TEN STEPS TO BUILDINGCOLLEGE READING SKILLS           Fourth Edition          John Langan       © 2008 Townsend Press
Chapter One:              Dictionary UseTHIS CHAPTER IN A NUTSHELL• You should own both a paperback and a hardbound  dicti...
OWNING YOUR OWN DICTIONARIES You can benefit greatly by owning two dictionaries: • a paperback dictionary you can carry   ...
DICTIONARIES ON YOUR COMPUTER If you use a computer, you can look up a word in an online dictionary. In addition, a dictio...
FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARY Using Guidewords to Find a Word More QuicklyGuidewords are the two words at the top of eac...
FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARYUsing Guidewords to Find a Word More Quickly Which word below would be found on the diction...
FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARYUsing Guidewords to Find a Word More Quickly Which word below would be found on the diction...
FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARYFinding a Word You Can’t SpellHint 1: If you’re not sure about the vowels in a word, youwil...
FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARY Finding a Word You Can’t SpellHint 2: These groups or combinations of letters often sound ...
FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARYFinding a Word You Can’t SpellHint 3: Consonants are sometimes doubled in a word.• If you c...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRYSample Dictionary EntryAll of the following information may be provided in a dictionary ent...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY1 Spelling and Syllables• The dictionary first gives the correct spelling and  syllable bre...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY1 Spelling and SyllablesHow many syllables are in these words?    do•nate       com•pen•sat...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY1 Spelling and SyllablesHow many syllables are in these words?    do•nate       com•pen•sat...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks• The information in parentheses shows how to prono...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent MarksPronunciation Key• The i in disrespect has the symb...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent MarksPronunciation Key• The second e in disrespect is pr...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent MarksPronunciation Key• The second e in disrespect is pr...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks • The line (’) after the t at the end of disrespec...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARY ENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent MarksWhich syllable is most strongly stressed in each o...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARY  ENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent MarksWhich syllable is most strongly stressed in each ...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY3 Parts of SpeechEvery word in the dictionary is either a noun, a verb, anadjective, or ano...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY3 Parts of SpeechHere are the most common abbreviations forparts of speech:       n. — noun...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY4 Irregular Forms of WordsWhen other forms of a word are spelled in an irregularway, those ...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY5 Definitions• Words often have more than one meaning .  The dictionary lists the different...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY5 DefinitionsChoose the dictionary meaning that best fits the sentence.    Modern technolog...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY5 DefinitionsChoose the dictionary meaning that best fits the sentence.    Modern technolog...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY6 SynonymsDictionary entries sometimes list synonyms.• A synonym is a word whose meaning is...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARY ENTRY7 Usage LabelsBesides listing definitions, a dictionary includesusage labels: terms that t...
LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARY ENTRY7 Usage LabelsIn addition to usage labels, the dictionaryprovides field labels — special m...
CHAPTER REVIEW In this chapter, you learned the following:     • It helps to own two dictionaries. One should be a small p...
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Vocabulary in Context

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  • See page 33 in textbook.
  • See pages 33 and 34 in textbook.
  • See pages 35 and 36 in textbook.
  • See page 36 in textbook.
  • See pages 36 and 37 in textbook. ANSWER: aroma The next slide explains the answer.
  • See pages 36 and 37 in textbook.
  • See pages 37 and 38 in textbook.
  • See pages 37 and 38 in textbook.
  • See pages 37 and 38 in textbook.
  • See pages 38 and 39 in textbook.
  • See page 39 in textbook.
  • See page 39 in textbook. The next slide gives the answers. ANSWERS: donate = 2; compensate = 3; obedient = 4
  • See page 39 in textbook.
  • See page 40 in textbook.
  • See page 40 in textbook.
  • See page 40 in textbook. The next slide gives the answer. ANSWER: like the e in “ten”
  • See page 40 in textbook. ANSWER: like the e in “ten”
  • See pages 42 and 43 in textbook.
  • See pages 42 and 43 in textbook. The next slide gives the answers. ANSWERS: machine - second syllable; detergent - second syllable; information - third syllable; valentine - first syllable; alphabetical - third syllable
  • See pages 42 and 43 in textbook.
  • See page 44 in textbook.
  • See page 44 in textbook.
  • See page 45 in textbook.
  • See page 46 in textbook.
  • See page 46 in textbook. ANSWER: 1. To bring back to life or consciousness. The next slide explains the answer.
  • See page 46 in textbook.
  • See page 47 in textbook.
  • See page 48 in textbook.
  • See page 48 in textbook.
  • See page 48 in textbook.
  • Building01

    1. 1. TEN STEPS TO BUILDINGCOLLEGE READING SKILLS Fourth Edition John Langan © 2008 Townsend Press
    2. 2. Chapter One: Dictionary UseTHIS CHAPTER IN A NUTSHELL• You should own both a paperback and a hardbound dictionary.• Your computer (if you have one) may have a built-in dictionary; also, you can easily visit an online dictionary.• Use spelling hints to help you look up in the dictionary a word you cannot spell.• A dictionary entry will tell you how a word is spelled and pronounced and give you various meanings of the word. It will also provide other helpful information about words.
    3. 3. OWNING YOUR OWN DICTIONARIES You can benefit greatly by owning two dictionaries: • a paperback dictionary you can carry with you • a desk-sized, hardcover dictionary that you keep in the room where you study
    4. 4. DICTIONARIES ON YOUR COMPUTER If you use a computer, you can look up a word in an online dictionary. In addition, a dictionary may come with your computer software. • Pages 35 and 36 in your textbook give more information on these dictionaries.
    5. 5. FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARY Using Guidewords to Find a Word More QuicklyGuidewords are the two words at the top of each dictionary page.• The first guideword is the first word on that page.• The second guideword is the last word on the page.• All the word entries on that page fall alphabetically between the two guidewords.
    6. 6. FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARYUsing Guidewords to Find a Word More Quickly Which word below would be found on the dictionary page with the guidewords armful / arsenic? armful | arsenic art aroma allow
    7. 7. FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARYUsing Guidewords to Find a Word More Quickly Which word below would be found on the dictionary page with the guidewords armful / arsenic? armful | arsenic art aroma allow Explanation The word aroma falls alphabetically between armful and arsenic. The word art comes after arsenic. The word allow comes before armful.
    8. 8. FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARYFinding a Word You Can’t SpellHint 1: If you’re not sure about the vowels in a word, youwill have to experiment.• Vowels often sound the same. So try an i in place of an a, an i in place of an e, and so on.• If, for example, you don’t find a word that sounds as if it begins with pa, try looking under pe, pi, po, pu, or py.
    9. 9. FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARY Finding a Word You Can’t SpellHint 2: These groups or combinations of letters often sound alike.• If your word isn’t spelled with one of the letters in a pair or group shown below, try another in the same pair or group.• For example, if it isn’t spelled with a k, it might be spelled with a c. c/k c/s f/v/ph g/j qu/kw/k s/c/z sch/sc/sk sh/ch shun/tion w/wh able/ible ai/ay /sion al/el/le ancy/ency ate/ite au/aw ea/ee er/or ie/ei ou/ow oo/u y/i/e
    10. 10. FINDING WORDS IN THE DICTIONARYFinding a Word You Can’t SpellHint 3: Consonants are sometimes doubled in a word.• If you can’t find your word with a single consonant, try doubling it.
    11. 11. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRYSample Dictionary EntryAll of the following information may be provided in a dictionary entry: 1 Spelling and Syllables 2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks 3 Parts of Speech 4 Irregular Forms of Words 5 Definitions (Meanings) 6 Synonyms 7 Usage Labels
    12. 12. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY1 Spelling and Syllables• The dictionary first gives the correct spelling and syllable breakdown of a word.• Dots separate the syllables from one another. In the entry above, disrespect is divided into three syllables: dis • re • spect
    13. 13. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY1 Spelling and SyllablesHow many syllables are in these words? do•nate com•pen•sate o•be•di•ent
    14. 14. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY1 Spelling and SyllablesHow many syllables are in these words? do•nate com•pen•sate o•be•di•ent 2 syllables 3 syllables 4 syllables
    15. 15. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks• The information in parentheses shows how to pronounce the word.• It includes two kinds of symbols: pronunciation symbols and accent marks.
    16. 16. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent MarksPronunciation Key• The i in disrespect has the symbol µ. This tells you that the i is pronounced like the i in the word sit.• The first e in the word also has the symbol µ. It is also pronounced like the i in the word sit.
    17. 17. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent MarksPronunciation Key• The second e in disrespect is pronounced like the e in what word?
    18. 18. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent MarksPronunciation Key• The second e in disrespect is pronounced like the e in what word? ten
    19. 19. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks • The line (’) after the t at the end of disrespect is a bold accent mark. It shows which syllable has the strongest stress. • The first syllable (dis) has a lighter accent mark (’) after it. That syllable is more stressed than the unaccented second syllable but less strongly stressed than the last syllable.
    20. 20. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARY ENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent MarksWhich syllable is most strongly stressed in each of the words below?
    21. 21. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARY ENTRY2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent MarksWhich syllable is most strongly stressed in each of the words below? second second third first third
    22. 22. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY3 Parts of SpeechEvery word in the dictionary is either a noun, a verb, anadjective, or another part of speech.In dictionary entries, the parts of speech are shown by lettersin italics. v. —n.In the entry for insult, the abbreviations v. and n. tell us thatinsult is both a verb and a noun.
    23. 23. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY3 Parts of SpeechHere are the most common abbreviations forparts of speech: n. — noun v. — verb pron. — pronoun conj. — conjunction adj. — adjective prep. — preposition adv. — adverb interj. — interjection
    24. 24. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY4 Irregular Forms of WordsWhen other forms of a word are spelled in an irregularway, those forms are shown in the dictionary entry.Here are some examples:
    25. 25. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY5 Definitions• Words often have more than one meaning . The dictionary lists the different meanings.• You can tell which definition fits a given sentence by the meaning of the sentence.
    26. 26. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY5 DefinitionsChoose the dictionary meaning that best fits the sentence. Modern technology can revive patients who have actually been considered medically dead. revive: 1. To bring back to life or consciousness. 2. To impart or regain health or vigor. 3. To restore to use.
    27. 27. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY5 DefinitionsChoose the dictionary meaning that best fits the sentence. Modern technology can revive patients who have actually been considered medically dead. revive: 1. To bring back to life or consciousness. 2. To impart or regain health or vigor. 3. To restore to use. Definition 1 best fits the sentence: Modern technology can bring a patient back to life.
    28. 28. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARYENTRY6 SynonymsDictionary entries sometimes list synonyms.• A synonym is a word whose meaning is similar to that of another word. — For example, two synonyms for the word fast are quick and speedy.• A thesaurus is a collection of synonyms and antonyms (words with opposite meanings). — You can buy a paperback thesaurus in a bookstore. — Or you can access a free thesaurus online. — In addition, some computers have a built-in thesaurus.
    29. 29. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARY ENTRY7 Usage LabelsBesides listing definitions, a dictionary includesusage labels: terms that tell us if a meaning isconsidered something other than “StandardEnglish.”Examples: • One meaning for the verb crash, “to go to sleep,” is labeled “Slang.” • The word ain’t is labeled “Nonstandard.”
    30. 30. LEARNING FROM A DICTIONARY ENTRY7 Usage LabelsIn addition to usage labels, the dictionaryprovides field labels — special meanings of aword in a certain field.Example: • The following definition of the word mouse is labeled “Computer Science”: “A hand-held input device used to move about a computer screen and operate programs.”
    31. 31. CHAPTER REVIEW In this chapter, you learned the following: • It helps to own two dictionaries. One should be a small paperback you can carry with you. The other should be a large hardbound version for use at home. • If you have a computer, you can easily use a dictionary site online. You may also have a dictionary that comes with the word-processing software on your computer. • You can find a word in the dictionary with the help of guidewords, the two words at the top of each dictionary page. • You can use spelling hints to help you find a word you cannot spell. • A dictionary entry will tell you 1) how the word is spelled and broken into syllables; 2) how a word is pronounced; 3) a word’s part (or parts) of speech; 4) irregular forms of the word; 5) definitions of a word and, in some cases, synonyms; 6) any usage labels for the word. The next chapter—Chapter 2—will show you how you can use context, rather than a dictionary, to figure out the meaning of a word.
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