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Architecting A Business  Process Environment                  Aligning BPM and EASandy Kemsley l www.column2.com l @skemsley
My History in BPM   l   Mid-late 80’s: from satellite imaging to       document imaging to workflow   l   Early 90’s: desk...
My BPM Calling Card   l   Column2.com: “a blog about BPM,       Enterprise 2.0 and technology trends in       business”   ...
Agenda   l   What is Enterprise Architecture?   l   What is Business Process Management?   l   EA-BPM Relationships and Sy...
Definitions, Synergies andBenefits           Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011   5
What is EA?     EA is the process of translating business vision     and strategy into effective organizational change    ...
What Is EA?   1. A formal description of a system, or a      detailed plan of the system at a      component level to guid...
What Is EA?     An architectural discipline that merges     strategic business and IT objectives with     opportunities fo...
EA Defined   l   Strategy (evolutionary path) to achieve       desired business future state   l   Artefacts for documenti...
EA Goals   l   Enterprise planning       l   Describe current and future state of the           structure of an enterprise...
What is BPM?    BPM is a management discipline that treats    processes as assets that directly contribute to    enterpris...
BPM Defined   l   A management discipline for improving       cross-functional business processes   l   The methods and te...
BPM Goals   l   Efficiency       l   Automating steps and handoffs       l   Integrating systems and data sources   l   Co...
Overlapping, Not Concentric      EA                                 BPM      • Strategy                         • Models  ...
Linking EA and BPM   l   Connect EA strategy and BPM execution       tactics       l   EA shows what needs to be done to g...
Sharing Between EA and BPM:Participants   l   Chief architect   l   Business architect   l   Process architect   l   Each ...
Sharing Between EA and BPM:Activities   l   End-to-end enterprise process modelling   l   Conceptual and logical process d...
Sharing Between EA and BPM:Key Models   l   Process models       l   Functional flow between people and systems   l   Orga...
Sharing Between EA and BPM:Goals and Performance Indicators   l   EA creates targets for business       measurement       ...
EA-BPM Additional Benefits   l   EA helps BPM to evolve from a project to a       centre of excellence (CoE)       l   Wid...
EA and BPM: Better Together             Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011                               21              ...
Separation of Concerns   l   Scheduling:       l   Enterprise planning versus solution delivery       l   Ongoing activiti...
Model Types And Interactions          Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011   23
Horizontal and Vertical ModelAlignment    l   Linking process models to other model        types in a taxonomy:        l  ...
From IBM White Paper: “Continuous Ltd., 2011           Copyright Kemsley Design improvement with BPM and EA Together”   25
A Taxonomy Of EA Models(Zachman)                 Data         Function          Network              People         Time  ...
Interrelated Model Types    l   Process models                                                 Data    l   Organizational ...
Linking Process and Data Models   l   Process activities require data input/output       l   Information presented to or g...
Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2010   29
Linking Process, Organizationaland Security Models    l   Process activities require specific skills or        security ac...
Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2010   31
Linking Process and Rule Models   l   Process decisions represent business rules       l   Branching/routing decisions    ...
Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011   33
Linking Process and EventModels   l   Events are external actions (information or       control) that impact that process ...
Process Model Levels   l   EA       l   Strategy: processes linked to business           motivation and strategies   l   B...
Different Perspectives on ProcessModels    l   Different modelling tools:        l   Process modelling in EA tool        l...
Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2010   37
Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011   38
BPMN 2.0 In Practice          Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011   39
Why BPMN?   l   OMG-supported standard   l   Support by many tool vendors   l   Training and certification programs   l   ...
BPMN: The Rosetta Stone ofProcess   l   Enables       communication       between different       audiences:       l   Bus...
BPMN Is Simple...    l   Activity    l   Gateway    l   Event    l   Data
Source: http://bpmb.de/poster
The BPMN 2.0 Problem   l   More than 100 elements   l   Unlikely to be fully understood by most       experts, much less u...
Source: M. zur Muehlen,                                      Stevens Institute of                                      Tec...
The BPMN 2.0 Solution   l   Not everyone needs to learn everything   l   Group BPMN elements into sets used by       diffe...
BPMN 2.0 Subclasses:Early Version                                                                       COMPLETE          ...
BPMN 2.0 ConformanceSubclasses   l   Descriptive       l   Visible elements for high-level models       l   Used by busine...
Descriptive Subclass                                      l   dataObject     l   participant (pool)           l   textAnno...
Source: Workflow Management Coalition’s “Update on BPMN Release 2.0”Descriptive Subclass Example Pool                     ...
Descriptive Subclass Example         Data         Store                 Source: Workflow Management Coalition’s “Update on...
Analytic Subclass   l   sequenceFlow             l   eventBasedGateway       (conditional)            l   signalStartEvent...
Analytic Subclass: IntermediateEvents    l   Catching message      l   Throwing escalation    l   Throwing message      l ...
The Analyst’s Dilemma   l   Descriptive is a manageable subset   l   Analytic is too much, except for serious       proces...
Modeling Events In Processes             Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2010   55
Example: Event-Driven FinancialProcess    l   Scenario: loan origination documents    l   Customer documents created or ga...
Event-Driven Process             Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011   57
What Do Business Users ReallyNeed?   l   Smaller subset of elements (?)       l   Depends on user skills/aptitude   l   Co...
A Hierarchy Of Process Models l   Different perspectives from EA to BPM:     l   Milestones: major phases     l   Handoffs...
Summary          Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011   60
BPM In An EA Context   l   Defining BPM and EA   l   Synergies       l   Participants       l   Activities       l   Model...
Sandy Kemsley         Kemsley Design Ltd.email: sandy@kemsleydesign.comblog: www.column2.comtwitter: @skemsleyQuestions?  ...
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Architecting a Business Process Environment

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  1. 1. Architecting A Business Process Environment Aligning BPM and EASandy Kemsley l www.column2.com l @skemsley
  2. 2. My History in BPM l Mid-late 80’s: from satellite imaging to document imaging to workflow l Early 90’s: desktop imaging/workflow product l Mid-late 90’s: integrate imaging, workflow, EAI and e-commerce systems l 2000-1: FileNet (now IBM) BPM evangelist l 2002-now: process architect and BPM industry analyst Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 2
  3. 3. My BPM Calling Card l Column2.com: “a blog about BPM, Enterprise 2.0 and technology trends in business” l Community of up to 3,000/day l Best known for: l Conference blogging l Product reviews l Independent opinions Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 3
  4. 4. Agenda l What is Enterprise Architecture? l What is Business Process Management? l EA-BPM Relationships and Synergies l Model Types and Interactions l Using BPMN 2.0 (Business Process Model and Notation) Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 4
  5. 5. Definitions, Synergies andBenefits Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 5
  6. 6. What is EA? EA is the process of translating business vision and strategy into effective organizational change by creating, communicating and improving the key requirements, principles and models that describe the organization’s future state and enable its evolution. Gartner Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 6
  7. 7. What Is EA? 1. A formal description of a system, or a detailed plan of the system at a component level to guide its implementation - OR - 2. The structure of components, their inter- relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time TOGAF Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 7
  8. 8. What Is EA? An architectural discipline that merges strategic business and IT objectives with opportunities for change and governs the resulting change initiatives IBM Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 8
  9. 9. EA Defined l Strategy (evolutionary path) to achieve desired business future state l Artefacts for documenting and communicating strategy l Many methodologies/frameworks: may be a process, a taxonomy or a practice Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 9
  10. 10. EA Goals l Enterprise planning l Describe current and future state of the structure of an enterprise l Business-IT alignment l Links between business/technology artefacts l Business visibility and measurement l Change-friendly capability delivery l Adaptable and agile for continuous change Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 10
  11. 11. What is BPM? BPM is a management discipline that treats processes as assets that directly contribute to enterprise performance by driving operational excellence and business process agility. BPM employs methods, policies, metrics, management practices and software tools to continuously optimize the organization’s processes to improve business performance against goals and objectives Gartner Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 11
  12. 12. BPM Defined l A management discipline for improving cross-functional business processes l The methods and technology tools used to manage and optimize business processes Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 12
  13. 13. BPM Goals l Efficiency l Automating steps and handoffs l Integrating systems and data sources l Compliance l Achieving and proving standardization l Agility l Changing processes quickly and easily l Visibility l See what’s happening in a process Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2008 13
  14. 14. Overlapping, Not Concentric EA BPM • Strategy • Models • Targets • Execution • Models • Metrics Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 14
  15. 15. Linking EA and BPM l Connect EA strategy and BPM execution tactics l EA shows what needs to be done to get from strategy to execution l BPM is an accelerator that turns EA concepts into BPM initiatives to facilitate that goal l Natural synergy from planning to solution delivery Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 15
  16. 16. Sharing Between EA and BPM:Participants l Chief architect l Business architect l Process architect l Each needs to participate in both EA team and BPM center of excellence (CoE) Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 16
  17. 17. Sharing Between EA and BPM:Activities l End-to-end enterprise process modelling l Conceptual and logical process design l Establish process standards l Establish and maintain artefact repository Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 17
  18. 18. Sharing Between EA and BPM:Key Models l Process models l Functional flow between people and systems l Organizational models l Roles, skills, hierarchy l Data models l Information structures shared by systems Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 18
  19. 19. Sharing Between EA and BPM:Goals and Performance Indicators l EA creates targets for business measurement l Future state models l Requirements and principles l BPM feeds back metrics to assess EA targets l Inform and improve planning with actual performance data Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 19
  20. 20. EA-BPM Additional Benefits l EA helps BPM to evolve from a project to a centre of excellence (CoE) l Widen scope to holistic end-to-end processes l Sharing of resources, artefacts and repositories l Encourage governance and standards l BPM encourages process thinking in EA l Focus on end-to-end processes l Push for service-oriented architecture Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 20
  21. 21. EA and BPM: Better Together Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 21 From IBM White Paper: “Continuous improvement with BPM and EA Together”
  22. 22. Separation of Concerns l Scheduling: l Enterprise planning versus solution delivery l Ongoing activities versus project-specific l Artefacts: l Suitability for planning versus design l Shared versus one-way translation versus bi- directional round-trip l Usability for different audiences Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 22
  23. 23. Model Types And Interactions Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 23
  24. 24. Horizontal and Vertical ModelAlignment l Linking process models to other model types in a taxonomy: l Data l Organizational l Security l Rules l Events l Process models: levels and usages Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 24
  25. 25. From IBM White Paper: “Continuous Ltd., 2011 Copyright Kemsley Design improvement with BPM and EA Together” 25
  26. 26. A Taxonomy Of EA Models(Zachman) Data Function Network People Time Motivation (What) (How) (Where) (Who) (When) (Why)Scope List of Things List of List of List of List of Cycles List of Goals Processes Locations OrganizationsBusiness Business Business Business Business Business BusinessModel Entity Model Process Network Workflow Event Model Strategy Model Model Model ModelSystem Logical Data System System Human System Event BusinessModel Model Process Network Interface Diagram Rule Model Model Model ArchitectureTechnology Physical Application Network Presentation Technology Rule DesignModel Data Model Structure Technology Architecture Event Model Chart Model DiagramComponents Data Program Network Interface Event Rule Components Components Components Components Components Specifications Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 26
  27. 27. Interrelated Model Types l Process models Data l Organizational models l Data models Events Organization l Security models Process l Event models l Rules models Rules Security Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 27
  28. 28. Linking Process and Data Models l Process activities require data input/output l Information presented to or gathered from person l Data passed to or from automated service l Process design includes process instance data model l Subset of enterprise data model Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 28
  29. 29. Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2010 29
  30. 30. Linking Process, Organizationaland Security Models l Process activities require specific skills or security access levels l Process activities assigned to roles l Process activities may use implied organizational hierarchy Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 30
  31. 31. Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2010 31
  32. 32. Linking Process and Rule Models l Process decisions represent business rules l Branching/routing decisions l Data validation l Get/set data values l Rules can be externalized as decision services, or inherent in process model Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 32
  33. 33. Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 33
  34. 34. Linking Process and EventModels l Events are external actions (information or control) that impact that process l Event triggers a process l Process triggers an event l Event interrupts or diverts process l Events increase process responsiveness to changing conditions Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 34
  35. 35. Process Model Levels l EA l Strategy: processes linked to business motivation and strategies l BPM l Documentation: implementation-independent models for as-is/to-be analysis l Implementation: model-driven design in a BPM system (BPMS) Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 35
  36. 36. Different Perspectives on ProcessModels l Different modelling tools: l Process modelling in EA tool l Standalone business process analysis (BPA) tool l Visio and other unstructured environments l Business perspective in BPMS tool l Technical/design perspective in BPMS tool l Translations between perspectives and tools Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 36
  37. 37. Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2010 37
  38. 38. Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 38
  39. 39. BPMN 2.0 In Practice Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 39
  40. 40. Why BPMN? l OMG-supported standard l Support by many tool vendors l Training and certification programs l Ongoing enhancements in BPMN 2.0: l Advanced event modelling l Serialization for model interchange l Execution semantics Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 40
  41. 41. BPMN: The Rosetta Stone ofProcess l Enables communication between different audiences: l Business users l Business analysts l Technical implementers Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 41
  42. 42. BPMN Is Simple... l Activity l Gateway l Event l Data
  43. 43. Source: http://bpmb.de/poster
  44. 44. The BPMN 2.0 Problem l More than 100 elements l Unlikely to be fully understood by most experts, much less users l Unlikely to be fully supported by most vendors l Has led to rejection of BPMN in favor of “simpler” modeling paradigms
  45. 45. Source: M. zur Muehlen, Stevens Institute of TechnologyCopyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 45
  46. 46. The BPMN 2.0 Solution l Not everyone needs to learn everything l Group BPMN elements into sets used by different personas l Business user l Business analyst l Architect/developer l Each level adds more detail to model
  47. 47. BPMN 2.0 Subclasses:Early Version COMPLETE DODAF DESCRIPTIVE Plus 50 elements SIMPLE Plus 29 elements Pool sequenceFlow Lane Task (none) messageFlow subProcess(embed) userTask exclusiveGateway serviceTask parallelGateway Re-Usable subProcess startEvent (none) dataObject endEvent (none) dataInput dataOutput textAnnotation Association dataAssociation dataStore messageStartEvent messageEndEvent timerStartEvent terminateEndEvent Source: Workflow Management Coalition’s “Update on BPMN Release 2.0”
  48. 48. BPMN 2.0 ConformanceSubclasses l Descriptive l Visible elements for high-level models l Used by business analysts l Analytic l All of Descriptive plus elements for DoDAF enterprise architecture models l Common Executable l All of analytic plus elements for executable models
  49. 49. Descriptive Subclass l dataObject l participant (pool) l textAnnotation l laneSet l association/dataAssociation l sequenceFlow (unconditional) l dataStoreReference l messageFlow l startEvent (None) l exclusiveGateway l endEvent (None) l parallelGateway l messageStartEvent l task (None) l messageEndEvent l userTask l timerStartEvent l serviceTask l terminateEndEvent l subProcess (expanded) l documentation l subProcess (collapsed) l group l callActivity
  50. 50. Source: Workflow Management Coalition’s “Update on BPMN Release 2.0”Descriptive Subclass Example Pool Message Flow Data Sub User Object Process Lane Task (Collapsed) Message Start Event Message End Event Data Association Call Activity (Collapsed) Service Text Task Annotation Association
  51. 51. Descriptive Subclass Example Data Store Source: Workflow Management Coalition’s “Update on BPMN Release 2.0”
  52. 52. Analytic Subclass l sequenceFlow l eventBasedGateway (conditional) l signalStartEvent l sequenceFlow (default) l signalEndEvent l sendTask l errorEndEvent l receiveTask l message l Looping Activity l MultiInstance Activity l Plus: Intermediate l exclusiveGateway events l inclusiveGateway
  53. 53. Analytic Subclass: IntermediateEvents l Catching message l Throwing escalation l Throwing message l escalationEndEvent l Boundary message l Catching signal l Non-interrupting l Throwing signal Boundary message l Boundary signal l Catching timer l Non-interrupting l Boundary timer Boundary signal l Non-interrupting l condtionalStartEvent Boundary timer l Catching conditional l Boundary error l Boundary conditional l Non-interrupting l Non-interrupting Boundary escalation Boundary conditional
  54. 54. The Analyst’s Dilemma l Descriptive is a manageable subset l Analytic is too much, except for serious process experts l Some of the event concepts in analytic subset are required for analysis and modeling
  55. 55. Modeling Events In Processes Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2010 55
  56. 56. Example: Event-Driven FinancialProcess l Scenario: loan origination documents l Customer documents created or gathered in front office l Transactions created by front office l Back office verifies documents against transactions Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 56
  57. 57. Event-Driven Process Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 57
  58. 58. What Do Business Users ReallyNeed? l Smaller subset of elements (?) l Depends on user skills/aptitude l Comprehension of BPMN without necessarily being able to model: l Work with analysts to capture processes l Review and approve models, with a cheat sheet or generous annotation
  59. 59. A Hierarchy Of Process Models l Different perspectives from EA to BPM: l Milestones: major phases l Handoffs: transitions between roles and organizations l Decisions: major decision points and exception paths l Procedures: requirements-level view of process (zur Muehlen on BEA and DoDAF) Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 59
  60. 60. Summary Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 60
  61. 61. BPM In An EA Context l Defining BPM and EA l Synergies l Participants l Activities l Models l Goals l Model types and interactions l Using BPMN for process modelling Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 61
  62. 62. Sandy Kemsley Kemsley Design Ltd.email: sandy@kemsleydesign.comblog: www.column2.comtwitter: @skemsleyQuestions? Copyright Kemsley Design Ltd., 2011 62
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