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  1. 1. SPAIN  Spain is situated in south-western Europe and occupies almost the entire Iberian Peninsula.  It has a population of 47.190.493 inhabitants.  Its government structure is a parliamentary monarchy.  Its anthem is The royal march. Spain's national anthem is one of the oldest in Europe and its origins are unknown.  Spain is divided into 17 regions and two territorial divisions. MAJOR CITIES MADRID: The capital and largest city in Spain. It has got approximately 3.3 million people and in Madrid metropolitan area there is a population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin. BARCELONA: The capital of Catalonia the second largest city in Spain, after Madrid, with a population of 1,621,537. It is also the largest Spanish city in the Mediterranean sea. It is located on the north-east Mediterranean coast between the rivers Llobregat and Besòs. INTERESTING PLACES WORTH VISITING SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA Santiago de Compostela is located in the north-west of Spain, in Galicia. With its Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque buildings, the Old Town of Santiago is one of the world's most beautiful urban areas. The oldest monuments are grouped around the tomb of St James and the cathedral. Lots of pilgrims go there to see the tomb of the apostle Saint James the Greater, Santiago. LA ALHAMBRA It is one of Spain’s major tourist attractions. Alhambra means Red Female because the building reflects the colour of red clay. It was built as a small fortress in the 9th century and later became the emir’s palace. When the Catholic Monarchs reconquered Granada in 1492, Christian rulers started to use it. LANGUAGE Spanish is spoken by more than 400 million people around the world and it is one of the most important languages in business and in the cultural scene.
  2. 2. In some places the word Castilian Spanish is used to refer to standard Spanish. That is because of the region of Castille. In fact, Spanish originated in northern Spain as a continuation of spoken Latin. In Spain there are a lot of dialects but we can’t confuse these with other languages in Spain. For example, Extremaduran or Andalucian would be dialects and Catalonian and Basque would be different languages. FAMOUS PEOPLE It very difficult to choose only two famous people in Spain because there are a lot of people who are good at doing specific things, so we would highlight some well-known people in different areas: Pedro Almodóvar is one of the best film directors in Spain. In 2012, his film “The Skin I live in” received four “Goya awards” and also won an Oscar for “All about my mother” Pablo Picasso was a Spanish sculptor and painter and he is also known for co-founding the Cubist movement. His best works were “Guernica”, “Las señoritas de Avignon” or“Maternity” (“Maternidad”). Diego Velázquez was a Spanish painter, one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary Baroque period, important as a portrait artist. One of his most known works is “Las Meninas” LITERATURE -We can find some well known writers: Miguel de Cervantes: He was a novelist, poet and playwright and considered to be the greatest in Spanish literature and universally known for writing Don Quixote. Antonio Machado: He was a Spanish poet and one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as Generación del 98. He was born in Seville and in his poetry career, there are three stages:“Soledades”(1899-1907), “Campos de Castilla” (1907-1917), “Nuevas canciones” (1917-1930) Federico García Lorca: He was a Spanish poet. Nowadays he is the most widely read Spanish poet of all time. His major works were: “Impressions and Landscapes” (1918), “Book of poems” (1921), “Poem of Deep Song”; written in 1921 but unpublished until 1931. He was murdered in the Spanish civil war. LEGEND OF LA SERRANA DE LA VERA It is a widely spread legend from Extremadura about a woman who was cheated by her lover. As he refused to marry her, she ran away, broken- hearted, to live in the mountains. “La serrana” hid in a cave and every man who passed by her was seduced and murdered. It happened to all men except one who managed to escape and report it to the authorities. Eventually, she was sentenced to death.
  3. 3. TERTIARY EDUCATION IN SPAIN Most relevant universities in Spain According to “El Mundo”, a Spanish newspaper, ranking about universities in Spain, the best ones are: 1. Universidad Complutense de Madrid The Complutense University of Madrid is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world (1293). The university enrolls over 86,000 students. Alumni include renowned philosophers (Jose Ortega y Gasset, Ignatius of Loyola,), writers (Federico García Lorca, Antonio de Nebrija, Pedro Calderón de la Barca), scientists (Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Severo Ochoa) 2. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid: It´s a Spanish University, located in Madrid. It was founded in 1971 as the result of merging different Technical Schools of Engineering and Architecture(18th century). According to the annual university ranking conducted by El Mundo, the Technical University of Madrid ranks as the top technical university in Spain, and second overall. The UPM is part of the TIME network, which groups fifty engineering schools throughout Europe. 3. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona The “Universitat Autonoma” de Barcelona also known as UAB is a public university mostly located near the city of Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain. it consists of 57 departments in the experimental, life, social and human sciences, spread among 13 faculties/schools. All these centers together award a total of 85 qualifications in the form of first degrees, diplomas, and engineering degrees. UAB has more than 40,000 students and more than 3,600 academic and research staff. The UAB is a pioneering institution in terms of fostering research 4. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid The Autonomous University of Madrid is one of the top universities of Spain and commonly known by its Spanish initials UAM or as "la Autónoma". UAM is a Spanish public university established in 1968. UAM has been one of Spain's most prominent higher education institutions, being ranked first amongst Spanish universities by the El Mundo University Supplement (known as "Las 50 Carreras"), by The Times Higher Education Supplement, and by the Academic Ranking of World Universities.
  4. 4. 5. Universidad de Barcelona The University of Barcelona (Catalan: Universitat de Barcelona) is a public university located in the city of Barcelona, Catalonia in Spain. With 75 undergraduate programs, 353 graduate programs and 96 doctorate programs to over 63,700 students, UB was considered to be the best University in Spain in the 2011 QS World University Rankings. In 2010, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), it is the best university in Spain and 83rd university in the world. Universidad de Salamanca The University of Salamanca is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid, in the autonomous community of Castilla and León. It was founded in 1134 and given the Royal charter of foundation by King Alfonso IX. It is the oldest founded university in Spain and the third oldest European university in continuous operations. It is the top-ranked university in Spain based on the number of students coming from other regions.[6] It is also known for its Spanish courses for non-native speakers, which attract more than two thousand foreign students each year Most demanded degrees: 1. Master in Business Administration (ADE) 2. Architecture 3. Fine Art 4. Library science 5. Biology Access to university. You need to meet the following requirements: 1- Bachillerato Certificate (equivalent to Upper Secondary certificate) 2- PAU (University Entrance Exam): a) Compulsory exams (foreign language, Spanish, History and Philosophy) b) Optional exams (depending on the subjects chosen) Admission mark: 6/14 Bachillerato marks 4/14 Compulsory PAU exams 4/14 Optional PAU exams
  5. 5. ERASMUS The Erasmus programme involves pursuing studies in another European University and promotes training placements in companies or organizations from an EU country. During this period, the student doesn’t have to pay the tuition fees in the host institution (accommodation, the trip …) because the student receives a grant for these expenses, although it is not a very big one. There are two types of mobility programs: mobility for studying and mobility for work experience. It’s usually required to have an important knowledge of Spanish. In most universities classes are mainly taught in Spanish, B1 Level is advised at least, but UCM, for example, offers a free Spanish Language Course for levels under C-1 to students who apply for it HOW A FOREIGN STUDENT CAN GET INTO A SPANISH UNIVERSITY You must have studied in the European Union or one of these countries: Andorra, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein, Switzerland or China, but you can also study in our universities by having the European Baccalaureate diploma or the International Baccalaureate Diploma. On the other hand, you can also take the PAU entrance test to improve your marks. If you don’t meet these requirements you must pass a test arranged by the UNED (Distance Learning National University). The recognition of foreign certificates, diplomas or studies for non-university education involves the declaration of their equivalence with the current certificates in the Spanish educational system. In the case of university degrees, this may involve recognition of the equivalence of degrees and diplomas gained abroad or partial validation of studies passed.
  6. 6. DISABILITY IN SPAIN In the mid 1900’s, people with disabilities were segregated from mainstream society and confined in mental institutions. Fortunately, things have changed dramatically and now there is a concern about their situation. Throughout the 20th century, they still were separated from the others, and, often, rejected. Even the terms used to refer to them were cruel and inappropriate, but, luckily, at the end of the 20th century other terms started to be used. Social awareness and the development of associations composed of parents and disabled people also contributed to normalization and integration. On the other hand, there are still some problems, such as in rural areas, or when they have to ask for a sign language interpreter or the expenses families have to face because there isn’t enough funding for disabled people. If we talk about employment, sometimes there’s a lack of concern. It is, because they don’t really know that disability. There are workplaces or jobs where they don’t want to admit people with disabilities or maybe just be responsible for them. But not everything is so negative; there are a lot of employers who hire people with disabilities and benefit from a range of grants and other funding. And, of course, there are some laws related to the disabled people’s situation, such as LISMI. This is a law, passed on 7th April 1982, for the Social Integration of Handicapped People, which claims that all the Spanish companies with a workforce of over 50 workers must “have a reservation quota for disabled people ". Its goal, among others, is to stimulate and to promote the disabled labour integration. In spite of the existence of this law, there were a number of companies that didn’t fulfill this legal obligation, so new measures had to be taken to implement the law thoroughly. That way the advantages people from general population have over disabled people are reduced. In terms of education different laws were developed at the beginning of this century to fight against discrimination and encourage inclusion, which means equal education of all students in regular classes and appropriate educational classes for every student, so everyone is accepted and supported. Breaking down barriers People with disabilities face many barriers every day – from physical obstacles in buildings to systemic barriers in employment. However, the most difficult barriers to overcome are attitudes other people carry regarding people with disabilities. We can see these attitudinal barriers through pity. People feel sorry for the person with a disability, which tends to lead to patronizing attitudes. People with disabilities don’t want pity or charity, just equal opportunity to learn their own way and live independently. Unlike physical barriers, attitudinal barriers that often lead to discrimination cannot be overcome simply through laws. The best remedy is familiarity, getting people with and without disabilities to mingle as co-workers, associates and social acquaintances. In time, most of the attitudes will give way to comfort, respect and friendship.
  7. 7. Etiquette: What can we do to interact with people with disabilities? ● Listen to the person with the disability. Do not make assumptions about what that person can or cannot do.. ● Extend common courtesies to people with disabilities as you would do with anyone else. Shake hands or hand over business cards. If the person cannot shake your hand or grasp your card, they will tell you. Do not be ashamed of your attempt, however.. ● It is okay to feel nervous or uncomfortable around people with disabilities, and it's ok to admit that. It is human to feel that way at first. When you encounter these situations, think "person" first instead of disability; you will eventually relax. Foundations in Spain One of the main associations in Spain working hard on the representation and defence of people with disabilities is CERMI. How can CERMI achieve this purpose? They try to group the entire people with disabilities sector and make social pressure. With this they have higher strength and representation before the government, this is very important to achieve the objective of non-discrimination and full citizenship for people with disabilities. This organization works in the entire Spanish state, but just CERMI can’t cover all so it is divided into separate platforms and so they can focus on more specific cases. There are also other associations that support and help CERMI with its functions and objectives. We can name some of them: Down Extremadura, FEAPS, ONCE (which is an organization for blind people that runs the most popular charity lotteries in Spain and its main source of income. Nowadays CERMI groups turn to 7000 associations and organizations which together represent more than 3.8 million people, 10% of the total population. High-skilled people with disabilities. Appropriate and inappropriate terms Perhaps Stephen Hawking is the best-known person with a disability. He was born in Oxford and he is one of the most important scientists in human history, he is an English theoretical physicist and cosmologist. Hawking has a disease called neuro-muscular dystrophy, an important disability that made him lose mobility and later the ability to speak.. He has a quality which is perseverance, and as a result of it, he provided new knowledge to modern science, especially about the universe, the Big Bang theory, and the black holes. Another high-skilled person with a disability is Teresa Perales, a Spanish professional swimmer, who has won a total of 22 Paralympic medals (six of those were won at the 2012 London Games). She is paraplegic, nevertheless, she has been strong enough to become a professional swimmer. A person really surprising is Miguel Galindo, a Spanish skier and a ski coach who
  8. 8. teaches and helps blind skiers by telling them how to go on a mountain. It is incredible because people who don’t have any disability wouldn’t be able to go through a mountain without seeing anything, so they must have very high developed senses. There are many other high-skilled people who have become professionals in their field, and in spite of their disability, they have fulfilled their wish, with determination, patience and a very high mental strength.. Concerning RESPECTFUL DISABILITY LANGUAGE, it consists of using terms which don’t cause an offense to disabled people. The problem is that we don’t know when a word offends a disabled person, because we don’t pay attention to the meaning behind the word. However, we have to be careful with our vocabulary, because if we were disabled, we wouldn’t like to be called with terms that might sound offensive or pejorative. For example, it is correct to use terms like “disabled”, or “people with disabilities”, but to talk about people who are not, we shouldn’t use “normal people” or “healthy people”. That way, we would address to a blind person, using “blind”, but not “dumb” or “invalid”. Other terms we shouldn’t use are words like “retarded”, “insane”, “deformed” and many others. Instead, we should use terms such as “person with learning disability”, “wheelchair user” or “person with a speech disability”.
  9. 9. BUSINESS ETIQUETTE IN SPAIN ADDRESSING A PERSON: In Spain, people have two surnames, composed of their father’s first surname and their mother’s first surname. Also like in other countries we can have two first names We usually say Sr (Mr) and Sra (Mrs) before the name or replace the name when we address to an older person, a superior or a stranger only if this is not a young person. In this case we don’t use Señor or Señora, because we speak in one way or another depending on if we are in a formal or informal atmosphere. INFORMAL: (When there is an atmosphere of trust.) friends, family. In this friendly environment we talk in a relaxed manner, we address people saying “tú” instead of “usted”, which is very formal and also we use slang, each region has its own way of speaking and greeting. To greet we can say “hey” or “hola” FORMAL: We use formal language in more formal situations where we use a precise vocabulary for example in a job interview, a debate or a ceremony. As opposed to informal language we use “usted” instead of “tú” DRESS CODE: In Spain there aren’t strict rules about what to wear or not. As in all countries, we use an outfit or another depending on what we will do and where. In a business: If you want to make a good impression you have to look fashionable. For business, men should wear a suit with a jacket with or without a tie, even in warm weather, and women usually wear dresses, blouses and skirts combined with heels. Parties and celebrations: When we go out we usually get dressed up or try to look our best. Men wear jeans with trendy shirts and maybe a jacket. In this type of parties it isn’t common to wear a tie, but there are men who put it on. Women wear dresses, skirts and also jeans with tight shirts, boots or heels... Women put on make-up themselves and they usually put on lots of accessories such as necklaces, bracelets, also hair accessories like ribbons. A middle-aged or old man doesn’t’ wear the same clothes to go to a party as a teenager. They prefer more comfort and elegance at the same time. Finally in Spain not everyone wears “Flamenco” dresses. There are many types of folkloric costumes, each region has its own, and some people might wear these cotumes on a specific date. TIME AND PUNCTUALITY ● In Spain the working hours for shops and businesses are regulated by the government. Shops are usually open in the morning and reopen after lunch until about 0830. pm, Monday through Friday, and Saturday morning. Large department stores are open all day. Professional offices usually open from 10 to 2, then from 5 to 8. Banks are open from 9 to 2 pm . ● Most shops and businesses close at lunchtime to rest and take a “siesta” , which is typical in Spain. The Spanish usually take a “siesta” in summer, because it is
  10. 10. very warm. ● Lunch is usually served between 2 pm and 4 pm. Dinner generally takes place at 10 pm. ● The view of time tends to be somewhat flexible. In social situations it is common to show up late but being on time for business situations is expected. ● But appointments and deadlines tend to be kept and most transportation services run on time. ● As a general rule, in the south, people tend to be more relaxed about time than in the north. AT SCHOOL In most public high schools you do not have to wear uniforms, and students usually go with casual wear. But in private and government-funded schools students must wear uniform. Marks at high schools are given on a scale from 0 to 10 with 10 being the highest and 5 being the minimum passing grade for a given subject. Mobile phones are not allowed at schools as a general rule. If you need to make a phone call, you can use the telephone in the main office. If a teacher sees you using your mobile in class it can be taken away until your parents come to collect it. MEETING AND GREETING A kiss on both cheeks. Actually you don’t kiss their cheeks, you just kiss on the air while you’re touching cheeks. From left side to right side. That’s used between girls and a woman and a man. Shaking hands. You shake the right hand, this is used between men, and everyone if it is a serious situation. Hug. This happens among friends. Meeting. In meetings Spaniards would like to check if they can trust you, so they will ask you about things like your family. You should be honest. CONVERSATION Spanish people love to talk, so you can ask about their family or free time. But you should be careful with some topics like age or Spanish food, for example. Here in Spain we are very proud of our cured ham and wine, so maybe speaking badly about that isn’t a good idea. If you’re a woman probably they will say things like “you look good.” Then you could say thanks, because in Spain we prefer humble people. BUSINESS MEALS Doing business in Spain is similar to doing business in the rest of Europe. While many Spaniards kiss on both cheeks when meeting, this is not common in business relationships. When doing business in Spain handshakes are standard as with the rest of Europe and a kiss is appropriate If you are female, don't be surprised if they compliment you and tell you that you look
  11. 11. good. You can compliment them back if you feel like it or just say thanks. Several people may also try to speak at once and interruptions are not uncommon. If this happens it should not be interpreted as rude. More typically, the deals are done at the office, and then after the successful negotiations, you all go to celebrate at a restaurant. The Spanish are great conversationalists. This is how they spend their free time. The Spanish are proud of their food and wine. Don't be surprised if an evening out lasts until the late hours. Spaniards do not, on average, speak English as well as a Northern European. Many companies in Spain have staff with good English language skills, but try to speak Spanish. BODY LANGUAGE Never touch, hug or back slap a Spaniard you do not know well, unless a friendly Spaniard touches you first. Generally, Spaniards stand very close when talking. Spaniards speak a lot with their hands. In most conversations, hands are waving around giving emphasis on what is being said. Never mimic them. It is common to see people hug in public; couples kiss in public, women interlock arms with men while walking in the street ( del brazo). Public physical contact is considered normal within certain limits. MANNERS AND CUSTOMS In Spain, when you are considered a friend you will be treated in a familiar way and politeness won’t be necessary and the rules become relaxed, but you must be more formal with the older generation. If you don’t say “please” or “thank you”, it is not considered impolite as a general rule. It is thought unnecessary among family and friends, or in everyday exchanges in shops and restaurants. When some spanish people are in a pub or in a restaurant, they usually say “jefe” (boss), “maestro” (master), “campeon” (champion), “niño” (boy) , “máquina” (machine) to get attention the waiter’s attention. Spaniards do not physically stand in line (queue), but they have a sixth sense about who arrived before them and who arrived after them, instantly knowing when it’s their turn. Make sure to ask who’s last when you arrive, especially because Spaniards aren’t afraid to complain if someone should “cut in line”. With that said, be prepared to assert yourself to get served.
  12. 12. ADMINISTERING FIRST AID Following the Spanish Red Cross advice, in case of emergency it is crucial to adopt the PAS approach to avoid that lack of knowledge or panic doesn’t let us take correct emergency actions. In Spanish, P.A.S. stands for protecting (proteger), warning (avisar) and helping (ayudar). The first one is to protect, which means that you must move the person out of the road and protect their spine. Also you should keep calm and put on the reflective vest. Next, go out of the vehicle and place the warning triangles in the correct distance. The next step is to help. Alert emergency services by calling 112 to request the presence of an ambulance and qualified personnel at the site. If more than one person is there one should attend to the victim and the other one should call 122 for help. When calling 122, indicate: ● Whether the victim is unconscious. ● Approximate age ● Exact location Administering first aid. Different cases: Check for breathing: You must check the airways, if there´s no response, you must shout for help and you must start CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) Clearing the airway Initial evaluation. Examination of the mouth, consciousness and breathing. If the victim coughs strongly and is breathing well: encourage him to cough and do not perform any manoeuvres If coughing is weak and breathing is difficult, perform manoeuvres to clear the airway like this: ● Five blows on the back with the heel of the hand (between the shoulder and blades), with the adult leaning slightly forwards. ● Then perform five abdominal thrusts (Heimlich manoeuvre) Mouth to mouth ventilation ● Cover the victim’s mouth with your lips. ● Pinch the victim’s nose between the thumb and index finger of the hand that is on the victim’s forehead, keeping the airway open. ● Breathe your air into the victim’s mouth, making sure that the chest rises. If you cannot make the chest rise on breathing in air, check that the airway is open Cardiac massage It consists of rhythmic compressions of the chest which make the blood flow towards
  13. 13. the vital organs such as the heart, lungs and brain. We must follow these steps: ● Put the victim on the floor face up. Locate the centre of the chest and place the heel of one hand on the lower third of the sternum. Place the heel of the other hand on top of the other hand, interlocking the fingers of both hands together. ● With your arms straight, press the weight of your body, pushing the victim’s chest down about 4-5 cm. ● The arms should be vertical over the centre of the chest in order to apply the pressure more easily and the fingers should be raised so as to avoid damaging the ribs Moving an unconscious person If the victim cannot stand, is unconscious or they are in a room filled with smoke, you can move the victim: By crawling while the victim holds onto your shoulders/neck (conscious victim). By grabbing their shoulders/shirt, cradling their head in your arms and pulling. By rolling them onto a blanket or sleeping bag and pulling. Shock It is the body's reaction to a serious injury. It is a general term that describes a weakening of the body's systems, especially the cardiovascular system. How to treat shock: ● Have the victim lie down and be calm. Start with no pillow. ● Cover them with a blanket. ● If their face is pale, raise feet. If their face is red, raise their head. ● Monitor his condition and write down what you see: Take his pulse every five minutes. Note the breathing pattern: shallow/deep, quick/slow Check the injury and change dressings or make adjustments as needed. Look for additional injuries. ● Ask the victim for medical information: medical history, allergies, phone numbers of people to contact, etc. ● Talk to the victim and reassure him.