2. Relevant differences can be seen between
countries’ road signs. Most European countries
refer to the 1968 Vienna Convention on Road
Signs and Signals which is an international
treaty designed to increase road safety and
support international road traffic by
standardising the signing system for road
This convention was agreed upon by the United
Nations Economic and Social Council at its
Conference on Road Traffic in Vienna in 1968
and came into force 10 years later in 1978.
3. In Europe the driving signs are
unified, only little difference can be
seen. The most recognisable
differences are the graphical and
colouring variations (for example we
usually use white background on
warning signs but Finland and Poland
uses yellow) but there are
differences in meanings, too.
4. Roundabout sign:
5. Road works sign:
6. In Finland
Wild animals sign
7. Hungarian regulations
8. Hungarian facts
• Hungary has 10 million inhabitants and
3,685,677 registered vehicles.
• There are nearly 3.1 million licence holders,
along with 193,103 kilometres of road.
• A total of 1,363 road kilometres is made up of
motorways and express highways.
• The international vehicle ID code is ‘H’
9. Driving regulations
The minimum age for driving is 16.
From the age of 14 it is possible to drive a moped.
Mobile phones are allowed only with headsets.
Use of horn is prohibited unless in danger.
If using the Hungarian motorways drivers need to
obtain motorway vignette.
10. Speed limits
Standard legal limits, which may be varied by signs, for
private vehicles without trailers: In built-up areas 50 km/h,
outside built-up areas 90 km/h or 110 km/h on semimotorways and 130 km/h on motorways.
11. Child safety / seatbelt laws
• It is compulsory for all inside the vehicle to wear a
• Children under 3 and measuring less than 150cm
must be seated in an appropriate child restraint for
12. Compulsory equipment in Hungary
Snow chains - The use of or their presence in a
car can be made compulsory on some roads
when weather conditions require.
13. Drinking and driving: zero tolerance
Nil percentage of alcohol allowed in drivers' blood; amounts
of less than 0.08 per cent incur a fine, more than 0.08 per
cent legal proceedings.
• Since 2008, a licence is withdrawn from the driver on the
spot, and is returned after the driving ban period decided by
the authorities has expired.
14. Licence categories and special
15. We distinguish different types of driver’s license in
The first is „A1” which is „light motorcycles”. For this you don’t need
complicated tests just the most basic ones like: Transport
knowlegde=KRESZ, Vehicle handling=RUTIN, Traffic driving=FORGALMI
16. The „A” category is nearly the same, but it includes
motorcycles which have more power than 40kW.
17. The third category is „B”. This category includes all cars
which aren’t heavier than 3500kg. Transport knowledge
and Traffic driving are necessary.
18. The fourth category is „C1” which includes all the trucks not
heavier than 7500 kg. The main exams are:
Theoretical exam: Fundamentals of transport, occupational
safety, fire protection, transportation and loading.
Practice: Safety inspection and maintenance, routine, traffic
The „C” category covers more thing. You need to be older than
17 years old, you need a certificate about 8 years of primary
education and you must have a valid license for category „B”.
The basic tests you need:
Structural and operational knowledge
Security control and operation
19. "D1" category authorizes you to drive vehicles with no
more than 16 permanent seats. You need to be more than
21 years old, have a valid driving license of category „B”
and a certificate of elementary education.
You will have to take an exam of Safety Knowledge.
The next one is category „D”. This category includes all
buses and heavy trailers. You need a valid license for
category „B” and „C”, you have to be more than 20 years
old and need to have at least an elementary education to
get a license in this category.
20. The „E” category has the most side branches. Vehicle and
heavy trailer can only be issued as a combined category.
a) „B + E”: "B" category vehicles, and heavy trailers.
You must have: elementary education, minimum 2 years of
valid driving license for class "B” and you have to be older
than 18 years old.
b) „C1 + E”: Vehicles, and heavy trailers, and all the vehicles
lighter than 12,000 kg, and the trailer’s weight not exceeding
the towing vehicle's own weight. The requirements are: "C1"
category valid driving license, elementary education and you
have to be over 18. This category has a special exam that we
call: Combinated-vehicle driving theory.
21. c) „C + E”: „C” category vehicles and heavy trailers. The
requirements are: „C” category valid driving license (not beginner),
elementary education and you must be over 23 years old.
d) „D1 + E”: „D1” category vehicle, and heavy trailer combination,
including all the vehicles not heavier than 12,000 kg, on condition
that the trailer's weight not exceeding the towing vehicle’s weight
and the trailer is not used for personal transportation. The
conditions are: „D1” category valid driving license (not beginner),
you must be over 21, elementary education and you have to take
Safety knowledge, fire protection, transportation and loading.
e) „D + E”: All „D” category vehicle, and heavy trailer if the trailer is
not used for personal transportation. The conditions are: valid „D”
category driving license (not beginner), you must be more than 21
years old and elementary education.
22. The last category is „M”. It’s simpler than „A1”, because you can
already get a driving license at the age of 14 if you have finished
your elementary education. The exams and the vehicle is the
same, just you can’t drive on highway.
23. Procedure of getting a license
24. Documents which are necessary
2 photos about yourself
The certificate of the elementary school
25. Aspects of school choice
• The location of the school : it isn’t too far from
• The size of the school: in the big schools there
are more instructors and the technical
equipments are faster.
• The price
26. Expenses of training
• Theoretical training:
20-30.000 Ft (it depends on your school)
• Driving hourly fee for the first 30 hours:
• Hourly rates for plus driving lessons:
2000-3000 HUF / hour
27. Expenses of Exams
• KRESZ exam fee: 4700 Ft
• Practical exam fee: 11 000 Ft
• Emergency exam fee: 6500 Ft
• Medical suitability (for 10 years): 6800 Ft
• Emergency course fee: around 10 - 12000 Ft
28. The oral driving course
• The aim of the course is to provide a basis for
a successful exam and to teach the rules of
• The exam consists of 55 questions and to pass
the exam, you have to reach the minimum 65
29. Practical lessons
• The practical test used to be made up of two parts:
an initial test on a course that is not open to the
public, and another on the open road. A few years
later, the National Transport Authority deleted the
initial test and the students have to start driving
lessons on the open road.
30. The Red Cross courses
• Without a passed emergency exam you can’t
get your driving licence.
• If you have professional qualification or other
driving licence for motor or motorbike and
you can prove it, you don’t need an
31. Annual road deaths
• In 1998 there were 1,371 road deaths, in 2009 822
and in 2010 there were 739 road deaths.
• There were 55 motorcycle fatalities in 2000, and in
2010, there were 58.
• In 2000, 346 pedestrians died in road traffic
accidents in Hungary, whereas in 2010, 213
pedestrians died in road traffic accidents.
32. Enforcement of driving law
• Penalty ranges are determined in the legal
regulations on minor offences and the penal code.
• Law enforcement officers are authorised to issue onthe-spot fines.
• These can only be paid by using the special "yellow
cheques" issued to the driver by the police officer.
33. Recent legislation changes
• Major changes in 2008 brought the
introduction of the principle of owner's
responsibility and the related administrative
• The zero-tolerance policy on drink driving was
introduced, with the police power to
withdraw a driving licence on the spot.
• The penalty points system was also made