Beyond Open Access: Open Data, Web services, and Semantics (the Open Context Data Publication System for Archaeology)
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Beyond Open Access: Open Data, Web services, and Semantics (the Open Context Data Publication System for Archaeology)

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"Beyond Open Access: Open Data, Web services, and Semantics" -- This presentation was given at the Society for American Archaeology 2008 meeting, in a session on Web 2.0 Tools for Archaeological......

"Beyond Open Access: Open Data, Web services, and Semantics" -- This presentation was given at the Society for American Archaeology 2008 meeting, in a session on Web 2.0 Tools for Archaeological Collaboration and Communication. The paper is coauthored by Eric Kansa (UC Berkeley School of Information) and Sarah Whitcher Kansa (Alexandria Archive Institute).

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  • 1. Beyond Open Access: Open Data, Web services, and Semantics Eric Kansa UC Berkeley School of Information Unless otherwise indicated, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/> Sarah Whitcher Kansa Alexandria Archive Institute
  • 2. Web 2.0 and Open
    • Find research faster, easier
    • Build on the work of others
    • Facilitate creative / innovative reuse (“remixes”, “mashups”)
  • 3. Web 2.0 Challenges
    • Smaller, highly specialized communities
    • Structured data is hard for Web 2.0 collaboration
    • Work-flow, incentive, user experience
  • 4. Web 2.0 Challenges
    • Smaller, highly specialized communities
    • Structured data is hard for Web 2.0 collaboration
    • Work-flow, incentive, user experience
  • 5. Open Context makes primary research easy to share , use and cite … … and is freely accessible across the globe
  • 6. OCHRE, Open Context
    • OCHRE: Fully supports ArchaeoML global schema using a native XML database and free java client
    • Open Context: Uses a subset of the ArchaeoML schema (via MySQL/PHP) for web-browser access. Not a repository (partnerships needed)
    • Common services, including complex querying and analysis for pooled content
  • 7. Global Schemas: ArchaeoML
    • Simple, general schema makes it easier to pool diverse content
    • Not overly determined, support multiple research agendas
    • Hard to implement . But we’re gaining experience
    UML Diagram of a subset of ArchaeoML
  • 8. Open Context Components
    • Two Parts :
    • Open access interfaces for browse, “tagging”, analysis, export of public data
    • Penelope data import and schema mapping tool for publishing
  • 9. Faceted Browse
    • Data from multiple projects browsed, queried (even with Boolean algebra), and results pooled together
    • Individual records dynamically exposed
  • 10. Summary Statistics
  • 11. Records in Open Context Contextual relationships: (Spatial containment)
  • 12. Media Record
  • 13. Discussion Caveats
    • Caveats :
    • Up to now, we’ve been validating a data model. Need user experience study & optimization
    • Too early to talk of use of “classic” Web 2.0 tools. (First major complete dataset went live in December)
  • 14. Open Context Tagging
  • 15. Open Context Tagging Pingback: Register of a link made to a set tagged as “weaving tools” from a weblog To Do: Link Open Context tagging with Del.icio.us / Connotea
  • 16. Open Context & Search
    • PHP/MySQL: Drives many dynamic content websites, relatively simple standard technology. “Bleeding edge” difficult for our target community.
    • Easy integration of Open Source Tools (RSS-feeds, ping-back, etc.)
    • Open to Search Engines: Increasingly important research tools (Harley 2006)
    2 Diane Harley, Sarah Earl-Novell, Jennifer Arter, Shannon Lawrence, and C. Judson King, Jr. “The Influence of Academic Values on Scholarly Publication and Communication Practices”, Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.13.06 <http://cshe.berkeley.edu/publications/docs/ROP.Harley.AcademicValues.13.06.pdf>.
  • 17. Open Context Referrals from Search Engine Queries (based on 3,611 searches, Jan-Mar 2008) Note: 2585 Search requests for “context” excluded from this diagram. Person Place Object “ Long Tail”- 53% of searches
  • 18. Ownership in Open Context Citation information with stable URL direct to the item being cited.
  • 19. Ownership in Open Context Unique for every single item in the database!
  • 20. Ownership in Open Context Zotero (www.zotero.org) uses COinS (a micro-format) metadata to make bibliographic references
  • 21. Ownership in Open Context Copyright ownership and Creative Commons license information, including RDF metadata Internet-wide standard metadata, links ownership & permissions
  • 22. Penelope Pictures
    • Suggests need for more information about people!
      • Links with Facebook? LinkedIn?
      • Field notes should document people more?
  • 23. Web 2.0 and Open
    • Find research faster, easier
    • Build on the work of others
    • Facilitate creative / innovative reuse (“remixes”, “mashups”)
  • 24. Records in Open Context XML data output, enables: (1) Sharing between web resources (2) Custom presentation (Zooarcheology, or Brown University-specific style templates, etc.)
  • 25. Faceted Browse
    • Petra Great Temple:
      • 128,187 locations / objects
      • 1.1 million descriptions
      • 1626 media objects ( more to come )
      • 298,500 relationships
  • 26. Faceted Browse
    • RESTful Web Service under the facet browse feature
    • Very flexible way to query Open Context to get XML data
  • 27. Back to the Long Tail: Open Search
    • Recently implemented the “Open Search Standard”
      • Send Open Context “Google-like” search string, return results in Atom (XML) format
      • No need to understand ArchaeoML
    • Easy way for distributed search across multiple projects! ( More use of all initiatives )
  • 28.
    • XML/XSLT enables us to have multiple interfaces optimized for different users / types of content
      • Media heavy?
      • Data analysis/visualization (Swivel tools?)
    • Requires in-depth study of researchers as they work
    User Experience Image by Jeff Kubina via Flickr (CC-by license) <http://www.flickr.com/photos/kubina/296367267/>
  • 29. Open Context Components
    • Two Parts :
    • Open access interfaces for browse, “tagging”, analysis, export of public data
    • Penelope data import and schema mapping tool for publishing
  • 30. Schema Mapping into ArchaeoML
    • Importer an important part, most people work with Excel, Filemaker, Access…
      • Goal: Individuals can upload their own data, map them into ArchaeoML and submit for review and publishing
  • 31. Penelope 2
  • 32. Penelope 2
    • Petra Great Temple:
      • 12 individual databases (some very large)
      • ~200 text documents with embedded tables
      • 1600+ related media files
    • “ Stress-test” for Penelope!
  • 33. Web 2.0 Structured Data
    • Web resources using highly generalized data structures see growing popularity
      • Swivel
      • Many Eyes (IBM)
      • Freebase (Metaweb)
    • Common store for structured data
      • Freebase and Open Context share similar data models
    • Still haven’t made tools for easy upload…
    Freebase (www.freebase.com)
  • 34.
    • Schema mapping is major challenge
      • Leave to Open Context editors
      • Leave to schema geeks who may draw data of interest from a repository
      • Semi-automate (make suggested mappings)
    • Requires in-depth study of researchers as they work
    User Experience Image by Jeff Kubina via Flickr (CC-by license) <http://www.flickr.com/photos/kubina/296367267/>
  • 35.
    • Requires in-depth study of researchers as they work
    • Key to cracking the nut of making “Web 2.0” work for archaeology
    Summary: Web 2.0 & User Experience Image by Jeff Kubina via Flickr (CC-by license) <http://www.flickr.com/photos/kubina/296367267/>
  • 36. Open Context Developers
    • Eric Kansa (Lead developer, tagging system, interface design)
    • Ahrash Bissell (Penelope design, usability)
    • Nathan Hirth (XML, XSLT, schema mapping)
    • David Schloen (ArchaeoML schema)
    • Sarah W. Kansa (Usability, interface design, documentation)
    • Jeanne Lopiparo (Interface and graphic design, usability)
    • Michael Ashley (Filemaker item-view mockup)
    • Chris Hoffman (Usability, optimization )
  • 37. Special Thanks University of Chicago: OCHRE Project The Electronic Frontier Foundation Doris and Donald Fisher SAA 2008 Conference Presidio Archaeology: NPS, Golden Gate National Rec. Area Science Commons Internet Archive (media repository services)