abid Quereshi [email_address]
  • 2. What other have said
      • “ .. is beyond ‘Agile’ ..I think that Crystal Clear is Agile + Flexible + Practical”
  • 3. The Death of Agile
      • Time line
      • Who killed it?
      • We did. The agile process police
  • 4. The Death of Agile
      • Yet sometimes reluctant to accept variability and complexity in the processes we use to develop them
    Agile practitioners (developers, and non-developers) are willing to accept variability and complexity in the products we are developing
  • 5. The Death of Agile
    • Solutions must be at least as varied and variable as the problems they are trying to solve
  • 6. Alistair Cockburn
    • An original signatory of the Agile Manifesto
    • Creator of Crystal family of methodology
    • Runs Scrum Courses
    • Use cases reformer
    • Authored books:
      • Agile Software Development
      • Writing Effective Use Cases
      • Patterns For Effective Use Cases
      • Surviving Object Oriented Projects
  • 7. Items for discussion
    • Crystal Family
    • Priorities
    • Properties
    • Strategies
    • Techniques
    • Crystal Clear
    • Process
    • Instances to Copy
  • 8. The Crystal Family A Specific Family of Self-Adapting Methodologies with a common structure (or DNA) Related by adherence to common philosophy and principles
  • 9. Some principles The Crystal Family
    • Level of detail in requirements, design and plan must vary with potential for damage caused by undetected defects
    • Number of required work products or project artifacts is inversely proportional to the amount of informal communication paths
    • Variations in team personalities and local working environment necessitate adjustment of working conventions.
  • 10. DNA The Crystal Family
    • Co-operative Game Mindset
    • Set of priorities and principles for making decisions
    • Selected properties to steer towards
    • Sample strategies
    • Sample techniques
    • Sample work product instances to copy
  • 11. Strategic, Economic, Co-operative Co-operative Game Resource constrained series of activities involving Invention and Communication Goals are to deliver software in this game and to set up for the next
  • 12. Co-operative Game
  • 13. Priorities The Crystal Family
    • Project Safety
    • Development Efficiency
    • Habitability of Conventions
  • 14. Project Safety Priorities
    • On time
    • On budget (fixed team size)
    • Guaranteed Quality
    • On spec (agreed scope)
  • 15. Safety in a Scrum Sprint Priorities Quality Team size & Resources Fixed Time Safe Zone iterations
  • 16. Safety in a Project using Scrum Priorities Quality Team size & Resources Fixed Scope Safe Zone
  • 17. Project Safety Crystal and Fixed-scope Fixed-Time Quality Team size & Resources Fixed Time Fixed Scope Safe Zone
  • 18. Efficiency Efficiency Cross Functional Teams More Continuous Integration Robust Definition of Done More Frequent Releases High Resolution User Cases Quality Team size & Resources Fixed Time Fixed Scope Integration Tests Automated Acceptance Tests Value stream mapping Feature prioritization
  • 19. Priorities Efficiency Cross Functional Teams More Continuous Integration Robust Definition of Done More Frequent Releases High Resolution User Cases Quality Team size & Resources Fixed Time Fixed Scope Integration Tests Automated Acceptance Tests Value stream mapping Feature prioritization Check-in Dance Code Reviews Config Management Fixed amount of WIP Change Management Reusable Templates BDD TDD Daily Stand-up
  • 20. Habitability Priorities Team members must be able to live with constraints, conventions and policies
  • 21. Habitability Priorities Crystal teams measure their condition by their mood as much as by the rate of delivery
  • 22. Priorities Efficiency and Habitability priorities tend to drive Crystal methodologies towards two characteristics
    • Strong on communication
    • Light on work products
  • 23. Priorities The Crystal Family
    • Project Safety
    • Development Efficiency
    • Habitability of Conventions
  • 24. DNA The Crystal Family
    • Co-operative Game Mindset
    • Set of priorities and principles for making decisions
    • Selected properties to steer towards
    • Sample strategies
    • Sample techniques
    • Sample work product instances to copy
  • 25. Properties of Successful Projects Properties
    • Frequent Delivery – to users !
    • Reflective Improvement
    • Close Communication
    • Personal Safety
    • Focus
    • Easy access to expert users
    • Environment with automated testing, config. management & frequent integration
    Crystal’s Core
  • 26. Why Properties ? Properties Do you have ..? (properties and outcomes) rather than Do you do .. ? (processes and methods) Properties can be measures qualitatively and quantitatively
  • 27. Properties Process viewpoint Measurable Outcomes or Properties viewpoint We are doing 3 week sprints We deliver software to the user every 3 weeks We hold retrospectives at the end of every iteration We’ve implemented 2 processes removed 1 process, and tried 1 new technique We have daily stand-ups We’ve had 4 breakdowns in communication and 3 impediments removed We have a grievance procedure We’ve had 0 turnover in the past year Requirements can not be added once the sprint has started Team member has 3 interruption per day on average We hold planning meetings at the start of an iteration It takes me 3 days to get an answer to a user oriented question We do continuous integration How many regression bugs were introduced during the last sprint
  • 28. DNA The Crystal Family
    • Co-operative Game Mindset
    • Set of priorities and principles for making decisions
    • Selected properties to steer towards
    • Sample strategies
    • Sample techniques
    • Sample work product instances to copy
  • 29. Set of Strategies The Crystal Family
    • Examples:
      • Cross-functional teams
      • Incremental architecture
      • Walking Skeleton
      • Under-promise/Over -deliver
      • Easiest first, worst second
      • Small reversible steps
      • Early victory
      • Worst First
      • Divide and conquer
      • Radiate Information
  • 30. Set of Techniques The Crystal Family
    • Examples:
      • Side-by-side programming
      • Daily stand-up
      • Various estimation techniques
      • TDD
      • BDD
      • DDD
      • CRC
  • 31. Work Product Examples The Crystal Family
    • Instances of project artifacts to copy
    • Use case templates
    • Project Initiation Document
    • Project Charter
    • Test Examples
    • Change Request
  • 32. The Crystal Family Safe Zone Cross Functional Teams More Continuous Integration Robust Definition of Done More Frequent Releases High Resolution User Cases Quality Team size & Resources Fixed Time Fixed Scope Integration Tests Automated Acceptance Tests Document templates
  • 33. Crystal Processes
  • 34. Processes
  • 35. Summary The Crystal Family
    • Co-operative Game Mindset
    • Set of priorities and principles for making decisions
    • Selected properties to steer towards
    • Sample strategies
    • Sample techniques
    • Sample work product instances to copy
  • 36. Crystal Clear
  • 37. Crystal Clear in the Crystal Spectrum
    • Spectrum maps:
    • Size of team
    • (points of failure and co-ordination effort)
    • Criticality
    • (graveness in the consequences of failure)
  • 38. Crystal Clear in the Crystal Spectrum 6 people (3 to 8) 20 people 40 people 80 people Clear Yellow Orange Red more people Darker Colour Team Size
  • 39. Crystal Clear in the Crystal Spectrum C Loss of Comfort (awe.. shucks) D Loss of Discretionary Money, (e.g. system errors have manual fix) E Loss of Essential Money. (e.g. system errors cause bankruptcy) L Loss of Life
  • 40. Crystal Clear in the Crystal Spectrum L 6 E6 D6 C6 L 20 E 20 D 20 C 20 L 40 E 40 D 40 C 40 L 80 E 80 D 80 C 80 Clear Yellow Orange Red Criticality Team Size
  • 41. Crystal Clear in the Crystal Spectrum
    • Characteristics
    • Osmotic communication
    • Defined roles
    • Defined work products
  • 42. Dedicated Team Roles Expert User Lead Designer Executive Sponsor The rest Designer Programmer
  • 43.
    • Process are meant to compensate for lack of discipline
    • Sweet spot:
      • Two to eight people in one room
      • Onsite user experts
      • One month increments
      • Fully automated regression tests
      • Experienced developers
    Processes
  • 44. Processes must evolve to improved Efficiency and Habitability Reflection is a vital part of building experience Processes should be nested in natural cycles and accompanied with refelction Processes
  • 45.
    • Acknowledges Natural Cycles corresponding Rituals
      • Project
      • Delivery to user
      • Iteration
      • Weeks and Days
      • Integration
      • Episode
    Formal Reflection Mandated Processes
  • 46. Processes
    • Project: Unit of funding
    • Delivery to user (1 -12 weeks)
    • Iteration: Unit of estimation, dev and celebration (1 -12 weeks)
    • Weeks and Days (daily standup, weekly demo…)
    • Integration: Unit of dev, integration and system testing
    • Episode: Design and Check-in
  • 47. Processes Project Delivery Iteration Day Integration Episode Charter Plan Plan Standup Design & Check-in Design & Check-in Build and test Design & Check-in Design & Check-in Build and test Standup … . …. …. …. Plan Deliver Plan Reflect
  • 48. Grow your own.. The Crystal Family
    • Economic (limited resources)
    • Co-operative Game (Strategic)
    • Set of priorities and principles for making choices
    • Selected properties to steer towards
    • Sample strategies
    • Sample techniques
    • Sample work product instances to copy
  • 49. Work Products
    • Not Optional
    • Crystal includes a suggested default set
    • Can be added to or subtracted from
    • Specified team member responsible for each artifact
  • 50. Work Products
    • Mission statement
    • Trade-off priorities
    • Team Structure
    • Team Conventions
    • Reflection Results
    • Project Map
    • Release Plan
    • Project Status
    • Iteration Plan
    • System Architecture
    • Risk List
    • Viewing Schedule
    • Requirements File
    • Use Cases
    • User Role Model
    • Domain Model
    • Screen Drafts
    • Design Sketches
    • Bug Report
  • 51. Reviving Agile Comparisons
    • Just-In-Time methodology
    • Methodology is a draft formula
    • Processes are draft processes
    • With a language describing properties, techniques and strategies
  • 52. Why formal methodologies Comparisons
    • Sweet spot rare
    • Starting point with a common language
  • 53. Why formal methodologies Comparisons
    • Shu - learn
    • Ha - detach
    • Ri - transcend
  • 54. Summary
    • .. a highly optimized way for small, co-located teams to develop efficiency and habitability, thereby achieve projects safely
    • Safety is achieved with the following properties, the first three of which are mandated.
      • Frequent Delivery
      • Reflective Improvement
      • Osmotic Communication
      • Personal Safety
      • Focus
      • Easy Access to Expert Users
      • Environment with Automated Tests, Configuration Management and Frequent integration
  • 55. Method Survey
    • XP -
    • RUP -
    • Scrum -
    • Prince 2 -
    • MSF –
    • Lean/Kanban -
    • Crystal -
    • DSDM
    • CMMI -
    • Others -