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  • 1. What is Investment Banking? Patrick Fearon Autumn 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 2. This year we have split the Banking and Finance Lecture into two: First Session Second Session 2 What is Investment Banking? What Careers in Banking and Finance are available outside Investment Banking? IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 3. In the Investment Banking lecture this morning we will be looking at: Corporate Finance – – – – – Financial Advisory Advice on M&A Private Equity Debt Capital Markets Origination (DCM) Equity Capital Markets Origination (ECM) FICC – – Sales & Trading Research Equities – – Sales & Trading Research Support Functions – – – – – Finance Compliance Risk (Market, Credit, Operational) Audit Operations Skills and Opportunities required in Banking 3 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 4. In the “Careers in Finance Outside Investment Banking” lecture this afternoon we will look at: Why you might look at a career outside of Investment Banking Investment Banking careers that can be done outside Investment Banks – – – – FICC Equities M&A Private Equity Wealth Management – – Private Banking Institutional Asset Management Corporate Lending – – – – Project Finance Leveraged Finance Syndicated Lending Some of the active Corporate Lending Banks you might consider Retail Banking – Domestic and International Audit Governmental Banks 4 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 5. Contents of this morning’s lecture Which are the various divisions of an Investment Bank? What do those divisions do? What would a graduate do in each of those divisions? What skills and personality traits are the banks looking for? 5 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 6. An Overview of Investment Banking © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 7. What does an Investment Bank look like? Goldman Sachs International Asset & Wealth Management Securities Services Corporate Functions Equities Debt Investment Banking 7 Source: www.gs.com/careers www.prospect.ac.uk Trading & Sales & Trading Principal and Principal Investments Investments IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 8. But Investment Banks do not all look alike JP Morgan Chase: A Commercial Bank that has expanded into Investment Banking Corporate Functions 8 Source: www.careers.jpmorganchase.com IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 9. Investment Banking The Commercial Banks that have expanded into Investment Banking versus The Traditional Investment Banks 9 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 10. The Commercial/Investment Banks versus the Traditional Investment Banks The Commercial/Investment Banks: – – What were they? What are they today? Highly capitalised and therefore Able to underwrite and lend significant amounts Able to lend their own money Have developed or acquired Investment Banking skills – 10 Who are they? IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 11. The Commercial/Investment Banks versus the Traditional Investment Banks The Traditional Investment Banks – – – – 11 How have they changed? How successful have they been in beating off the challenge of the Commercial Banks? To what extent have they had to expand into commercial banking to compete? Who are they? Who is left? IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 12. This distinction is becoming historical The traditional US Investment Banks are now required to structure themselves as bank holding companies Increasingly they will be competing for deposits and lending money And the governments are legislating against “casino banking” which will limit their trading activities 12 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 13. Investment Banking Be careful, “Investment Banking” means different things to different people. 13 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 14. Different definitions of ‘Investment Banking’ JP Morgan Morgan Stanley Credit Suisse Financial Advisory Advice on M&A Corporate Lending Loan Syndication Investment Banking Investment Banking Corporate Debt Capital Markets Origination Equity Capital Markets Origination Debt Capital Markets Sales & Trading Institutional Sales & Trading Equity Capital Markets Sales & Trading Institutional Research Debt Capital Markets Research Equity Capital Markets Research 14 Source: Banks’ own websites IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 15. Different definitions of Investment Banking Summary How a bank defines Investment Banking reflects – – 15 the personality of the bank the power groups or profit centres within the organisation IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 16. How to understand the culture of an Investment Bank Look at the website/Annual Report/recruiting material Network to understand the culture Understand how the bank was put together – – – e.g. UBS: merger of UBS/SBC/Warburg/Phillips & Drew Citi: merger of Salomon/Schroder’s/Citibank/Smith Barney vs Goldman Sachs which has grown organically Is there one business area that drives the Bank? – – – 16 Merrill Lynch: Sales/creating product to sell to institutions and individuals JP Morgan: Corporate Finance Societe Generale: Equity Derivatives IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 17. But above all, look at the numbers Global Net Revenues of Investment Banks 2011 41.0 35.4 US$ Billions 30.4 17 Source: Banks’ Annual Reports 26.7 20.4 -Debt and Equity Origination -M&A -Loan Syndication IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 18. Investment Banking A typical Investment Banking deal can involve many areas of the Bank 18 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 19. A typical Investment Banking deal can involve many areas of the bank DIVISION Corporate Finance Equities Corporate Finance Equity Syndicate Sales & Trading Corporate Finance FICC Syndicate Sales & Trading Corporate Lending 19 Corporate Finance FICC RELATIONSHIP MANAGER PRICING Corporate Finance CLIENT PRODUCT DELIVERY Loan Syndication Loan Syndication Sales & Trading IB Grenoble 2012 INTO MARKET © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 20. A typical Investment Banking deal involves many areas of the bank The deal fans out to all the Investment Banking divisions It moves through each of those divisions from structuring to pricing to conclusion In the case of the market-oriented divisions (Debt, Equity and Loan Syndication) conclusion = Selling/Trading the asset. The Relationship Manager remains the focal point with the client throughout In this example, M&A is the catalyst for a chain reaction of deals throughout the Investment Bank 20 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 21. What is the future of Investment Banking? The regulatory environment with Volcker Rule and Basel 3 in response to the defaults and losses brought about by the crisis will continue to cause changes in the investment banking industry. Basel 3 requires banks to raise significant amounts of capital to ensure capital adequacy A number of governments (e.g. Switzerland) are putting pressure on local banks to raise capital over and above Basel 3 requirements The emphasis of Investment Banks is on developing businesses that are not capital intensive (e.g. Mergers & Acquisitions) as opposed to businesses that are (e.g. commercial lending). You should expect to see banks focusing on their core businesses as opposed to being “all things to all men”. (E.g. SocGen Equity Derivatives) to conserve capital And this will become more evident as we come out of recession and loan demand increases 21 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 22. What is the future of Investment Banking? Volcker Rule prevents banks from undertaking activities that are deemed to be speculative And therefore, Activities like Proprietary Trading fall foul of the Volcker Rule and are being floated off into hedge funds (e.g. Goldman Sachs). The emphasis of banks is increasingly on “plain vanilla” flow trading The problem is that these high risk activities can also be high profit With the result that Investment Banks are being pushed towards more commoditised, low-profit activities Moreover, flow business will increasingly move on to exchanges, which will mean Investment Banks will have more competition in flow product activities and, therefore, lower earnings. 22 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 23. What does this mean for banking careers? The market is increasingly dividing between Investment Banks/Brokers (fee business), Hedge Funds, Private Equity (risk takers) and Third Party money managers (AM, PB). What you’re seeing is a combination of pressure on bank earnings and greater capital requirements, and, therefore, lower returns on Equity. Bank bonuses will inevitably be curbed and careers in Banking will be less well remunerated than they have been. 23 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 24. What kind of positive market signs do you see? Very few this year Almost every area of Investment Banking activity had a disastrous quarter in either Q1 or Q2 of 2012 M&A was down 16% in the first 9 months of this year. New issues were down 14% in Equities. Only Debt is showing an improvement – up 4% Commercial Lending is down 26%. Nevertheless, at this stage the recruiters are saying that they intend to recruit the same number of MSc’s as last year. 24 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 25. The market remains extremely cautious Much of Europe has slipped into a double dip recession The US has lost its triple-A credit rating, which triggered a flight to quality. In January, S&P down-graded Italy, Spain, France and Austria. Concerns about eurozone credit, inflation and recession persist, and even the future viability of the Euro Several rounds of lay-offs in the Investment Banking divisions have been initiated. There is still some hiring going on within front office investment banking divisions (but more within alternative financial services sectors and internal control functions like risk management). . 25 http://useconomy.about.com/od/fiscalpolicy/p/US_Debt.htm IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 26. A detailed look at Investment Banking © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 27. Investment Banking involves four main activities Corporate Finance – – – – – Financial Advisory Advice on M&A Private Equity Debt Capital Markets Origination Equity Capital Markets Origination FICC – – Sales & Trading Research Equities – – Sales & Trading Research Support Functions – – – – – Finance Compliance Risk (Market,Credit, Operational) Audit Operations Skills and Opportunities required in Banking 27 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 28. What does Corporate Finance mean? It’s an Advisory Activity focused on changes of ownership and raising capital to finance those changes. Mergers and Acquisitions, Equity Capital Markets, Debt Capital Markets are some of the main activities. M&A team can represent the defending or the acquiring company Can refer to any “Corporate Development” including Management Buy Outs and Joint Ventures Also general financial advice to corporates Most banks view this as an international business and will have units in at least New York, London, Tokyo and Hong Kong (sometimes Latin America, Australia) to follow global clients’ international activities. 28 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 29. How is a Corporate Finance department structured? Corporate Advisory Group • Often houses the Relationship managers that are split into industry specialists: • Financial Institutions Group • Telecoms & Media M&A • Advise on mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures and other corporate development actions. Debt/Equity Origination • Underwriting new equity/bond issues. • Finding target buyers or sellers. • Oil & Gas • Healthcare • Real Estate Corporate Solutions • The solutions team, may work with any of the other teams to come up with derivative add-on products that will permit the bank to obtain more margin and allow clients to complete risk hedging solutions strategy within one institution. • Etc. 29 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 30. What would a graduate do in Corporate Finance? Client wants to make an acquisition – Analysts evaluate potential candidates Corporate Finance wants to pitch an idea to a client – Analysts prepare the presentation to the client Corporate Finance needs to value an acquisition – Analysts value through analysis of previous transactions and forecasting future cash flows Client wants to know how much debt his balance sheet will bear – Analysts run the financial modelling Sometimes Analysts will attend client meetings but will not usually have primary client contact 30 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 31. These were the most active M&A advisors globally in 2011 Advisors Rank Value $US billion 2010 ranking Number of deals 1 636 2 360 2 Goldman Sachs 631 1 355 3 JP Morgan 509 3 285 4 Bank of America Merrill Lynch 387 8 254 5 Citi 367 5 199 6 UBS 347 9 254 7 Credit Suisse 337 4 262 8 Deutsche Bank 293 7 216 9 Barclays Capital 268 6 155 10 Lazard 248 10 216 11 Rothschild 236 11 248 12 Nomura 164 13 187 13 BNP Paribas 143 15 127 14 Evercore Partners 142 14 65 15 31 Morgan Stanley Societe Generale 137 28 96 Source: http://thomsonreuters.com. IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 32. In the next tier of 15, the advisors are very different institutions The Accountancy firms – – – PriceWaterhouseCoopers Ernst & Young Deloitte and Touche The Regional Experts – – – Enskilda (Nordic) Mediobanca (Italy) Santander Global Banking (Spain) The Boutique Investment Banks – – – – 32 Greenhill & Co (generalist boutique) GPKCCW (Financial Services boutique) Allen & Company (entertainment industry boutique) Blackstone Group IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 33. There are significant regional variations that you should be aware of Announced Deals 2011 Advisors Global Value $US billion US ranking European ranking Asian ranking 1 647 1 1 1 2 Morgan Stanley 511 2 2 3 3 JP Morgan 482 3 3 7 4 Credit Suisse 401 5 5 6 5 Bank of America Merrill Lynch 395 4 11 5 6 Citi 383 6 6 2 7 Barclays Capital 327 7 7 16 8 Deutsche Bank 273 11 4 8 9 UBS 261 10 9 4 10 Lazard 250 8 13 N/A 11 Rothschild 224 12 8 9 12 33 Goldman Sachs Evercore 166 9 N/A N/A http://www.politico.com/static/PPM153_bb_080110.html IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 34. M&A volume collapsed in 2007 and is showing clear signs of a double-dip Worldwide Announced M&A Quarter by Quarter 2007 34 Source: http://bankerthomsonib.com. 2008 2009 IB Grenoble 2012 2010 2011 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 35. What is the state of Corporate Finance? The last full year (2011) was weak, particularly in the second half of the year – M&A deals announced worldwide were up 7% in value in 2011 year on year, but 5% down in volume – Volume reached $2.6 trillion in 2011 ($2.4 trillion in 2010) but first half volume amounted to $1.5 trillion; second half was $1.1 trillion, down 24% – Emerging Markets M&A in 2011 reached $667 million versus $806.3 billion in 2010. – The only really buoyant area was Private Equity M&A, which was up 32% year on year. – Goldman’s Net Fee Income from M&A was $1.8 billion last year versus $2.1 billion in 2010 (over $3 billion in 2007) 35 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 36. What do you see happening in M&A right now? M&A was down 17% in the first 9 months of 2012 versus the same period last year. $ 1.7 trillion versus $ 1.9 trillion for the first 9 months of 2011 Q1 2012 was the weakest quarter for M&A since the first quarter of 2009 ($485 billion), but Q2 and Q3 were a lot stronger ($626 billion and $552 billion respectively), so maybe we are coming slowly out of the double dip. France has been particularly badly hit. New deals completed in the first 9 months of this year were 71% down in value on the first 9 months of 2011. Emerging Markets M&A in 2012 has reached US$ 465 billion, a 7% decrease compared to 2011. Now driving 28% of M&A worldwide Completed advisory fees were down 22% for the first 9 months of 2012 and totalled $ 11.7 billion http://online.thomsonreuters.com/DealsIntelligence/Content/Files/2Q10_MA_Financial_Advisory_Review.pdf 36 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 37. Which sectors were active in 2011? http://online.thomsonreuters.com/DealsIntelligence 37 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 38. The deals announced this year are mostly trade transactions. No major Private Equity deals so far. Announced M&A transactions YTD (June 2012) Acquiror Target $ billion 1 Glencore Xstrata Plc 48.8 2 FROB Banco Financiero y de Ahorros 23.8 3 Shareholders ConocoPhillips Refining & Marketing 21.7 4 Walgren Co Alliance Boots GmbH 21.4 5 Anheuser-Busch Inbev Grupo Modelo SAB de CV 20.1 6 Electrobel International Power Plc (40.9%) 12.9 7 Nuclear Damage Liability TEPCO (75.7%) 12.6 8 Eaton Corp Cooper Industries Plc 12.2 9 Nestle SA Pfizer Nutrition 11.9 Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc Archatone –Smith Trust (26.5%) 11.8 10 http://online.thomsonreuters.com/DealsIntelligence 38 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 39. Are Corporate Finance Divisions recruiting? In the major investment Banks outside of France, the 2013 Graduate Programme has largely been filled out of the 2012 Summer internship. Your best way in is through a Summer Internship in 2013. Alternatively, look for a 2013 Spring week internship Within France, the usual route in is through internships. There are a number of these internships available, but full-time roles are very selective. 39 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 40. Are Corporate Finance Divisions recruiting? Boutiques are recruiting (VTB, Jefferies), but the numbers they recruit are relatively small. Some of these boutiques outsource their graduate and internship recruiting to firms such as The Cornell Partnership. www.cornellpartnership.com Some firms have difficulty filling their internships in the second half of the gap year. (E.g. Rothschilds) Don’t overlook the Transaction Services arms of the Big 4, or Audit. 40 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 41. Private Equity © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 42. What is Private Equity? A Private Equity company raises a fund with external investors to make acquisitions (quoted or unquoted) on a leveraged basis Time horizon for holding the investment is 3-4 years Private Equity companies, therefore, compete for acquisitions with trade purchasers The funds can be huge. Latest Blackstone fund is $21.0 billion Which division of a bank does it sit in? – – – 42 Asset Management (Morgan Stanley). External Investors. Equities (Goldman Sachs). It’s the purchase of the shares of a company. Separate entity (JP Morgan). It competes with the bank’s clients. IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 43. What are the differences between Private Equity acquirers and Public Company acquirers? Leverage – – – – – The banks were prepared to lend up to 5 times the Private Equity investment Huge ‘return on investment’ Private Equity companies are paid back before the banks Leaves the private equity funds free to play again What would happen if the debt markets dried up? Quality of Management – – – – Operating in the Private Sector Not driven by short-term earnings performance Private Equity companies can attract top quality management And they can remunerate management They are major clients of the Investment Banks – – – – – 43 M&A advisory on both purchases and sales Equity Debt Syndicated loans Financing and re-financing IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 44. How is a Private Equity company structured? Origination Group • Usually a senior who liaises with the Corporate Finance departments 44 Evaluation Group • The team that values the target company, and assesses its prospects Funding Group • The team that decides on the appropriate mix of senior debt/intermediate and equity and external co-investors IB Grenoble 2012 Research • Back-up to the Evaluation and Funding Groups © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 45. The largest Private Equity funds Targeted Funds ($billion) as at August 2012 Bain Capital Fund 8 GS Partners V 8.5 Cinven IV 8.6 Thomas H Lee 9 Warburg Pincus 9 Apollo Management 10.1 Blackstone Real Estate 11 Permira IV 14.7 Texas Pacific 15 Carlyle 15 Blackstone V 15.6 KKR 16.6 KKR 18 GS Partners VI 19 Blackstone VI 21 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 Source: Financial Times/Private Equity Intelligence Ltd 45 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 46. Where is the Private Equity industry now? Institutions are once again increasing exposure to the Private Equity industry New funds are being raised, but they are small The largest Private Equity purchase in 2011 was the $7.2 billion purchase of Samson Investment Co. (a US Oil & Gas producer) by KKR More than 1,700 deals have been announced this year. The Carlyle Group, in particular, has announced 33 deals year to date worth $16 billion, the highest number of deals it has undertaken since 2007 Still a large number of work-outs and write-downs in the Private Equity funds’ portfolios Many of the larger funds remain unspent 46 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 47. Are Private Equity companies recruiting? There is some graduate recruitment but relatively small scale Private Equity companies tend to be lean, and delegate a lot of the technical work to bank Corporate Finance departments For example, KKR employs only 320 people worldwide vs 565,000 employees in portfolio companies and $107 billion of revenues from portfolio companies Corporate Finance, Audit and Acquisition Finance are, therefore, the usual stepping stones into Private Equity Don’t overlook the mid-sized firms, eg 3i, Candover, Apax, Cinven 47 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 48. Investment Banking involves four main activities Corporate Finance – – – – – Financial Advisory Advice on M&A Private Equity Debt Capital Markets Origination Equity Capital Markets Origination FICC – – Sales & Trading Research Equities – – Sales & Trading Research Support Functions – – – – – Finance Compliance Risk (Market,Credit, Operational) Audit Operations Skills and Opportunities required in Banking 48 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 49. What does FICC mean? FICC refers to the Fixed Income, Currency and Commodites products within – – – – Sales Trading Structuring Research The feeder of the business is the origination of fixed income securities issued by governments or corporates, which is called DCM or Debt Capital Markets. 49 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 50. What asset classes do you find in FICC? How are the product teams split up? Interest Rate Products Credit Products • Flow Products (gov’t bonds, swaps, options) • Flow Products (Credit Default Swaps, Corporate Bonds, Distressed or High Yield bonds - Junk) • Structured products (rates linked notes, complex derivatives – reverse floaters, IR spread options – barrier options, PRDC) Commodities Currency Products • Metals • Flow Products (Forex spot, Forex swap, forwards, Forex Options • Agricultural Products • Structured products (Forex linked notes) • Energy (Natural Gas, Oil, Electricity) • Securitized Products (Asset Backed Securities, Mortgage Backed Securities) • Structured Products (CDO Collateralised Debt Obligations, CLO – Collateralised Loan Obligations) • Emerging Markets from BRIC, LATAM, MENA, APAC 50 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 51. How is a Fixed Income (FICC) division structured? How is each department structured? Origination/ Syndication Trading • Underwriting and Placement of new bond issues. • Client Execution • Prices new issues • Proprietary Trading • Researches pricing on previous new issues • Arbitrage (relative value trading, cash and carry,statistical arbitrage.) • Types of bonds that can be issued: Agency Bonds, Corporate Bonds, Distressed debt, government bonds, sovereign bonds, municipal bonds 51 • Market Making • Portfolio Risk Management Structuring • Propose solutions to clients for complex investment or liability management. - Tax effective products - Structuring derivative products across all FICC asset classes. - Complex derivative pricing. IB Grenoble 2012 Sales • Usually divided into product focus (flow/structured across all FICC products). Flow product sales are usually divided into asset class groups (commodities, credit, rates, but structured products could be sold out of one team). • Then further divided into Client focus: Corporate clients/Institutional clients (insurance, a m, pf) Research • Research prepared for clients • Gives ideas to Sales & Clients (increasingly focused on Clients and working more closely with the sales trading desks to give Clients ideas) as long as not in violation of chinese wall. • In-house quants model research for valuation and trading of complex derivatives. © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 52. Who are the major originators of international bonds? Eurobond New Issues 2011 Bookrunners Proceeds US$ billion Market share # of issues 2010 Ranking Barclays Capital 249.0 8.2 627 1 Deutsche Bank 242.5 8.0 903 3 JP Morgan 232.7 7.7 737 2 BNP Paribas 169.3 5.6 515 9 Citi 169.2 5.6 511 6 HSBC 168.8 5.6 568 5 Bank of America Merrill Lynch 164.7 5.4 589 4 UBS 139.7 4.6 424 7 Goldman Sachs 136.0 4.5 388 11 Morgan Stanley 119.0 3.9 413 12 Industry total 52 Source: http://banker.thomsonib.com/ 3,027 4,788 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 53. Bond issuance was down for the second year running in 2011 US$ billion Volume of New Eurobond Issues 53 Source: http://banker.thomsonib.com/ IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 54. What is happening in the debt issuance market now? Global Debt Capital Markets activity increased by 4% to $2.8 trillion during the first 9 months of 2012 compared to the same time last year, thanks to a strong Q1 and Q3. Nevertheless, there is a “flight to quality” going on. Investors are seeking out Government Bonds, Agencies and Investment Grade Debt, particularly Investment Grade Corporate Debt. Q2 2012 was particularly poor - global activity at $1.1 trillion was down 50% compared to Q2 of 2011 and compares to $1.7 trillion in Q1 2012. This coincided with real concerns about Greek Sovereign debt default Fee income has increased by 15% in the first 9 months of 2012, compared to the same period last year. High Yield debt has been surprisingly strong – up 12% year on year, evidence that the hedge funds are back in the market. JP Morgan is currently in top spot in league tables. 54 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 55. What is happening in the commodities market? January 1st 2009 September 1st 2012 Copper $7,670 Aluminium $1,412 $1,962 Gold $878 $1,737 Oil (Brent Crude) 55 $2,825 $45 $114.25 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 56. Which commodity divisions recruit MScs? The Commodity divisions of the Investment Banks have been big recruiters of MSc. students in recent years. All the major banks have been involved, particularly Barclays, Citi and JP Morgan They have recruited in Sales, Trading, Structuring and Research, as well as Middle Office functions and Risk. Preliminary indications from the Recruiters are that Risk is likely to be the focal point this year. 56 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 57. How are the other asset classes in FICC doing? FX Rates Credit The main trend is flow or lightly structured products – NOT complex structured products. 57 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 58. Which banks have the largest market share in FX? http://www.euromoneyfix.com/Article.aspx?ArticleID=2191629&PageID=3594%20%20for%20fx%20info 58 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 59. What would a graduate do in FICC? Origination pitches financing to a client – Analysts might do some financial modelling and put the pitch presentation together. Sales desk wants to expand – Junior members work with senior members putting term sheets and marketing presentations together and trying to understand the products. May have some administration email follow up with clients regarding an order. Client wants a structured deal – juniors work with the senior structurers often working on term-sheets and complex pricing simulation to better understand the products. Trading needs more man-power – Junior would put together spreadsheets that run risk reports and book trades. Do a lot of spread sheet programming to better capture trading data, including risk parameters. Research needs to recruit – 59 Analysts would crunch historical data to analyze market behaviour. Synthesizes research that a senior member has produced to get ready for distribution. IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 60. Are the FICC divisions of banks recruiting? There are still plenty of internships, particularly in Sales Outside of France, the only way into a Graduate Programme is through a SUMMER Internship. Even better, try a SPRING internship. Be aware of the application periods and deadlines. They normally start in September and end in November, but November is an end date. Often banks are full before then. 60 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 61. Investment Banking involves four main activities Corporate Finance – – – – – Financial Advisory Advice on M&A Private Equity Debt Capital Markets Origination Equity Capital Markets Origination FICC – – Sales & Trading Research Equities – – Sales & Trading Research Support Functions – – – – – Finance Compliance Risk (Market,Credit, Operational) Audit Operations Skills and Opportunities required in Banking 61 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 62. What is an Equities Division? Deals in shares, of course, but also convertibles which are treated as Equity, not Debt New issuance drives the market a. Previous issuers raising additional Equity (“Secondary Offerings”) - to replace debt - to restructure stretched balance sheet - to finance acquisitions b. First time issuers: IPOs (“Initial Public Offerings”) - worth $164 billion in 2011 globally versus Total Equity Issuance of $617 billion (27% of total) - can be from emerging markets seeking an international investor base (India, Eastern Europe, China etc) and equity with which to make acquisitions - frequently part of a government’s privatisation programme (e.g. EDF, Air France, ENEL) - IPOs were up 131% in 2010, driven by Chinese issuance, but decreased by 40% last year. 62 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 63. The largest IPOs to date (as at June 2012) $ billion Agricultural Bank of China Industrial & Commercial Bank of China AIA Group Ltd NTT Mobile Comms Visa Inc ENEL Facebook General Motors Deutsche Telecom Bank of China OAO Rosneft AT&T Wireless 63 IB Grenoble 2012 19.2 19.1 18.5 18.1 16.6 17.4 16.0 15.8 12.5 11.1 10.7 10.6 Date October 2010 October 2006 October 2010 October 1998 March 2008 October 1999 May 2012 November 2010 November 1996 June 2006 March 2006 April 2000 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 64. The effect is to create institutions with a widely quoted share base Top Banks by Market Capitalisation (as at January 2012) Source: FT 64 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 65. How is an Equities division structured? Syndication/ Origination • Underwriting and Placement of new issues. • Prices new issues • Researches pricing on previous new issues • Works with Derivatives team for risk hedging purposes Trading • Market Making (single stock option/index option trading) • Proprietary Trading (cash equity,single stock option/index option trading, long/short etc.) • Arbitrage (merger arbitrage, basket trading,statistical arbitrage and high frequency trading.) Sales Trading and Execution Services Sales Structuring • Executes sales orders for clients • Usually divided into product focus (cash/derivatives). • Electronic Trading Platforms could include; execution services, algorithmic trading, direct market access (DMA services) • Cash Equity Sales/research sales: Interprets Analysts’ recommendations and sells ideas to institutional clients. • Propose solutions to clients for complex investments and capital preservation. • Derivatives sales usually covering institutional clients and selling risk hedging solutions, or capital guaranteed investment products. • Portfolio Risk Management • Stock lending 65 IB Grenoble 2012 - Tax effective products - Structuring derivative products including hybrids (ex equity inflation product). - Complex derivative pricing. - Sectorial basket structuring – bespoke index products. © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 66. Which are the leading houses for EMEA Equities? All EMEA Equity and Equity Related Issues 2011 66 Source: http://banker.thomsonib.com/ IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 67. Outside of the top 10 who are in the top 20 as equity issuance advisors? JP Morgan tops ECM rankings list. 11 12 UniCredit 13 Nomura 14 ING 15 Société Générale 16 VTB Capital 17 SEB Enskilda 18 Royal Bank of Scotland 19 Mediobanca 20 67 HSBC RMB Holdings Ltd http://online.thomsonreuters.com/DealsIntelligence/Content/Files/2Q10_Equity_Capital_Markets_Review.pdf IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 68. What kinds of products do you see in the equities division? Flow • Single stock • Block trades • Single Stock options • Index options • ETF’s (Exchange traded funds) Structured • Equity linked EMTN (European Medium Term Note) • Complex Equity Derivatives (eg. reverse convertibles). • Convertible bonds 68 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 69. Where is the Equities market? New Issue Volume, Worldwide US$ billion New issuance fell by 28% in 2011 IPOs and Follow-on’s were down across all geographical areas 69 Source: http://banker.thomsonib.com/ IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 70. How are Equity Issuances doing this year…? Global ECM activity was down 14% in the first 9 months of this year. Q1 was the slowest quarter in 2 years, down 52% on the same period last year IPOs were down 41% on the same period last year This was despite the $16 billion IPO by Facebook in Q2. As a result of Facebook, the volume of $42.4 billion for Q2 was double that of Q1. Follow-on’s, however, are running at roughly the same level as last year. Fees are down by 29%, the lowest level since 2003 http://online.thomsonreuters.com/DealsIntelligence/Content/Files/2Q10_Equity_Capital_Markets_Review.pdf 70 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 71. Which industries were the most active...? 5 sectors currently account for nearly three-quarters of activity. 13% Financial Financial Issuers were 11% strongest in 24% the overall volume with 24%. Energy & Power Materials Energy & Power 14% 13% 14% Industrials pie chart Materials 14% High Technology 11% 14% Real Estate Industrials 11% Other High Technology 13% Real Estate 11% The remnant was shared by High Tech (8%), Consumer (6%), Media & Entertainment (4%), Retail (2%), Healthcare (2%) and Telecoms (1%) http://online.thomsonreuters.com/DealsIntelligence/Content/Files/2Q10_Equity_Capital_Markets_Review.pdf 71 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 72. What would a graduate do in Equities – from cash to derivatives? Client looks for risk hedging solution for Equity exposure – Sales bring structurers into the deal to create appropriate structured solutions for the client. Research needs to get out a report on the European Chemical Industry – Analyst works with senior industry analysts and evaluates companies within industry Sales need to expand client coverage – Junior sales would be given some small accounts or work with senior sales to make presentations or term sheets. Trading needs more man power – 72 Juniors would help senior traders, and might start just with setting up pricing spreadsheets or risk spread sheets to get them familiar with the products. IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 73. Are Equities recruiting? It is never as strong an area for recruitment as Debt. ECM and Equity Markets hire relatively few graduates. Both are very competitive areas Same process as for FICC. The only way into a Graduate Programme outside of France is through a SUMMER or SPRING Internship There are internships with the French and international institutions in both Sales and Equity Research Jobs in Equity Research are hard to find. The sector has contracted by about a third in 4 years, and Debt and Equity Research teams are being merged in a number of houses Look at institutions with a weak equity presence that are trying to expand, for example Unicredit, Macquarie, MUFJ, Daiwa, Standard Chartered etc. 73 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 74. In the Investment Banking lecture this morning we will be looking at: Corporate Finance – – – – – Financial Advisory Advice on M&A Private Equity Debt Capital Markets Origination Equity Capital Markets Origination FICC – – Sales & Trading Research Equities – – Sales & Trading Research Support Functions – – – – – Finance Compliance Risk (Market,Credit, Operational) Audit Operations Skills and Opportunities required in Banking 74 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 75. Support Functions © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 76. How are the Support Functions structured? Risk Management Finance • Consists of 3 main risks; • Reporting into the CFO includes; Compliance • Compliance consists of; • Credit Risk • Product Control • Regulatory risk/ relationships, • Operational Risk • Financial Control • Asset class specialists • Management Reporting • Trade surveillance • Treasury • AML and KYC. • Market Risk. 76 • Securities Operations • Policy • Strategy • Provides independent opinions on the firm’s control environment Operations • Training, • Tax Audit http://www.goldmansachs.com/careers IB Grenoble 2012 • Clearing Operations • Derivatives Operations • Project Management © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 77. Why consider a career in any of the support functions? Gives you a broad understanding of the bank’s activities from the beginning. Allows interaction with senior leaders from whom you can gain perspective. Due to the crisis and tougher regulatory environment, the support functions have gained visibility and power within the organization. Lack of high quality senior leader pipe line makes good career possibilities for the future. $$$ - senior level support function compensation levels have been rising considerably (outside of continental Europe). 77 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 78. Are support functions hiring? YES! With more focus on internal control, all of the support functions are a hiring focus especially market risk management. Due to the crisis, the support functions have gained visibility and power within the organization. In particular, the Investment Banks are looking for students to work in Risk 78 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 79. What would a graduate do in the support functions? Credit Risk – Work with senior risk managers to analyze ratings and counterparty risk associated with perspective or existing clients. Market Risk – Work closely with traders to make sure portfolios are marked correctly; respect of Value at Risk (VAR) limits, and look at risk factors including stock prices, interest rates, foreign exchange rates, commodity prices, volatility etc. Audit – Junior auditors would be sent on missions to verify the firm’s control environment. Finance – 79 Junior product controller would work closely with the traders to make sure that the trades are booked correctly. IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 80. In the Investment Banking lecture this morning we will be looking at: Corporate Finance – – – – – Financial Advisory Advice on M&A Private Equity Debt Capital Markets Origination Equity Capital Markets Origination FICC – – Sales & Trading Research Equities – – Sales & Trading Research Support Functions – – – – – Finance Compliance Risk (Market,Credit, Operational) Audit Operations Skills and Opportunities required in Banking 80 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 81. Skills and Opportunities in Banking © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 82. In all of these departments, there are only 5 roles You’re EITHER an Originator of New Business – OR you’re a Product Specialist/deal doer – OR you’re in Research/Analytics – OR you’re in Sales – OR you’re in Trading 82 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 83. In all of these departments, there are only 5 roles Origination Product Delivery Product Research Corporate Finance Relationship Manager Corporate Financier Analyst/ Researcher - - Corporate Lending Relationship Manager Corporate Banker Credit Analyst - - Loan Syndication Relationship Manager Loan Syndication Officer Researcher Asset Salesman Asset Trader Debt Relationship Manager - Structured Products - Syndicate Research Analyst Debt Salesman Debt Trader Equity Relationship Manager - Structured Products - Syndicate Research Analyst Equity Salesman Equity Trader Asset Management Senior Product Delivery People Asset Manager Research - - Private Banking Relationship Manager Research Analyst - Client Execution Trader Private Equity Senior Product Delivery People - - Institutional Sales Trading - Asset Manager 83 – Specialist Product People Evaluation Team Analyst/ Researcher IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 84. Personality traits needed to work in Banking Energetic Enthusiastic Team player Willing to work all hours Ability to work under pressure Numerate Articulate Innovative A problem solver Seeks new ideas Driven High performer 84 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 85. Personality traits required for an Originator Relationship Manager Generalist Extrovert A people person Good at marketing Good listening skills Enjoys negotiation Needs stimulation of varied deals (may get bored easily) Creative 85 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 86. Personality traits needed as a Product Specialist Corporate Financier Asset Manager Does not need to be extrovert More than usually numerate Good communicator of complex ideas Deeply interested in his product area Explains product to client in a way he will understand Has a clear idea of value (Asset Manager/Financier) Advisor 86 IB Grenoble 2012 All the same characteristics, but acts as a Principal not an Advisor, and therefore has a longer-term time horizon than an Advisor. Lives with the consequences of his decisions. © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 87. Personality traits needed in Product Support/Research Researcher Quantitative Analyst More than usually analytical Highly numerate Good oral and written presenter Will need to ‘sell’ ideas to investors and/or internally Known for original ideas Likes exploring new sources of information 87 IB Grenoble 2012 Exceptionally numerate Capable of being a PhD Excellent at modelling Has new ways of looking at problems Creative Likes taking a solution to the next rung © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 88. Personality traits needed in Sales & Trading Sales Trading Outgoing Clients trust him/her Receptive to new ideas Good at packaging ideas for client Will fight the trader to get the best price for client Value aware Will look after the same clients year after year Enjoys new product 88 IB Grenoble 2012 Not much external contact Thrives on pressure Real feel for value Could enjoy anything from very unsophisticated product (spot fx) to very sophisticated (derivatives) A risk taker but also someone who will think hard about minimising risk © Patrick Fearon 2012
  • 89. But there is good news too… You don’t need me to tell you that it’s a very difficult marketplace this year The recruiters tell us that they intend to recruit in the same numbers as last year Investment Banks will still need Analysts and Associates. In the second lecture we will look at the strategy and stepping stones you might adopt But don’t ignore internships and go broad in your choice of employer And above all, ensure that you are prepared for the interviews you are offered Good luck will come if you are PREPARED! 89 IB Grenoble 2012 © Patrick Fearon 2012