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  1. 1. IP Addressing S.K.Gochhayat.
  2. 2. IPv6 What Happened to IPv5? 0 IP March 1977 version (deprecated) 1 IP January 1978 version (deprecated) 2 IP February 1978 version A (deprecated) 3 IP February 1978 version B (deprecated) 4 IPv4 September 1981 version (current widespread) 5 ST Stream Transport (not a new IP, little use) 6 IPv6 December 1998 version (formerly SIP, SIPP) 7 CATNIP IPng evaluation (formerly TP/IX; deprecated) 8 Pip IPng evaluation (deprecated) 9 TUBA IPng evaluation (deprecated) 10-15 unassigned
  3. 3. What is an IP address?• Each host on a TCP/IP network is uniquely identified at the IP layer with an address.• An Internet Protocol (IP) address specifies the location of a host or client on the Internet.• The IP address is also known as Protocol address• The IPv4 address is 32 bits long IPADDRESSING 3
  4. 4. IPv4 Address Scheme• What the Internet machines see an IP address? 11001010000011100100000000000001• For human understanding the 32 bits of IP address are separated into 4 bytes of 8 binary digits• Each binary byte is converted into decimal and is separated by a dot hence also known as Dotted Decimal Notation• How we see an IP address? IPADDRESSING 4
  5. 5. IPv4 Address Scheme 32 Bits Network Host 8 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits 8 Bits 172 . 16 . 122 . 204• In decimal the address range is to• The IP address is of the form <networkID,hostID> IPADDRESSING 5
  6. 6. IPv4 Address Scheme• Two types of addressing schemes for IPv4 – Classful – Classless• Classful – Original style of addressing based on first few bits of the address. – Generally used in customer sites.• Classless – A new type of addressing that disregards the class bit of an address and applies a variable prefix (mask) to determine the network number. IPADDRESSING 6
  7. 7. IPv4 Address Scheme• There are five classes of addresses A, B, C, D & E.• A, B & C classes are used to represent host and network address.• Class D is a special type of address used for multicasting.• Class E is reserved for experimental use. IPADDRESSING 7
  8. 8. IPv4 Address classes Class-A: N H H H Class-B: N N H H Class-C: N N N H Class-D: For Multicast Class-E: For Research•N=Network number assigned by IR.•H=Host number assigned by network administrator. IPADDRESSING 8
  9. 9. Identifying a class of address Address Identifier Network Address Host AddressA 0 7 bits Network Address 24 bits Host AddressB 10 14 bits Network Address 16 bits Host AddressC 110 21 bits Network Address 8 bits Host AddressD 1110 Multicast address ( 1111 Reserved for future use IPADDRESSING 9
  10. 10. Address space utilisation 128 127 10000000 01111111 100% B-25% 1011111 1 0 191 1 0 A-50% 192 11000000 0 1 C-12.5% 11011111 1 223 0 D-6.25% 1 224 11100000 239 0 00000000E-6.25% 11101111 240 255 0 11110000 11111111 IPADDRESSING 10
  11. 11. Networks Vs Hosts• In Classless environment we can have 232=4294967296 Hosts• Class Networks Hosts/Network• A 126 16777214• B 16384 65354• C 2097152 254 – Having 16777214 hosts for Class-A and 254 hosts for Class-C were not working well IPADDRESSING 11
  12. 12. Subnetting• Chopping up of a network into a number of smaller networks is called subnetting.• Allows to assign some of the bits, normally used by the host portion of the address, to the network portion of the address.• The format of subnetted IP address would be <network number, subnet number, host number>• Efficiently uses the full network address.• Subnet is a real network under a network.• Any of the classes can be subnetted. IPADDRESSING 12
  13. 13. Subnetting (2 Bits)N.N.N.H N.N.N.00hhhhhh SN3 SN2 N.N.N.01hhhhhh N.N.N.128/26 N.N.N.64/26 N.N.N.10hhhhhh N.N.N.11hhhhhh Hosts:62 Hosts:62 0 1 000000 - 0 1 0 000001 - 1 000010 - 2 SN4 1 0 SN1 . . N.N.N.192/26 N.N.N.0/26 . . 111110 - 62 Hosts:62 Hosts:62 111111 - 63 (1-62) (1-62) IPADDRESSING 13
  14. 14. Subnetting (8 Bits) 172 16 H HIP Address Network HostDefault / Natural Mask 255 255 0 0 Network Host8 bit Subnet Mask 255 255 255 0 Network Subnet Host•Default / Natural Mask : 172.16.H.H /16•8 bit Subnetting : 172.16.N.H /24 IPADDRESSING 14
  15. 15. Identifying Network Address201.222.5.121/29 11001001 11011110 00000101 01111001Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111000ANDing 11001001 11011110 00000101 01111000 Network 201 222 5 120 •Five bits of subnetting •Subnet address: (0+64+32+16+8) •Host Number : 1 IPADDRESSING 15
  16. 16. Variable Length Subnet Mask• Subnetting creates subnets with equal number of hosts, in a network.• The number of bits subnetted i.e. the length of subnet mask will be same for all the subnets.• To co-op with the variable number of hosts in subnets, in a network, number subnetted bits i.e. the length of subnet mask for the subnets will also vary.• The method of achieving subnetting, with variable length of subnet mask, is known as Variable Length Subnet Mask. IPADDRESSING 16
  17. 17. CIDR• Classless Inter Domain Routing• Pronounced as - cider• Also known by the name supernetting• RFC 1519• Helps in reducing number of route table entries – – – – IPADDRESSING 17
  18. 18. With CIDR NAP ISP3198.32.0.0/16 ISP1 ISP2198.32.1.0 IPADDRESSING 18
  19. 19. CIDR• Initially IP addresses were arbitrarily handed out without regard to geographic location and were overtaxing the Internet routing tables• Class A stopped being handed out and Class-B was exhausted• With the remaining Class-C addresses the whole world has been divided into 4 zones• Each zone is given a portion of Class-C addresses – to (Europe) – to (North America) – to (C&S.America) – to (Asia & the Pacific) IPADDRESSING 19
  20. 20. CIDR• Each zone is given about (2x224) 32 million addresses to allocate• Another (20x224) 320 million Class-C addresses to are reserved for future.• 32 million address entries have been compressed to one router table entry.• Any route outside Europe that gets packet addressed to to can just send it to Standard European Gateway.• Once a packet gets to Europe (2x28x28) 131072 network entries are needed, if /16 bits prefix is used. IPADDRESSING 20
  21. 21. Private Address Space• IANA has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private internets (RFC 1918): – - ( prefix) • 24-bit block • Complete class-A network number – - ( prefix) • 172.0001/0000.0.0-172.0001/1111.255.255 • 20-bit block • Set of 16 contiguous class-B network numbers – - ( prefix) • 16-bit block • Set of 256 contiguous class-C network numbers IPADDRESSING 21
  22. 22. Need of IPv6
  23. 23. IPv6 Why IPv6? – Problems with IPv4 – “Address is running out!” Internet is expanding very rapidly in developing countries like India, China New devices like phones need IP address End-to-End Reachability is not possible without IPv6 New Features like Autoconfiguration, better support for QoS, Mobility and Security, Route Aggregation. Routing table explosion
  24. 24. IPv4 Addressing CrisisIPv4 has 32 bit addresses.Initially classful addressing schemeClassless schemeNattingMore Natting(444)Addresses not available. (As per the info. available on http://www.ipv6forum.com)IPv4 is victim of its own success.
  25. 25. IPv6 IPv6 Address IPv4: 32 bits or 4 bytes long 4,200,000,000 possible addressable nodes • IPv6: 128 bits or 16 bytes • 3.4 * 1038 possible addressable nodes • 340,282,366,920,938,463,374,607,432,768,211,456 • 5 * 1028 addresses per person
  26. 26. IPv6 Address Crisis • Larger address space • Efficient IP header and datagram • Mandatory features 5 * 1028 addresses per person
  27. 27. Larger Address SpaceFrom 32 bits to 128 bits addresses enables:– Global reachability:• No hidden networks, hosts• All hosts can be reachable and be "servers"3/14/2013 27
  28. 28. Natting
  29. 29. Consequences of the Limited IPv4 Address Space: NATs Host Source address: Destination address: Source TCP port: Destination TCP 5000 port: 80 NAT Web server InternetDestinationaddress: Destination TCPport: 1025 The NAT keeps the mapping of {, TCP 1025} to {, TCP 5000} in a local translation table for future reference.
  30. 30. NATs and Peer-to-Peer ApplicationsHost A Host C NAT InternetHost B Intranet
  31. 31. NAT444 = NAT44 + NAT44 Large-Scale IPv4private IPv4private NAT IPv4 (LSN) Internet NAT44 NAT44Home network ISP network 31
  32. 32. IPv6 Routing in IPv6 Aggregation of prefixes announced in the global routing table Efficient and scalable routing
  33. 33. IPv6 Addressing
  34. 34. Lesson Objectives• IPv6 address space• IPv6 address syntax• Unicast IPv6 addresses• Multicast IPv6 addresses• Anycast IPv6 addresses• IPv6 interface identifiers• IPv4 addresses and IPv6 equivalents
  35. 35. The IPv6 Address Space• 128-bit address space – 2128 possible addresses – 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,7 68,211,456 addresses (3.4 x 1038)• 128 bits were chosen to allow multiple levels of hierarchy and flexibility in designing hierarchical addressing and routing• Typical unicast IPv6 address: – 64 bits for subnet ID, 64 bits for interface ID
  36. 36. Current Allocation Format Fraction ofAllocation Prefix address spaceReserved 0000 0000 1/256NSAP Allocation 0000 001 1/128Aggregatable Global Unicast 001 1/8Link-Local Unicast 1111 1110 10 1/1024Site-Local Unicast 1111 1110 11 1/1024Multicast 1111 1111 1/256
  37. 37. IPv6 Address Syntax• IPv6 address in binary form: 0010000111011010000000001101001100000000000000000010111100111011 0000001010101010000000001111111111111110001010001001110001011010• Divided along 16-bit boundaries: 0010000111011010 0000000011010011 0000000000000000 0010111100111011 0000001010101010 0000000011111111 1111111000101000 1001110001011010• Each 16-bit block is converted to hexadecimal and delimited with colons: 21DA:00D3:0000:2F3B:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A• Suppress leading zeros within each 16-bit block: 21DA:D3:0:2F3B:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A
  38. 38. Compressing Zeros• Some IPv6 addresses contain long sequences of zeros• A single contiguous sequence of 16-bit blocks set to 0 can be compressed to “::” (double- colon)• Example: – FE80:0:0:0:2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 becomes FE80::2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 – FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 becomes FF02::2• Cannot use zero compression to include part of a 16-bit block – FF02:30:0:0:0:0:0:5 does not become FF02:3::5.
  39. 39. IPv6 Prefixes• Prefix is the part of the address where the bits have fixed values or are the bits of a route or subnet identifier• IPv6 subnets or routes always uses address/prefix-length notation – CIDR notation• Examples: – 21DA:D3::/48 for a route – 21DA:D3:0:2F3B::/64 for a subnet• No more dotted decimal subnet masks
  40. 40. Types of IPv6 Addresses• Unicast – Address of a single interface – One-to-one delivery to single interface• Multicast – Address of a set of interfaces – One-to-many delivery to all interfaces in the set• Anycast – Address of a set of interfaces – One-to-one-of-many delivery to a single interface in the set that is closest• No more broadcast addresses
  41. 41. Unicast IPv6 Addresses• Aggregatable global unicast addresses• Link-local addresses• Site-local addresses• Special addresses• Compatibility addresses• NSAP addresses
  42. 42. Internet Registry (IR)• An Internet Registry is an organisation that is responsible for distributing IP address space to its members or customers and for registering those distributions. IRs can be classified as:• RIRs (Regional Internet Registery)• NIRs (National Internet Registery)• LIRs (Local Internet Registery) IPADDRESSING 42
  43. 43. Internet Registries Internet Assigned Numbers Authority IANAInterNIC RIPE APNICAmerica Europe Asia Regional National Local Consumer IPADDRESSING 43
  44. 44. Regional Internet Registry1. African Network Information Centre (AfriNIC) for Africa2. Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) for Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and neighboring countries3. American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN)[ for the United States, Canada, several parts of the Caribbean region, and Antarctica.4. Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre (LACNIC) for Latin America and parts of the Caribbean region5. Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC) for Europe, Russia, the Middle East, and Central Asia
  45. 45. Allocation and Assignment APNIC Allocates /8 to APNIC Member APNIC Allocation APNIC Member /21 Allocates Assignsto downstream to end-user Member Allocation Downstream /23 Assigns Sub- to end-user Allocation /27 /26 /24 /25 /2645 Customer / End User Customer Assignments
  46. 46. IPv6 addressing structure 0 128 bits 127 32 16 16 64 LIR /32 Customer site /64 - /4846 Subnet /64 Device /128
  47. 47. BSNL• IPv6 address range allocated to BSNL by APNIC is 2001:4490::/30. However since BSNL is entitled for /24 address space and a larger address space will be future safe, the same should be requested to APNIC.
  48. 48. • Following would require IPv6 addressing• BSNL servers, backbone and access equipment.• Leased Line Customers• Enterprise customer with multiple location (connected through leased lines or over MPLS)• Broadband (ADSL) Customers• Mobile Wireless (GSM, CDMA, 3G) customers• Multiplay Customers• WiMAX Customers• ISPs who are taking bandwidth from BSNL
  49. 49. – Allocate address range to various PoPs as follows: • /34 for A1 & A2 PoPs • /36 for A3 & A4 PoPs • /38 for B1 & B2 PoP s– Within each PoP, allocate address range as follows: • In all A1 & A2 PoPs, use /38 for various services like Broadband, Mobile, Multiplay, WiMAX, leased line customers (including ISPs) and BSNL service networks. • In all A3 & A4 PoPs, use /40 for various services like Broadband, Mobile, Multiplay, WiMAX, leased line customers (including ISPs) and BSNL service networks.
  50. 50. • In all B1 & B2 PoPs, use /42 for various services like Broadband, Mobile, Multiplay, WiMAX, leased line customers (including ISPs) and BSNL service networks.– Allocate address range to customers as follows: • Allocate /64 IP address to broadband, mobile wireless, WiMAX and multiplay customers. • Allocate /56 to large Leased Line customers & /60 for small leased line customers and BSNL service networks. • Allocate multiple /56 or /60 to multi-location leased line customer. • Allocate multiple /56 to ISPs.
  51. 51. • Allocate 1 /40 address range for all the routers and other network devices. All the IPv6 related routing and IPv6 SNMP management should be done using these IPs.
  52. 52. IPv6 IPv6 Address Types Unicast Address is for a single interface. IPv6 has several types (for example, global and IPv4 mapped). Multicast One-to-many Enables more efficient use of the network Uses a larger address range Anycast One-to-nearest (allocated from unicast address space). Multiple devices share the same address. All anycast nodes should provide uniform service. Source devices send packets to anycast address. Routers decide on closest device to reach that destination. Suitable for load balancing and content delivery services.
  53. 53. Aggregatable Global Unicast Addresses• Top-Level Aggregation ID (TLA ID)• Next-Level Aggregation ID (NLA ID)• Site-Level Aggregation ID (SLA ID)• Interface ID 13 bits 8 bits 24 bits 16 bits 64 bits001TLA ID Res NLA ID SLA ID Interface ID
  54. 54. Topologies Within Global Addresses• Public Topology• Site Topology• Interface ID001TLA ID Res NLA ID SLA ID Interface ID 48 bits 16 bits 64 bits Public Topology Site Topology Interface Identifier
  55. 55. Local-Use Unicast Addresses• Link-local addresses – Used between on-link neighbors and for Neighbor Discovery• Site-local addresses – Used between nodes in the same site
  56. 56. Link-Local Addresses• Format Prefix 1111 1110 10 – FE80::/64 prefix• Used for local link only – Single subnet, no router – Address autoconfiguration – Neighbor Discovery 10 bits 54 bits 64 bits 1111 1110 10 000 . . . 000 Interface ID
  57. 57. Site-Local Addresses• Format Prefix 1111 1110 11 – FEC0::/48 prefix for site• Used for local site only – Replacement for IPv4 private addresses – Intranets not connected to the Internet – Routers do not forward site-local traffic outside the site 10 bits 38 bits 16 bits 64 bits 1111 1110 11 000 . . . 000 Subnet ID Interface ID
  58. 58. IPv6 AddressingUnspecified Loopback• Used as a placeholder • Identifies self when no address • Localhost available • Like in IPv4 – Initial DHCP request • 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or ::1 – Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) • To find if your IPv6 stack• Like in IPv4 works: 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 or :: – Ping6 ::13/14/2013 58
  59. 59. Compatibility Addresses• IPv4-compatible address – 0:0:0:0:0:0:w.x.y.z or ::w.x.y.z• IPv4-mapped address – 0:0:0:0:0:FFFF:w.x.y.z or ::FFFF:w.x.y.z• 6over4 address – Interface ID of ::WWXX:YYZZ• 6to4 address – Prefix of 2002:WWXX:YYZZ::/48• ISATAP address Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol – Interface ID of ::0:5EFE:w.x.y.z
  60. 60. NSAP AddressesNetwork Service Access Point 7 bits 121 bits 0000001 NSAP-mapped address
  61. 61. Multicast IPv6 Addresses• Flags• Scope• Defined multicast addresses – All-Nodes addresses • FF01::1 (Node Local), FF02::1 (Link Local) – All-Routers addresses • FF01::2 (Node Local), FF02::2 (Link Local), FF05::2 (Site Local) 8 bits 4 bits 4 bits 112 bits 1111 1111 Flags Scope Group ID
  62. 62. Recommended Multicast IPv6 Addresses• Only 32 bits are used to indicate the Group ID – Single IPv6 multicast address maps to a single Ethernet multicast MAC address 8 bits 4 bits 4 bits 80 bits 32 bits 1111 1111 Flags Scope 000 … 000 Group ID
  63. 63. Solicited-Node Address 64 bits 64 bits Unicast prefix Interface ID 24 bits FF02: 0:0:0:0 :1:FF• Example: – For FE80::2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A, the corresponding solicited- node address is FF02::1:FF28:9C5A• Acts as a pseudo-unicast address for very efficient address resolution
  64. 64. Anycast IPv6 Addresses• Not associated with any prefix• Summary and host routes are used to locate nearest anycast group member• Subnet router anycast address: n bits 128 - n bits Subnet Prefix 000 . . . 000
  65. 65. Addresses in URL• In a URL, it is enclosed in brackets – http://[2001:1:4F3A::206:AE14]:8080/index.html – URL parsers have to be modified – Cumbersome for users• Mostly for diagnostic purposes• Should use Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN)3/14/2013 65
  66. 66. IPv6 Addresses for a Host• Unicast addresses: – A link-local address for each interface – Unicast addresses for each interface (site-local or global addresses) – A loopback address (::1)• Multicast addresses: – The node-local scope all-nodes multicast address (FF01::1) – The link-local scope all-nodes multicast address (FF02::1) – The solicited-node address for each unicast address – The multicast addresses of joined groups
  67. 67. IPv6 Addresses for a Router• Unicast addresses: – A link-local address for each interface – Unicast addresses for each interface – Loopback address (::1)• Anycast addresses – Subnet-router anycast address – Additional anycast addresses (optional)• Multicast addresses: – The node-local scope all-nodes multicast address (FF01::1) – The node-local scope all-routers multicast address (FF01::2) – The link-local scope all-nodes multicast address (FF02::1) – The link-local scope all-routers multicast address (FF02::2) – The site-local scope all-routers multicast address (FF05::2) – The solicited-node address for each unicast address – The multicast addresses of joined groups
  68. 68. Subnetting the IPv6 Address Space• Subdividing by using high-order bits that do not already have fixed values to create subnetted network prefixes• Two-step process: 1. Determine the number of bits to be used for the subnetting 2. Enumerate the new subnetted network prefixes
  69. 69. IPv6 Interface Identifiers• The last 64 bits of unicast IPv6 addresses• Interface identifier based on: – Extended Unique Identifier (EUI)-64 address • Either assigned to a network adapter card or derived from IEEE 802 addresses – Temporarily assigned, randomly generated value that changes over time – A value assigned by a stateful address configuration protocol – A value assigned during a Point-to-Point Protocol connection establishment – A manually configured value
  70. 70. IEEE 802 Addresses• Company ID• Extension ID• U/L bit (u) – Universally (=0)/Locally (=1) Administered• U/G bit (g) – Unicast (=0)/Group (=1) Address 24 bits 24 bitsccccccug cccccccc cccccccc xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx IEEE-administered company ID Manufacturer-selected extension ID
  71. 71. IEEE 802 Address Conversion Example• Host A has the MAC address of 00-AA-00-3F-2A-1C• 1. Convert to EUI-64 format – 00-AA-00-FF-FE-3F-2A-1C• 2. Complement the U/L bit – The first byte in binary form is 00000000. When the seventh bit is complemented, it becomes 00000010 (0x02). – Result is 02-AA-00-FF-FE-3F-2A-1C• 3. Convert to colon hexadecimal notation – 2AA:FF:FE3F:2A1C• Link-local address for node with the MAC address of 00- AA-00-3F-2A-1C is FE80::2AA:FF:FE3F:2A1C.
  72. 72. Larger Address Space• "Plug and play"– By auto configuration3/14/2013 72
  73. 73. IPv6 Auto-Configuration• Stateless (RFC2462) –Host autonomously SUBNET PREFIX + MAC ADDRESS configures its own address SUBNET PREFIX –Link local addressing •i.e.: FE80::80:9341:A892• Stateful –DHCPv6 –Provides not only IP address, also other configuration SUBNET PREFIX + parameters like DNS MAC ADDRESS• Addressing lifetime (Single Subnet –Facilitates graceful Scope, Formed from renumbering Reserved Prefix and Link Layer Address) –Addresses defined as valid, deprecated or invalid
  74. 74. IPv6 Stateless Autoconfiguration Stateless Address Configuration (IP Address, Default Router Address) Routers sends periodic Router Advertisement Node gets prefix information from the Router advertisement and generates the complete address using its MAC address Global Address=Link Prefix + EUI 64 Address Router Address is the Default Gateway
  75. 75. IPv6 Stateless Autoconfiguration Example MAC address: 00:0E:0C:31:C8:1F EUI 64 Address: 20E:0CFF:FE31:C81F Router Solicitation is sent on FF01::2 (All Router Multicast Address) and Advertisement sent on FF01::1 (All Node Multicast Address)
  76. 76. Multi-homing3/14/2013 76
  77. 77. Multi-homing• When a network is connected to many ISPs , the technique is called Multi homing.• Multihoming is a technique used to increase the reliability of the Internet connection for an IP network.• Single Link, Multiple IP address (Spaces)• Multiple Interfaces, Single IP address per interface.• Multiple Links, Single IP address (Space)
  78. 78. IPv6 Mobility
  79. 79. New Correspondent Node Initiates a TCP Connection with a Mobile Node Correspondent Node 1. TCP SYN to Home Address 2. TCP SYN tunneled to Care-of Address 3. TCP SYN-ACK with Binding Update 4. TCP ACK with Binding AcknowledgmentVirtualMobile Node    HA  Mobile Node Home Agent Home Link IPv6 Internet Foreign Link
  80. 80. Home Link Host Sends Data to a Mobile Node 1. Multicast Neighbor Solicitation 2. Proxied unicast Neighbor Advertisement 3. TCP SYN to Home Agent’s link-layer address 4. Tunneled packet to Mobile Node 5. TCP SYN-ACK with Binding Update 6. TCP ACK with Binding Acknowledgment Host       Mobile Node Home Agent Home Link Foreign IPv6 Internet Link
  81. 81. Mobile Node Changes to a New Foreign Link Correspondent Node 1. Multicast Router Solicitation 2. Unicast Router Advertisement 3. Binding Update to Home Agent 4. Binding Update to Correspondent Node 5. Binding Acknowledgments   IPv6 Internet Home Agent   Home Link Foreign Mobile Node Link  
  82. 82. Mobile Node Returns Home 1. Multicast Router Solicitation Correspondent Node 2. Unicast Router Advertisement 3. Binding Update to Home Agent 4. Binding Update to Correspondent Node  5. Binding Acknowledgments  6. Multicast Neighbor Advertisement Mobile Node   Home Agent Home Link IPv6 Internet
  83. 83. Enable IPv6 on a PC• Windows 2000 – Download tcpipv6-001205-SP4-IE6.zip• Windows XP – ipv6 install – netsh interface ipv6 install• Redhat Linux – /etc/sysconfig/network : NETWORKING_IPV6=yes
  84. 84. Installing and Configuring the IPv6 Protocol• Install – Add the “Microsoft TCP/IP version 6” protocol when configuring the properties of a LAN connection in Network Connections – Execute netsh interface ipv6 install at a command prompt• Configure – IPv6 is self-configuring – For manual configuration, use commands in the netsh interface ipv6 context
  85. 85. IPv6-enabled Utilities• Ipconfig• Route• Ping• Tracert• Pathping• Netstat
  86. 86. IPv6 Command Line Utilities• Netsh.exe – interface ipv6 – interface ipv6 6to4 – interface ipv6 isatap – interface portproxy• Ipsec6.exe
  87. 87. Review• Architecture of the IPv6 protocol for the Windows .NET Server family• Features of the IPv6 protocol for the Windows .NET Server family• IPv6-enabled applications, application programming interfaces (APIs), and common utilities• IPv6 command-line utilities
  88. 88. IPv6 Current Status of IPv6 Deployment