ENG Camera
TV Camera Lense
Zoom Lense
The Camera's Imaging Device
The chip's target area (the
small rectangular area
near the center of this
photo) contains fro...
Lens Focal Length
the distance from the optical
center of the lens to the focal
plane (target or "chip") of the
video came...
Angle of view
Is directly associated with lens
focal length. The longer the
focal length (in millimeters),
the narrower th...
shot designations
An LS (long shot) or FS (full shot) is a
shot from the top of the head to the
feet.
An MS (medium shot) ...
F-Stops and Creative
Focus Techniques
The human eye has a focal length of
about 25mm (approximately one
inch) and covers a...
The speed of a lens is equal to its maximum (wide-open)
f-stop. Here, f / l.4 is the speed of the lens

when you open
up o...
Auto-focus Lenses
Most auto-focus devices
assume that the area
you want in sharp focus
is in the center of the
picture

in...
Focus can be switched to manual control any time by moving the focus
slider from AUTO to MAN. The user can re-engage auto ...
Minimum Light Levels for Cameras
A foot-candle, is a measure of light intensity from
a candle at a distance of one foot (u...
Depth of Field
The range of distance in
front of the camera that's in
sharp focus.
The larger the f-stop number
The depth ...
White Balancing On a White Card
Automatic white balance is good but is confused when faced with multiple color
temperature...
Shutter Speeds and Resulting Exposure
These f-stop and
shutter speed
numbers may
seem confusing at
first, but once you
get...
Checking Viewfinder Accuracy
A tally light indicating that the camera is
recording or "on the air"
A low battery warning m...
Camera Mounts
Using a camera tripod can make the
difference between professional
looking video and video that
screams "ama...
fluid head
It provides an adjustable resistance to pans and tilts

Exceptions to using a tripod
are in news and sports whe...
Rain Jacket
Lenses Filter
   Neutral Density Filters
 0.3 ND filter

 1 f-stop

 0.6 ND filter

 2 f-stops

 0.9 ND filter

 3 f-stops

 1.2 ND filt...
Polarizing Filters
Reducing reflections and cutting down glare

•Polarizing filters can:
•reduce glare and reflections
•de...
Special Effect Filters
•Star Filters

Fog Filters
Soft Focus and Diffusion
Filters
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Tv camera....by sajjad kayani

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Tv camera....by sajjad kayani

  1. 1. ENG Camera
  2. 2. TV Camera Lense
  3. 3. Zoom Lense
  4. 4. The Camera's Imaging Device The chip's target area (the small rectangular area near the center of this photo) contains from hundreds of thousands to millions of pixel (picture element) points, each of which can electrically respond to the amount of light focused on its surface.  
  5. 5. Lens Focal Length the distance from the optical center of the lens to the focal plane (target or "chip") of the video camera when the lens is focused at infinity Focal length is generally measured in millimeters
  6. 6. Angle of view Is directly associated with lens focal length. The longer the focal length (in millimeters), the narrower the angle of view (in degrees). You can see this relationship by studying the drawing on the right, which shows angles of view for  different prime lenses.  A zoom lens operating at maximum focal length) has a narrow angle of view. we would consider the angles at the top of the drawing from about 5 to 10 degrees in the telephoto range. The bottom of the drawing (from about 45 to 90 degrees) represents the wide-angle range for this lens.
  7. 7. shot designations An LS (long shot) or FS (full shot) is a shot from the top of the head to the feet. An MS (medium shot) is normally a shot from the waist up. (To save space, we've used a vertical rather than a horizontal format in this illustration.) An MCU (medium close-up) is a shot cropped between the shoulders and the belt line, rather than at the waist. A relatively straight-on CU (close-up) is the most desirable for interviews. Changing facial expressions, which are important to understanding a conversation, can easily be seen. XCUs are extreme close-ups. This type of shot is reserved for dramatic impact. The XCU may show just the eyes of an individual. With objects, an XCU is often necessary to reveal important detail.
  8. 8. F-Stops and Creative Focus Techniques The human eye has a focal length of about 25mm (approximately one inch) and covers a horizontal area of about 25 degrees. Since we're used to seeing the world in this perspective, this 25-degree angle represents a "normal" perspective for film and TV cameras The "f" stands for factor. An f-stop is the ratio between the lens opening and the lens focal length. More specifically, the f-stop equals the focal length divided by the size of the lens opening f-stop = focal length / lens opening
  9. 9. The speed of a lens is equal to its maximum (wide-open) f-stop. Here, f / l.4 is the speed of the lens when you open up one stop, you double the light going through the lens; when you stop down one stop, you cut the amount of light going through the lens in half.
  10. 10. Auto-focus Lenses Most auto-focus devices assume that the area you want in sharp focus is in the center of the picture in the photo right below that the center area is correctly focused (thanks to auto-focus), but the main subject is blurry. Of course, the goal was the opposite.
  11. 11. Focus can be switched to manual control any time by moving the focus slider from AUTO to MAN. The user can re-engage auto focus at any time by pressing push auto button .
  12. 12. Minimum Light Levels for Cameras A foot-candle, is a measure of light intensity from a candle at a distance of one foot (under very specific conditions). The origin of the term "lux" is not known, although it's assumed to refer to lumens (a measure of light power) times ten. foot-candle is equal to about 10 lux. (Actually it's 10.76, but 10 is generally close enough, Most professional video cameras require a light level of at least 75 foot-candles (750 lux) to produce the best quality video. However, some will produce marginally acceptable video under a few lux of light.  
  13. 13. Depth of Field The range of distance in front of the camera that's in sharp focus. The larger the f-stop number The depth of field of a lens we set at f/11 is greater than the same lens set at f/5.6, and depth of field at f/5.6 will be greater than at f/2.8.
  14. 14. White Balancing On a White Card Automatic white balance is good but is confused when faced with multiple color temperatures. As always, the user should manually white balance With the camera zoomed in full frame on a pure white card, the operator pushes a white balance button and the camera's chroma channels will automatically adjust to produce pure white. The camera in effect says, "Okay,
  15. 15. Shutter Speeds and Resulting Exposure These f-stop and shutter speed numbers may seem confusing at first, but once you get them in mind, they will serve you well in video
  16. 16. Checking Viewfinder Accuracy A tally light indicating that the camera is recording or "on the air" A low battery warning minutes of tape remaining Color balancing may be needed low light; insufficient exposure low-light boost (gain selector switch) circuit in operation Indoor/outdoor filter in place Zoom lens setting indicating how much further you can zoom in or out Auto/manual iris status f-stop setting Shutter speed setting  Audio level meter Remaining tape (or recording medium) time A zebra pattern for setting maximum video levels superimposed masks for the safe area and the 4:3 and 16:9 aspect ratios
  17. 17. Camera Mounts Using a camera tripod can make the difference between professional looking video and video that screams "amateur at work.“ On most tripods the pan and tilt head (which attaches the camera to the tripod) is not meant to be used for smooth panning and tilting while shooting -- only to reposition and lock the camera into position between takes.
  18. 18. fluid head It provides an adjustable resistance to pans and tilts Exceptions to using a tripod are in news and sports where you must be mobile enough to follow moving subjects, -
  19. 19. Rain Jacket
  20. 20. Lenses Filter
  21. 21.    Neutral Density Filters  0.3 ND filter  1 f-stop  0.6 ND filter  2 f-stops  0.9 ND filter  3 f-stops  1.2 ND filter  4 f-stops
  22. 22. Polarizing Filters Reducing reflections and cutting down glare •Polarizing filters can: •reduce glare and reflections •deepen blue skies •penetrate haze •saturate (intensify) colors
  23. 23. Special Effect Filters •Star Filters Fog Filters Soft Focus and Diffusion Filters
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