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The big question Does government regulation requiring mobile carriers to provide mobile infrastructure in rural areas reduce a digital divide in rural areas?
Similar origins –different directions Both US and Norwegian telecommunications policies were based on universal service and equity AT&T was allowed to (and had to) post a profit, which could be then reinvested in infrastructure and extended service. The Norwegian telephone system was only able to expand when allocated money from the federal budget,
PENETRATION OF TELEPHONES Sources: Cohen 1992, Telenor 2009
Early adoption – unified service Norway – first in the world to develop mobile networks; well-functioning system facilitated early adoption. Reduced barriers for major majority. US – several technologies, lack of interconnection, lack of coverage. Later adoption and poorer penetration.
Specific requirements Norway: geographic requirements, percentage of population, and network speed United States: Minimal – just cover 2/3 of population within 5 years. Allows providers to just serve urban areas
Conclusion Lack of regulation does increase digitial divide based on access to high-speed services Cost beyond personal – inefficient, expensive
Credits Presentation by Inge Scheve. MCDM University of Washington CC share-and-share alike, non-commercial use email@example.com, http://twitter.com/IngeScheve Flickr CC photos: Telephone lines 1942: Library of Congress - http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/2179061201/ Wireless telephone, Los Angeles, 1910: Library of Congress - http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/2765467596/ SIM card: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mroach/1481099272 Telenor lines:http://www.flickr.com/photos/bushman_k/2158630303/in/set-72157603614787097 Telenor handset:http://www.flickr.com/photos/asimzb/2140091503 Telefonkiosker: http://www.flickr.com/photos/iammadforit/3387884738 Modern pay phones in Stockholm:http://www.flickr.com/photos/vargklo/150563157 Old telephones:http://www.flickr.com/photos/sgroi/4270717569