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COMPUTER SCIENCE
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COMPUTER SCIENCE

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  • 1.  Computer for individual use DESKTOP:- The main screen that you see when you turn your computer on is called the desktop. Here is where you can change and customize the look and feel of your computer to have it the way you want it. You can also add shortcuts to programs and files for easy and quick access. Work Station:- is a computer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. A workstation also has greater multitasking capability because of additional random access memory (RAM), drives and drive capacity. A workstation may also have a higher-speed graphics adapters and more connected peripherals. TABLET:- A tablet computer, or simply tablet, is a mobile computer with display, circuitry and battery in a single unit. Tablets are equipped with sensors, including cameras, microphone, accelerometer and touchscreen, with finger or stylus gestures replacing computer mouse and keyboard. Tablets may include physical buttons, e.g., to control basic features such as speaker volume and power and ports for network communications and to charge the battery. An on-screen, pop-up virtual keyboard is usually used for typing. SMART PHONE:- Devices that combined telephony and computing were first conceptualized in 1973, and were offered for sale beginning in 1993. The term "smartphone" first appeared in 1997, when Ericsson described its GS 88 "Penelope" concept as a Smart Phone. or smart phone, is a mobile phone with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than basic feature phones. Early smartphones typically combined the features of a mobile phone with those of another popular consumer device, such as a personal digital assistant (PDA), a media player, a digital camera, and/or a GPS navigation unit. Modern smartphones include all of those features plus the features of a touchscreen computer, including web browsing, Wi-Fi, and 3rd-party apps and accessories. NOTEBOOK:- Notebooks are one type of portable computer. Like any other laptop-like product, a notebook has a keyboard with an attached screen. A notebook's screen is thinner than the usual desktop computer monitor because the machine is designed to be portable, which is why the notebook itself is small, compact, and lightweight. Depending on the size of the notebook, its keyboard may also be smaller than the keyboard you use with your desktop computer. Most notebooks have Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connections. Thicker models also have Ethernet ports, USB ports, and optical drives for CDs and DVDs
  • 2. HANDHELD:- A handheld computer is a computer that can conveniently be stored in a pocket (of sufficient size) and used while you're holding it. Today's handheld computers, which are also called personal digital assistants (PDAs), can be divided into those that accept handwriting as input and those with small keyboards. A number of companies now combine voice and data telephone service using cellular telephone or other wireless technologies with the handheld computer in a single device. DUMB TERMINAL:- A dumb terminal is a device that consists of a monitor, keyboard and connection to an intelligent computer like a server PC or mainframe computer. Dumb terminals are commonly used by banks, airlines and other entities for data input and output. such firms for inputting data to, and recalling it from, the connected computer. INTELLIGENT TERMINAL:- a computer operating terminal that can carry out some data processing, as well as sending data to and receiving it from a central processor. A computer input/output device with its own memory and logic circuits which can perform certain operations normally carried out by the computer. Also known as smart terminal. DATA BASE:- A database is a collection of files kept together within a computer application that can be eailsy accessed and retrieved. A common database software is MS Access. A database is a program that records an extensive amount of data or records in order for the user to access it and retrieve the records. Some examples of databases would be tax information for a large company or payroll information. KEYBORD INPUT:- In computing, a keyboard is a typewriter-style device, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input device for computers. The system provides device-independent keyboard support for applications by installing a keyboard device driver appropriate for the current keyboard. The system provides language-independent keyboard support by using the language-specific keyboard layout currently selected by the user or the application. The keyboard device driver receives scan codes from the keyboard, which are sent to the keyboard layout where they are translated into messages and posted to the appropriate windows in your a.
  • 3. COPILER:- A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code).[1] The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program. he name "compiler" is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly language or machine code). A program that translates from a low level language to a higher level one is a decompiler. INTERPRETER:- Computer language processor that translates a program line- by-line (statement-by-statement) and carries out the specified actions in sequence. In contrast, an assembler or compiler completely translates a program written in a high-level language (the source program) into a machine-language program (the object program) for later execution. Whereas a compiled-program executes much faster than an interpreted-program, an
  • 4. interpreter allows examination and modification of the program while it is running (executing). ASSEMBLER:- Assembler refers to a person who assembles a machine or its parts. It also refers to a program for converting instructions written in low- level symbolic code into machine code. In addition, it is a program which helps to convert assembly language into machine language. Assembler (computing), a computer program which translates from assembly language to an object file or machine language format. MOUSE:- A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen.computer mouse is a electronic device that controls the coordinates of a cursor on your computer screen as you move it around on a pad. The mouse is a part of a computer which provides the major way of interacting with graphical user interfaces on a computer. A conventional mouse that has three buttons usually has its third button or scroll wheel between the left and right buttons. For right-handed users, the left button on a mouse is used for the majority of mouse tasks. KEYBORD:- A keyboard is the set of typewriter-like keys that enables you to enter data into a computer. Computer keyboards are similar to electric- typewriter keyboards but contain additional keys. The keys on computer keyboards are often classified as follows: The standard arrangement of alphabetic keys is known as the Qwerty.  alphanumeric keys -- letters and numbers  punctuation keys -- comma, period, semicolon, and so on.  special keys -- function keys, control keys, arrow keys, Caps Lock key, and so on CPU:-Stands for "Central Processing Unit." This is the pretty much the brain of your computer. It processes everything from basic instructions to complex functions. Any time something needs to be computed, it gets sent to the CPU. Every day, it's compute this, compute that -- you'd think the CPU would need a break after awhile. But no -- it just keeps on processing. The CPU can also be referred to simply as the "processor. A CPU carries out each instruction of a program in sequence to perform basic arithmetical, logical and input/output operations of the system. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is responsible for interpreting and executing most of the commands from the computer's hardware and software.The CPU could be considered the "brains" of the computer.
  • 5. PRINTER:- A printer is an output device that prints paper documents. This includes text documents, images, or a combination of both. The two most common types of printers are 01)INKJET PRINTER 02)LASER PRINTER 03)DOT- MATRIX PRINTER 01) INKJET PRINTER:- It prints characters by spraying patterns of ink on the paper from a nozzle or jet. It prints from nozzles having very fine holes, from which a specially made ink is pumped out to create various letters and shapes. 02) laser printers:- is a type of printer that utilizes a laser beam to produce an image on a drum. The light of the laser alters the electrical charge on the drum wherever it hits. The drum is then rolled through a reservoir of toner, which is picked up by the charged portions of the drum. 03)DOT-MATRIX PRINTER:-. It prints characters as combination of dots. Dot matrix printers are the most popular among serial printers. These have a matrix of pins on the print head of the printer which form the character  DATA NUMERIC:- A separate set of keys on some keyboards that contain the numbers 0 through 9 and a decimal point arranged as on an adding machine. Numeric keypads make it easier to enter large amounts of numeric data. Frequently, the keys on the numeric keyboard also serve as cursor control
  • 6. keys. Their meanings, therefore, depend on what mode the numeric keypad is in. In numeric mode INTERER:- In computer science, the term integer is used to refer to a data type which represents some finite subset of the mathematical integers. These are also known as integral data REAL:- computers can process all types of real numbers, irrational numbers (those with infinite decimal points) are generally estimated. For example, a program may limit all real numbers to a fixed number of decimal places. This helps save extra processing time, which would be required to calculate numbers with greater, but unnecessary accuracy. FIXED:- As the name implies, floating point numbers are numbers that contain floating decimal points. For example, the numbers 5.5, 0.001, and - 2,345.6789 are floating point numbers. Numbers that do not have decimal places are called integers. Computers recognize real numbers that contain fractions as floating point numbers. When a calculation includes a floating point number, it is called a "floating point calculation." Older computers used to have a separate floating point unit (FPU) that handled these calculations, but now the FPU is typically built into the computer's CPU. CHARACTER:- A character is any letter, number, space, punctuation mark, or symbol that can be typed on a computer. The word "computer," for example, consists of eight characters. The phrase "Hi there." takes up nine characters. Each character requires one byte of space, so "computer" takes up 8 bytes. The list of characters that can be typed is defined by the ASCII and extended ASCII set. Some of the symbols available are pretty strange and may even make you say, "That's quite a character. STRING:- A string is a data type used in programming, such as an integer and floating point unit, but is used to represent text rather than numbers. It is comprised of a set of characters that can also contain spaces and numbers. For example, the word "hamburger" and the phrase "I ate 3 hamburgers" are both strings. Even "12345" could be considered a string, if specified correctly. Typically, programmers must enclose strings in quotation marks for the data to recognized as a string and not a number or variable name. A string is generally understood as a data type storing a sequence of data values, usually bytes, in which elements usually stand for characters according to a character encoding, which differentiates it from the more general array data type. In this context, the terms binary string and byte string are used to suggest strings in which the stored data does not (necessarily) represent text. GRAPHICS:- A string is generally understood as a data type storing a sequence of data values, usually bytes, in which elements usually stand for
  • 7. characters according to a character encoding, which differentiates it from the more general array data type. In this context, the terms binary string and byte string are used to suggest strings in which the stored data does not (necessarily) represent text. 2D graphics come in two flavors — raster and vector. Raster graphics are the most common and are used for digital photos, Web graphics, icons, and other types of images. They are composed of a simple grid of pixels, which can each be a different color. Vector graphics, on the other hand are made up of paths, which may be lines, shapes, letters, or other scalable objects. They are often used for creating logos, signs, and other types of drawings. Unlike raster graphics, vector graphics can be scaled to a larger size without losing quality. 3D graphics started to become popular in the 1990s, along with 3D rendering software such as CAD and 3D animation programs. By the year 2000, many video games had begun incorporating 3D graphics, since computers had enough processing power to support them. Now most computers now come with a 3D video card that handles all the 3D processing. This allows even basic home systems to support advanced 3D games and applications. ALPHABATIC:- Describes the combined set of all letters in the alphabet and the numbers 0 through 9. It is useful to group letters and numbers together because many programs treat them identically, and differently from punctuation characters. PROCESSING:- A processor, or "microprocessor," is a small chip that resides in computers and other electronic devices. Its basic job is to receive input and provide the appropriate output. While this may seem like a simple task, modern processors can handle trillions of calculations per second. The central processor of a computer is also known as the CPU, or "central processing unit." This processor handles all the basic system instructions, such as processing mouse and keyboard input and running applications. Most desktop computers contain a CPU developed by either Intel or AMD, both of which use the x86 processor architecture. Mobile devices, such as laptops and
  • 8. tablets may use Intel and AMD CPUs, but can also use specific mobile processors developed by companies like ARM or Apple. Modern CPUs often include multiple processing cores, which work together to process instructions. While these "cores" are contained in one physical unit, they are actually individual processors. In fact, if you view your computer's performance with a system monitoring utility like Windows Task Manager (Windows) or Activity Monitor (Mac OS X), you will see separate graphs for each processor. Processors that include two cores are called dual-core processors, while those with four cores are called quad-core processors. Some high-end workstations contain multiple CPUs with multiple cores,
  • 9. allowing a single machine to have eight, twelve, or even more processing cores. Besides the central processing unit, most desktop and laptop computers also include a GPU. This processor is specifically designed for rendering graphics that are output on a monitor. Desktop computers often have a video card that contains the GPU, while mobile devices usually contain a graphics chip that is integrated into the motherboard. By using separate processors for system and graphics processing, computers are able to handle graphic- intensive applications more efficiently. C.U ( CONTROL UNIT):- A control unit is a key component in all computer systems. It works with the central processing unit to instruct, maintain and control the flow of information. Without a control unit, a computer could not follow directions and might not function properly. This is especially true of electronic devices that require timing or logical thinking when in operation. It is the "brain within the brain", as it controls what happens inside the processor, which in turn controls the rest of the PC. ALU (ARTHEMETIC LOGIC UNIT):- An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a major component of the central processing unit of a computer system. It does all processes related to arithmetic and logic operations that need to be done on instruction words. In some microprocessor architectures, the ALU is divided into the arithmetic unit (AU) and the logic unit (LU). Abbreviation of arithmetic logic unit, the part of a computer that performs all arithmetic computations, such as addition and multiplication, and all comparison operations. The ALU is one component of the CPU (central processing unit) .