INTRODUCTIONSo, first well oilThein almost every part in the is started in theWhat is Drilling? well drilling world, the drilling story of successfully drilled is the Drakemethod 1850s using way one, and that beWell atisthe dawn of industrial verifyit Drilling1800s,ongoes for only rotaryCable revolution andDrilling the the a to Tool can aimplemented in drillingMethod when quite different withbetterat the timewhich people needoil, gas, also thepetroleum reservoir probably something water, exists, thegeothermal, to get the read by.nowadays commonly drilling Responding tothan candle to work andand mine.method: Theonly way petroleum, petroleum from theRotary Drilling Methods.the demand for reliable lighting, companies andreservoir.people started to find and produce oil lampsthat were brighter than candles, and the best oillamps went for petroleum (in the 1854).
ROTARY DRILLINGThere are several a use about between thethe likeIn rotary, we knew that to suspend rotary rig uses differences the drilling bitRotary rig doesn’t bit cable isn’t anything fluiddrilling and the crew forItthe circulating teeth orsystem rotary cable one,has differences bit inin hole,(also named members rows ofthe are tocable-tool’s chisel bit. the attach system),the drill tool, they use deviceshollow pipe and itin cable bit, a cutting a manual system.other types of long string of the bits, the way end of the placement of that penetrate themove, and and use ofdriven by the rotary table.moves in the way the drilling fluids.formationrotarythen scrape or gouge out piecesof it as the rig system rotates the bit.
Normal Drilling OperationIn normal drilling operation, we simply dividethe process into several steps. That are :The attachment of the drilling apparatus intothe hole.The drilling process.Casing and CementingThe Final Preset Depth TestWell Completion
The attachment of the drilling apparatusinto the holeIn this phase, the drilling crews place the drillbit, the drill collar, and the drill pipe and thenattach it with kelly and put it on the turn table,then we begin to drill the hole.
The Drilling ProcessThe drilling process refers to the drilling itself. Inthis phase the drill bit will move in a rotarymotions and begin to cuts up the rockformation. As the drilling progresses, the drillingcrews circulate the mud through the pipe inorder to push the rock cuttings out of the hole.This will continue, until the preset depth is beingreached.
Casing and CementingAfter cementing, weThe primary cementingis being first cementingIn the the we do testingis the reached, thingsWhenthat,preset depthknow two methods, the towards the result ofthe need to is to and the squeeze test variesprocess cementing run the casing cementingprimary we cementing process. Thethe do thewe primarydo in the hole (betweenand outsidefrom hardness properties, alignment,diameter hand hand.that goes of Thecasing and of the casing is thecementing. thein purpose inner diameter of and toproper the hole from the good enough, stickhole)preventsealing. If the result iscollapsing. To thenwe casing with the the we use cement. Thethe don’t have to dohole, squeezing cementing,and if it we use mostly have to.cement is bad, then weis a portland cement thatmixed with some additives and water.
The Final Preset Depth TestActually in drilling we will do such the samething repeatedly until we reach the final presetdepth. And when the final preset depth isexpected to be reached (usually known from therock cuttings), we do 3 kind of tests (may bemore) in order to ensure that that was the finaldepth. The tests are: well logging, drill stemtesting, and core sampling
Well LoggingThe purpose of this test is to take ameasurement of the rock formation there. Andin well logging, we knew several methods suchelectrical logging, radioactive logging, mudlogging, and accoustic logging
Drill Stem TestingThe drill stem testing purpose is to measure thepressure of the recent depth in the hole by usingsuch a device.
Core SamplingCore sampling, don’t misunderstood this as mudlogging, they are DIFFERENT. In core sampling orcoring, you take the whole long formation fromthe top into the reservoir using a pipe then youanalyzed it, not analyzing the rock cuttings thatis being delivered by the drilling mud.
After the test done and the results was positivethat it is the final depth, we start doing as whatwe call for well completion, and this is the onestep we do before starting the productionphase.
Well CompletionWhile the the perforating gun, formation isIf useuse acid, when the reservoirwe will useWewe hydraulic fracturing is being implemented begin the well completion by lowering doingwhen limestone. rock is is we down, goesmainlythe charges to create holes that sameexplosive reservoirperforation,sent knew severalthe perforation. In The acidmainly sandstone. InHF, we tunnel, by dissolving the limestone. Ifto make the casing on the rock we fluid thatthrough use a high enough viscosity use to somethodsathat basedinto the what formation, docontain proppant that the perforating addthat we can make such tunnel in the into gun,the perforation. We canause pumped formation limestone formation is hard, we thereservoirpressure on the acidin which oil hydraulic fracturing method. Butacid, andin can flow.flow. to make the tunnel. high pressureThe proppant hold the the crack samehowever, the 3 of them has theopen. purpose:to do a perforation in our reservoir formation.
Well CompletionAfter the perforation is done, we put the tubingon the hole as a conduit for oil and gas to flowup the well. The tubing is being hold by thepackers to form a seal around the outside of thetubing, so it will be steady. Finally we put amultivalve structure (the chrismast tree) at thetop of the tubing, the christmas tress allow us tocontrol the flow of the oil and also to make sucha great pressure difference between the surfaceand the reservoir.