S L O V A K I A
Slovakia is one of the smallest countries in Europe and
it is situated in the heart of Europe.
The population of Slovakia is about five millions. The
capital of Slovakia is Bratislava and it lies on the
banks of the river Danube. Slovakia is divided into
eight regions - Bratislava, Trnava, Trenčín, Nitra, Žilina, Banská Bystrica, Košice and Prešov.
Our national language is Slovak. The Slovak flag is formed by three parallel stripes (white,
blue, red), and by the Slovak state emblem – double cross.
The national anthem is “Nad Tatrou sa blýska” written by Janko Matuška (1844)
You can listen to the national anthem at this link:
INTERESTING PLACES WHICH ARE WORTH VISITING
It is a treasure of the history of Orava and still attracts
thousands of tourists every year. This castle is situated on
112m high cliff above the river Orava, in the village
Oravský Podzámok. The first document about it comes
from the year 1267. There are still impressive exhibitions,
e.g. the Castle Chapel, the Knight´s Hall, the Picture
Gallery, the Natural Science Exhibition and many others.
Gothic Wooden Roman-Catholic Church of All Saints
It is from the 15th
century. It was awarded by the EUROPA NOSTRA
PLAQUE in 1993 and this monument
was included in the list
of European Cultural Heritage. It has
a beautiful wooden altar with patrons
of the church.
Today, the church is used only
occasionally, e.g. for weddings but its
main purpose is to serve tourists.
Dobšinská Ice Cave
Dobšinská Ice Cave belongs to the most important ice caves in
the world. Since 2000 it has been inscribed on the World Heritage
List. This cave has the glaciated part at elevations from 1,100 to
1,120 metres above the sea level, the monumental glaciations of
the Dobšinská Ice Cave persist for thousands of years at
elevations only 920 to 950 metres.
Vlkolínec is a small village situated at the foot of a
mountain in the north of Slovakia. This village is
situated in the district of the town Ružomberok in
Žilina region. It is a conservation area of folk
architecture. You can find here classical wooden
block houses typical for central Europe. This village
has been included to UNESCO World Heritage Site
Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav
Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav was born in Vyšný Kubín.
He was and still is a very famous Slovak poet,
playwright, novelist, translator, lawyer, and honorary
President of Slovak Matica. Hviezdoslav is one of the
leading personalities of Slovak literature and culture
in Slovakia, he belonged to among the most important
leaders in Slovak literature. There are also many
squares, streets, a village and even a waterfall which
are named by him.
In the art, we also have an artistic competition
in poetry and prose called “Hviezdoslavov Kubin”.
Among his best known masterpieces we include:
- Letorosty I., II., III.
- Krvavé sonety
- Hájnikova žena
- Ežo Vlkolínsky
- Herodes a Herodias
He is considered as a Slovak legend and national
hero. He was a robber who took money the rich
people and gave it to the poor ones. He grew up in
Terchová in a solitude, in the family whose name
was repeatedly on the serf lists. According to the
Slovak folk legend Juraj Jánošík and his retinue
lived in the forests between Žilina and Liptovský
Mikuláš. According to the Polish legend he was
also looting in Poland. He was so called “Slovak
Robin Hood”. Jánošík became very famous not
only in Slovakia. He was also known in the Czech
Republic.The Poles use to call him “hero of the
He was the Slovak national revivalist,
politician, philosopher, historian, linguist,
teacher, writer, poet, journalist and editor.
In 1843 he codified the Slovak literary
language based on the Central Slovak
dialects. He was one of the leading
participants in the Slovak National
Blessed Sister Zdenka
Blessed Sister Zdenka Schellingová was a Slovak nun.
She belonged to the Sisters of Mercy Order. It was the order
of the Holy cross pursuit by the Catholic Church in the
Zdenka Schellingová was born in Krivá in Orava, as the tenth
of eleven children. Her original name was Cecilia. Cecilia
decided for religious life very discreetly. In her fifteen, she
joined to the Sisters of Saint Cross Order in the Podunajské
Biskupice. She decided to dedicate whole her life to God.
E D U C A T I O N
Education is very important for all. Learning and education can be called a kind of lifestyle.
“We learn for life no for school”
Tertiary education, universities
How long do we have to study to get a certain degree?
a) You can achieve the first degree after studying 3 or 4 years – after its graduation you
get the degree baccalaureate (Bc.)
b) The second degree lasts from 1 to 3 years – after its graduation you get the degree
of Mgr., Ing., art. ...
c) When you finish the third level – after the graduation you can get the degree
of graduant (PhD.)
Famous Slovak Universities
Jessenius Faculty in Martin University of Matej Bel in Banská Bystrica
Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra University of Žilina
Which faculty can we find at Slovak universities?
Faculty of Medicine, Natural Science, Economics, Art, Philosophy, Political Sciences,
Education, Theology, Sport, Military, Agriculture.
“If a human would like to become a human must be educated”
John Amos Comenius
Comenius University in Bratislava is the oldest and biggest university in the Slovak Republic.
It was founded in 1919 and it follows the university traditions of Academia Istropolitana.
Studying at the oldest Slovak university enjoys popularity with international students – more
than 2,300 students from 80 countries study at Comenius University. The university admits
about 9,000 new students every year who can choose from a rich range of several hundreds
of courses. Comenius University in Bratislava is an outstanding scientific institution.
Comenius University is also involved on hundreds of national and international scientific
Faculties of Comenius University:
- Faculty of Medicine – 1919
- Faculty of Law – 1921
- Faculty of Philosophy – 1921
- Faculty of Natural Sciences – 1940
- Faculty of Education – 1946
- Faculty of Pharmacy – 1952
- Faculty of Physical Education and
Sports – 1965
- Jessenius Faculty of Medicine – 1969
- Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics – 1980
- Roman Catholic Faculty of Theology – 1990 (only in Slovak)
- Evangelical Faculty of Theology – 1990 (only in Slovak)
- Faculty of Management - 1991
- Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences – 2002
Other important facilities of Comenius University in Bratislava:
- Academic library of Comenius University
- Information technology centre of Comenius University
- Botanic garden of CU
- Comenius University press
- In the area of university, there are two tennis courts with aluminic surface
D I S A B I L I T Y
Disabled persons are persons with limitation at work caused by longstanding (at least half a
year long period) health conditions or diseases, or/and difficulties in basic activities.
Types of Disabilities:
The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) identifies and defines the following categories
Physical - affects a person's mobility or dexterity
Intellectual - affects a person's abilities to learn
Psychiatric - affects a person's thinking processes
Sensory - affects a person's ability to hear or see
Neurological - results in the loss of some bodily or
Associations for the disabled:
National Association of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing: The association which provides
support and assistance for deaf and hard of hearing children, adults, and their families.
Down Foundation: The organisation which ensures that as many children with Down
Syndrome as possible are brought up within their own families and live an independent
National Autism Association: An umbrella body for the various organisations
representing the interests of autistic people and their families.
National Deaf and Blind Association : The association which represents the people´s
interests - deaf and blind disability. It offers training for sign language interpreters and
special education teachers, as well as education and therapy for deaf and blind children.
In everyday life we can meet a lot of disabled people everywhere. While we go out,
shopping or just climb stairs without any obstacle, people who live with disability have a lot
of difficulties with things which are common for us for healthy people. That is why we must
help them with several devices to make their lives easier.
Our government is trying to help these disabled people to live their life in an easier way. A lot
of places such as shopping malls, businesses, doctors' offices and other public places are
adapted to the needs of the disabled people.
Furthermore every public building like schools, universities, business offices have to
provide a safe incline for anyone with a handicap to enter the buildings. Besides the
buildings it is very necessary special ramps to be placed everywhere for better entry.
The Paralympics Games is a major
international multi-sport event involving all of
the sportsmen and sportswomen all around
the world with a range of physical and
intellectual disabilities including mobility
disabilities, amputations, blindness, and
cerebral palsy. There are Winter and Summer
Paralympics Games. They follow the
Olympics Games since the year 1988. All the
Paralympics Games are governed by the
International Paralympics Committee.
She was born in May 23, 1986, in Rožňava.
She is a Slovak downhill skier and a five-fold
winner of the Paralympics Games. She is the
most successful Paralympics sportswoman in
the Slovak history. At the Winter Paralympics
Games in 2010 in Vancouver where she won
three gold medals for the visually impaired
disciplines: giant slalom, super combined and
super giant slalom. Then she won a silver
medal in downhill skiing. The fourth
Paralympics gold medal was won by her at the
Winter Paralympics Games in Sochi (Russia) in 2014 skiing for visually impaired. She also
won the bronze medal here in the slalom and the fifth gold in the giant slalom.
He was born in September 28, 1968, in Heľpa. He is a
Slovak Paralympics athlete and a representative of the
Slovak Republic for the Paralympics Games. Among his
successes belong four gold and one silver medals. He is
our most successful Paralympics sportsman. He is also
the chairman of the Slovak Paralympics Committee and
the President of the Slovak Union of disabled athletes.
In 2005 he was declared for the Paralympics sportsman
of the decade. He is considered for one of the best
European champion in the individual table tennis in
wheelchair for last twenty years.
On the last Summer Paralympics Games in London 2012,
he achieved the greatest success when he triumphed in the individual and team category .
Etiquette is variously defined for example such as
Good manners & behaviour
It is treating others as you would like to be treated with consideration, thoughtfulness &
You only have ONE opportunity to make a good first impression !
When you meet someone, shake his or her hand firmly,
look directly into his or her eyes, and say his or her name
in your mind three times.
Words present only 7% of an initial impression
Vocal quality is considered for another 38%.
The rest of 55% is any first impression based on
non-verbal perceptions of appearance and behaviour.
Those few seconds when you are shaking your hands is very important. It can empower or
weaken a relationship. We can recognize various types of handshake.
• Dead Fish
• Limp Fingers
The basic rules of a good handshake
Hold the person's hand firmly.
Shake web-to-web, three times maximum.
Keep eye contact.
Radiate positive aura.
Basic rules of introducing
• In business, introductions are
based on power and hierarchy
• Gender plays no role in business
etiquette; it does not affect the order of
• Introduce someone from your firm to a client or customer
• Introduce a junior executive to a senior executive
• During the introducing of someone tell each of the individuals' names and look at him
• The way you respond to someone else's introduction is just as important as making the
• Always stand during introducing and offer your hand
Conversation topic is very important for communication. Be very careful and ready what you
are going to talk or are talking about. That
is why do not ask about :
• religious beliefs
• financial situation
• any illness
• details about a divorce or an affair
• someone's weight, height, shoe size,
age or mental health.
• harmful gossip and telling racial, ethnic, and sexually oriented jokes
Small Talk Tips
• First, observe your surrounding you are in. Your small talk will be more effective if
you take the time to look for the best possible icebreaker.
• Stay safe.
• Ask open-ended questions.
• Make strong eye-contact, the key is to make an interest and respect.
• Be aware of your body language revealing how you really feel.
When an accident happens it is very important to act very fast and mainly right. Of course, it
is very complicated and difficult when there is a lot of blood, noise, chaos and you are
under the pressure. We should avoid mistakes like dragging out a person in unconsciousness
when there is no fire or it is not necessary. We should not start saving life before we insure
vehicle or we should not provide first aid before we check breathing and other vital functions.
Assecuration of the place of the accident
Stop in a safe distance in front of the place of the accident. Then place
the warning triangle in assured clear distance ahead. Turn off the engine
of the crashed car and assure the vehicle against to movement or back
lift (do not turn back reversal car)
Life saving acts
At first we must check vital functions of the patient if he or she breaths and he or she does not
growl stop intense bleeding. We cover the open wound of chest. We ensure patency of air
Check by sight:
Look and colour of face
Check by ear:
Badges of the stricken (moan, answer on the questions)
Check by touch:
Pain of stricken area
Temperature of skin, sweat etc.
How to stop powerful bleeding:
Pick up the wound above the level of the heart,
push it by fingers or put a tampon there. Then
do a treatment with a bandage and if the
bandage leaks add another layer.
Drag out the wounded person only if
There is another danger like fire, falling down the hillside etc
If the person blocks helping the other wounded person
It is not able to provide first aid at that position of person
Keep in mind potential damage of spine-
beware of spine rotation. If you cannot
drag out wounded person on your own.
Taking helmet off:
Carry out in pair
First the rescuer must keep head position in the ax of the body
Second one turns off the helmet also in the ax of the body
The wounded person does not react on the accosting or shaking.
Take out freely laying objects in mouth
Slump over his head
Push forward his jaw
Put him into stabilized position
If he or she does not breath, begin to resuscitate
Keep watching the wounded person all the time
If the wounded person breaths and we feel the heart actions (we must check it every minute)
we kneel down to the wounded person and:
Bend the leg (that one which is further from you)
We put the hand on the abdomen (again the further one)
We catch patient´s bended knee and shoulder on the other
side from us and roll him over a side
We push on the forehead and bend his head back for better
We also bend his arm in the elbow and put in under the
Do it if you cannot hear breathing after slumping over his head and if you cannot see
breathing movements after slumping over his head
30 times push the chest right in the middle (after 30 times there comes two in breath but it is
not necessary but in that case do not stop pushing)
Anti shock steps:
Anti shock position
Make sure that he or she is