Computer for individual use
DESKTOP:- The main screen that you see when you turn your computer on is
called the desktop. Here is where you can change and customize the look and
feel of your computer to have it the way you want it. You can also add
shortcuts to programs and files for easy and quick access.
Work Station:- is a computer designed for technical or scientific applications.
Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly
connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. A
workstation also has greater multitasking capability because of additional
random access memory (RAM), drives and drive capacity. A workstation may
also have a higher-speed graphics adapters and more connected peripherals.
TABLET:- A tablet computer, or simply tablet, is a mobile computer with
display, circuitry and battery in a single unit. Tablets are equipped with
sensors, including cameras, microphone, accelerometer and touchscreen,
with finger or stylus gestures replacing computer mouse and keyboard.
Tablets may include physical buttons, e.g., to control basic features such as
speaker volume and power and ports for network communications and to
charge the battery. An on-screen, pop-up virtual keyboard is usually used for
SMART PHONE:- Devices that combined telephony and computing were first
conceptualized in 1973, and were offered for sale beginning in 1993. The
term "smartphone" first appeared in 1997, when Ericsson described its GS 88
"Penelope" concept as a Smart Phone. or smart phone, is a mobile phone
with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than basic feature
phones. Early smartphones typically combined the features of a mobile phone
with those of another popular consumer device, such as a personal digital
assistant (PDA), a media player, a digital camera, and/or a GPS navigation
unit. Modern smartphones include all of those features plus the features of a
touchscreen computer, including web browsing, Wi-Fi, and 3rd-party apps
NOTEBOOK:- Notebooks are one type of portable computer. Like any other
laptop-like product, a notebook has a keyboard with an attached screen. A
notebook's screen is thinner than the usual desktop computer monitor
because the machine is designed to be portable, which is why the notebook
itself is small, compact, and lightweight. Depending on the size of the
notebook, its keyboard may also be smaller than the keyboard you use with
your desktop computer. Most notebooks have Wi-Fi and Bluetooth
connections. Thicker models also have Ethernet ports, USB ports, and optical
drives for CDs and DVDs
HANDHELD:- A handheld computer is a computer that can conveniently be
stored in a pocket (of sufficient size) and used while you're holding it. Today's
handheld computers, which are also called personal digital assistants (PDAs),
can be divided into those that accept handwriting as input and those with
small keyboards. A number of companies now combine voice and data
telephone service using cellular telephone or other wireless technologies with
the handheld computer in a single device.
DUMB TERMINAL:- A dumb terminal is a device that consists of a monitor,
keyboard and connection to an intelligent computer like a server PC or
mainframe computer. Dumb terminals are commonly used by banks, airlines
and other entities for data input and output. such firms for inputting data to,
and recalling it from, the connected computer.
a computer operating terminal that can carry out some data processing, as
well as sending data to and receiving it from a central processor. A computer
input/output device with its own memory and logic circuits which can perform
certain operations normally carried out by the computer. Also known as smart
DATA BASE:- A database is a collection of files kept together within a computer
application that can be eailsy accessed and retrieved. A common database
software is MS Access. A database is a program that records an extensive amount of
data or records in order for the user to access it and retrieve the records. Some
examples of databases would be tax information for a large company or payroll
KEYBORD INPUT:- In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style device, which
uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or
electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape,
interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input device for
computers. The system provides device-independent keyboard support for
applications by installing a keyboard device driver appropriate for the current
keyboard. The system provides language-independent keyboard support by
using the language-specific keyboard layout currently selected by the user or
the application. The keyboard device driver receives scan codes from the
keyboard, which are sent to the keyboard layout where they are translated
into messages and posted to the appropriate windows in your a.
COPILER:- A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that
transforms source code written in a programming language (the source
language) into another computer language (the target language, often having
a binary form known as object code).
The most common reason for wanting
to transform source code is to create an executable program.
he name "compiler" is primarily used for programs that translate source code
from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g.,
assembly language or machine code). A program that translates from a low
level language to a higher level one is a decompiler.
INTERPRETER:- Computer language processor that translates a program line-
by-line (statement-by-statement) and carries out the specified actions in
sequence. In contrast, an assembler or compiler completely translates a
program written in a high-level language (the source program) into a
machine-language program (the object program) for later execution. Whereas
a compiled-program executes much faster than an interpreted-program, an
interpreter allows examination and modification of the program while it is
ASSEMBLER:- Assembler refers to a person who assembles a machine or its
parts. It also refers to a program for converting instructions written in low-
level symbolic code into machine code. In addition, it is a program which helps
to convert assembly language into machine language. Assembler (computing),
a computer program which translates from assembly language to an object file
or machine language format.
MOUSE:- A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a
display screen.computer mouse is a electronic device that controls the
coordinates of a cursor on your computer screen as you move it around on a
pad. The mouse is a part of a computer which provides the major way of
interacting with graphical user interfaces on a computer. A conventional
mouse that has three buttons usually has its third button or scroll wheel
between the left and right buttons. For right-handed users, the left button on a
mouse is used for the majority of mouse tasks.
KEYBORD:- A keyboard is the set of typewriter-like keys that enables you to
enter data into a computer. Computer keyboards are similar to electric-
typewriter keyboards but contain additional keys. The keys on computer
keyboards are often classified as follows: The standard arrangement of
alphabetic keys is known as the Qwerty.
alphanumeric keys -- letters and numbers
punctuation keys -- comma, period, semicolon, and so on.
special keys -- function keys, control keys, arrow keys, Caps Lock key, and
CPU:-Stands for "Central Processing Unit." This is the pretty much the brain of your
computer. It processes everything from basic instructions to complex functions. Any
time something needs to be computed, it gets sent to the CPU. Every day, it's
compute this, compute that -- you'd think the CPU would need a break after awhile.
But no -- it just keeps on processing. The CPU can also be referred to simply as the
"processor. A CPU carries out each instruction of a program in sequence to perform
basic arithmetical, logical and input/output operations of the system. The Central
Processing Unit (CPU) is responsible for interpreting and executing most of the
commands from the computer's hardware and software.The CPU could be considered
the "brains" of the computer.
PRINTER:- A printer is an output device that prints paper documents. This includes
text documents, images, or a combination of both. The two most common types of
03)DOT- MATRIX PRINTER
01) INKJET PRINTER:- It prints characters by spraying patterns of ink on the paper
from a nozzle or jet. It prints from nozzles having very fine holes, from which a
specially made ink is pumped out to create various letters and shapes.
02) laser printers:- is a type of printer that utilizes a laser beam to produce an
image on a drum. The light of the laser alters the electrical charge on the drum
wherever it hits. The drum is then rolled through a reservoir of toner, which is
picked up by the charged portions of the drum.
03)DOT-MATRIX PRINTER:-. It prints characters as combination of dots. Dot
matrix printers are the most popular among serial printers. These have a matrix of
pins on the print head of the printer which form the character
NUMERIC:- A separate set of keys on some keyboards that contain the
numbers 0 through 9 and a decimal point arranged as on an adding machine.
Numeric keypads make it easier to enter large amounts of numeric data.
Frequently, the keys on the numeric keyboard also serve as cursor control
keys. Their meanings, therefore, depend on what mode the numeric keypad is
in. In numeric mode
INTERER:- In computer science, the term integer is used to refer to a data
type which represents some finite subset of the mathematical integers. These
are also known as integral data
REAL:- computers can process all types of real numbers, irrational numbers
(those with infinite decimal points) are generally estimated. For example, a
program may limit all real numbers to a fixed number of decimal places. This
helps save extra processing time, which would be required to calculate
numbers with greater, but unnecessary accuracy.
FIXED:- As the name implies, floating point numbers are numbers that
contain floating decimal points. For example, the numbers 5.5, 0.001, and -
2,345.6789 are floating point numbers. Numbers that do not have decimal
places are called integers. Computers recognize real numbers that contain
fractions as floating point numbers. When a calculation includes a floating
point number, it is called a "floating point calculation." Older computers used
to have a separate floating point unit (FPU) that handled these calculations,
but now the FPU is typically built into the computer's CPU.
CHARACTER:- A character is any letter, number, space, punctuation mark, or
symbol that can be typed on a computer. The word "computer," for example,
consists of eight characters. The phrase "Hi there." takes up nine characters.
Each character requires one byte of space, so "computer" takes up 8 bytes.
The list of characters that can be typed is defined by the ASCII and extended
ASCII set. Some of the symbols available are pretty strange and may even
make you say, "That's quite a character.
STRING:- A string is a data type used in programming, such as an integer
and floating point unit, but is used to represent text rather than numbers. It is
comprised of a set of characters that can also contain spaces and numbers.
For example, the word "hamburger" and the phrase "I ate 3 hamburgers" are
both strings. Even "12345" could be considered a string, if specified correctly.
Typically, programmers must enclose strings in quotation marks for the data
to recognized as a string and not a number or variable name. A string is
generally understood as a data type storing a sequence of data values, usually
bytes, in which elements usually stand for characters according to a character
encoding, which differentiates it from the more general array data type. In
this context, the terms binary string and byte string are used to suggest
strings in which the stored data does not (necessarily) represent text.
GRAPHICS:- A string is generally understood as a data type storing a
sequence of data values, usually bytes, in which elements usually stand for
characters according to a character encoding, which differentiates it from the
more general array data type. In this context, the terms binary string and
byte string are used to suggest strings in which the stored data does not
(necessarily) represent text. 2D graphics come in two flavors — raster and
vector. Raster graphics are the most common and are used for digital photos,
Web graphics, icons, and other types of images. They are composed of a
simple grid of pixels, which can each be a different color. Vector graphics, on
the other hand are made up of paths, which may be lines, shapes, letters, or
other scalable objects. They are often used for creating logos, signs, and
other types of drawings. Unlike raster graphics, vector graphics can be scaled
to a larger size without losing quality.
3D graphics started to become popular in the 1990s, along with 3D rendering
software such as CAD and 3D animation programs. By the year 2000, many
video games had begun incorporating 3D graphics, since computers had
enough processing power to support them. Now most computers now come
with a 3D video card that handles all the 3D processing. This allows even
basic home systems to support advanced 3D games and applications.
Describes the combined set of all letters in the alphabet and the numbers 0
through 9. It is useful to group letters and numbers together because many
programs treat them identically, and differently from punctuation characters.
PROCESSING:- A processor, or "microprocessor," is a small chip that resides
in computers and other electronic devices. Its basic job is to receive input and
provide the appropriate output. While this may seem like a simple task,
modern processors can handle trillions of calculations per second.
The central processor of a computer is also known as the CPU, or "central
processing unit." This processor handles all the basic system instructions,
such as processing mouse and keyboard input and running applications. Most
desktop computers contain a CPU developed by either Intel or AMD, both of
which use the x86 processor architecture. Mobile devices, such as laptops and
tablets may use Intel and AMD CPUs, but can also use specific mobile
processors developed by companies like ARM or Apple.
Modern CPUs often include multiple processing cores, which work together to
process instructions. While these "cores" are contained in one physical unit,
they are actually individual processors. In fact, if you view your computer's
performance with a system monitoring utility like Windows Task Manager
(Windows) or Activity Monitor (Mac OS X), you will see separate graphs for
each processor. Processors that include two cores are called dual-core
processors, while those with four cores are called quad-core processors.
Some high-end workstations contain multiple CPUs with multiple cores,
allowing a single machine to have eight, twelve, or even more processing
Besides the central processing unit, most desktop and laptop computers also
include a GPU. This processor is specifically designed for rendering graphics
that are output on a monitor. Desktop computers often have a video card
that contains the GPU, while mobile devices usually contain a graphics chip
that is integrated into the motherboard. By using separate processors for
system and graphics processing, computers are able to handle graphic-
intensive applications more efficiently.
C.U ( CONTROL UNIT):- A control unit is a key component in all computer
systems. It works with the central processing unit to instruct, maintain and
control the flow of information. Without a control unit, a computer could not
follow directions and might not function properly. This is especially true of
electronic devices that require timing or logical thinking when in operation. It
is the "brain within the brain", as it controls what happens inside the
processor, which in turn controls the rest of the PC.
ALU (ARTHEMETIC LOGIC UNIT):- An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a major component
of the central processing unit of a computer system. It does all processes related to
arithmetic and logic operations that need to be done on instruction words. In some
microprocessor architectures, the ALU is divided into the arithmetic unit (AU) and
the logic unit (LU). Abbreviation of arithmetic logic unit, the part of a computer that
performs all arithmetic computations, such as addition and multiplication, and all
comparison operations. The ALU is one component of the CPU (central processing