Environmental Ethics 3

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Environmental Ethics 3

  1. 1. Environmentalism LO: What are the arguments to support anthropocentric environmentalism?
  2. 2. What would Bentham say about the mining?
  3. 3. Alan Marshall’s 3 categories
  4. 4. Alan Marshall’s 3 categories  Conservationists:
  5. 5. Alan Marshall’s 3 categories  Conservationists:
  6. 6. Alan Marshall’s 3 categories  Conservationists:  Libertarian extensionists:
  7. 7. Alan Marshall’s 3 categories  Conservationists:  Libertarian extensionists:
  8. 8. Alan Marshall’s 3 categories  Conservationists:  Libertarian extensionists:  Ecological extensionists:
  9. 9. Alan Marshall’s 3 categories  Conservationists:  Only interested in conserving the environment because it will benefit humans  Libertarian extensionists:  Ecological extensionists:
  10. 10. Alan Marshall’s 3 categories  Conservationists:  Only interested in conserving the environment because it will benefit humans  Libertarian extensionists:  ‘Rights’ should be extended to aspects of the natural world  Ecological extensionists:
  11. 11. Alan Marshall’s 3 categories  Conservationists:  Only interested in conserving the environment because it will benefit humans  Libertarian extensionists:  ‘Rights’ should be extended to aspects of the natural world  Ecological extensionists:  You should give value to an ecosystem
  12. 12. Knowledge is power “Father of Modern Science” the only knowledge of importance to man - empirically rooted in the natural world - a clear system of scientific enquiry would assure human progress Francis Bacon was the main instigator of the scientific approach, which suggested that the earth is ours to be exploited. It was applied first to Francis Bacon astronomy and physics, then to human behaviour, society and consciousness. (1561-1626)
  13. 13. Human-centred (anthropomorphic) environmentalism  “Progress” - earth’s natural resources and non-human habitats - exploited for human advancement  Capitalism (18th century) - emphasis on the individual  Human behaviour - individuals pursuing their interests  How could it ever be sensible for an individual to act in what might appear to be an interest other than one’s own?  Genesis has been interpreted to support the view that humans have a God-given right to control nature
  14. 14. Then God said, “And now we will make human beings; they will be like us and resemble us. They will have power over the fish, the birds, and all the animals, domestic and wild, large and small ... [He] blessed them, and said, “Have many children, so that your descendants will live over the earth and bring it under their control.. I am putting you in charge of the fish, the Genesis 1: 26, 28 birds, and all the wild animals.”
  15. 15. “through being cruel to animals one becomes cruel to human beings ... injury to an animal leads to the temporal hurt of man” Summa Contra Gentiles (c. 1260) Instrumental or intrinsic? Do you agree? St Thomas Aquinas
  16. 16. Kant suggested that cruelty towards a dog might encourage a person to develop a character that would be desensitized to cruelty towards humans. ‘Duties to Animals and Spirits’, Lectures on Ethics (1770) Instrumental or intrinsic? Do you agree? Immanuel Kant
  17. 17. An abandoned classroom after the explosion at Chernobyl Our pursuit of power and energy
  18. 18. Complete the sentences  Anthropocentrism means ...  One argument for anthropocentric environmentalism is ...  A conservationist would say that Chernobyl ...  One challenge to human-centred environmentalism might be ...

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