Natural gas and other fossil fuels

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  • http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/global/downloads/ser04/SER_Shale_04.pdf
  • Natural gas and other fossil fuels

    1. 1. World Per Capital Energy 80000000 70000000 60000000 50000000Btu 40000000 30000000 20000000 10000000 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year
    2. 2. Annual U. S. Per Capita Energy Use 400000000 350000000 300000000 250000000btu 200000000 150000000 100000000 50000000 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year World Per Capital Energy 80000000 70000000 60000000 Btu 50000000 40000000 30000000 20000000 10000000 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year
    3. 3. Natural Gas and other Fossil Fuels
    4. 4. Natural Gas• History of Use• Formation• Production• Reserves
    5. 5. History• China—first recorded use, piped through bamboo• Europe-gas lights used in Belgium and England (this gas was distilled from coal, wood, and peat)• William Murdoch: Scottish Engineer – Put coal gas lights in cotton mills
    6. 6. History cont’d• 1821, Fredonia New York• William Hart drilled a well 27’ deep and piped the gas to a local inn—where it lit 66 lights• Natural gas also found at Titusville in 1859• 1872: long-distance pipelines made• 1879: Thomas Edison
    7. 7. Modern Use of Natural Gas• Seamless pipes available in 1920’s but it wasn’t until after World War II that it became really important for heating• Why is it a good fuel? – No refining – Burns cleanly – More heat/unit weight than any other fossil fuel
    8. 8. Natural Gas• History of Use• Formation• Production• Reserves
    9. 9. Formation• Formed in the same manor as petroleum – Thermogenic-->4km and >150°C• Formed during the petrogenesis of coal
    10. 10. Natural Gas• History of Use• Formation• Production• Reserves
    11. 11. Production• Similar to oil but easier to release because it is much less viscous—
    12. 12. Composition of Natural Gas• Mostly methane CH4• Some ethane C2H6• Propane C 3H 8• Butane C4H10• Hydrogen H2• Some Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide
    13. 13. Production• Impurities removed• Coal scent added• Then piped – > 1.8 million km of high pressure pipe in U.S.• Middle East, Africa, South America – LNG at -162°C
    14. 14. Production-past and projected Natural Gas Production 200 150 Quad 100 50 0 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Report #:DOE/EIA-0484(2006) Release Date: June 2006
    15. 15. In Billion cubic feet World dry Natural gas consumption 120,000Billion cubic feet 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
    16. 16. Trillion Cubic Feet 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 NorthAmericaCentral& South EuropeEurasia Natural Gas Reserves Reserves Oil and Gas Journal 1/1/2007 Middle East Africa Asia &Oceania
    17. 17. Natural Gas• History of Use• Formation• Production• Reserves
    18. 18. Reserves-countries with > 200 trillion cubic feet• U.S.A. 204• Russia 1688• Iran 974• Qatar 910• Saudi Arabia 244• United Arab Emigrates 214 – These countries account for 67% of the world’s reserves
    19. 19. Reserves—how long will they last?• At the current rate? – 100 trillion cubic feet per year—about 62 years• At projected rates? – About 150 trillion cubic feet per year—about 41 years
    20. 20. Heavy Oils and Tar Sands • Definition • Formation • Pilot Plants
    21. 21. Heavy Oils and Tar Sands• Characterized by being – A. Dark in colour – B. So viscous that they don’t respond to either primary or secondary recovery techniques – High in sulphur, Ni, V – Rich in asphaltines
    22. 22. Heavy Oils and Tar Sands• Example• Bitumen—black viscous to semisolid HC material found when oil has lost its light weight volatile components
    23. 23. Heavy Oils and Tar Sands • Definition • Formation • Pilot Plants
    24. 24. Formation of Heavy Oil/Tar sand• 1. oxidation and loss of lightweight fractions• 2. Thermal maturation• 3. Biodegration
    25. 25. Heavy Oils and Tar Sands • Definition • Formation • Pilot plants no more
    26. 26. Athabasca Tar (Oil) Sands
    27. 27. • In 2003, Alberta’s reserves estimates of remaining established reserves are 174.5 billion barrels (Gb), comparable with the oil reserves of Saudi Arabia. In 2001, Alberta’s production of raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) exceeded that for conventional crude oil, accounting for 53% of Alberta’s oil production. This trend is expected to increase to about 80% of Alberta’s oil production by 2013.
    28. 28. http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/activities/CBM/alberta_oil_sands2.htm l
    29. 29. Countries with large tar sand deposits• Canada• Venezuela• Middle East
    30. 30. Extracting oil from tar sands• http:// ostseis.anl.gov/guide/tarsands/index.cfm
    31. 31. Oil Shale• Definition• Formation• Fuels of the future• Mining techniques
    32. 32. Definition• Fine-grained sedimentary rocks containing waxy insoluble hydrocarbons called kerogen• Can be converted to oil at temperatures in excess of 500°C
    33. 33. Oil Shale• Definition• Formation• Fuels of the future• Mining techniques
    34. 34. Formation• Deposited with fine-grained sediments (mud) that are rich in organic material. Anoxic environment. The lighter fraction is lost with temperatures in excess of 150.• Organic material is heavy• 5 to 25% is recoverable organic material• Rich oil shales burn like coal
    35. 35. Oil shale from AAPG• http://emd.aapg.org/technical_areas/oil_shale.cfm
    36. 36. Oil Shale• Definition• Formation• Fuels of the future• Mining techniques
    37. 37. Reserves• http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/global/downloads/ser04/SER_Shale_04.pdf World Oil Shale Reserve 3000 2500 billion barrel 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Africa North South Asia Europe Middle Oceania America America East
    38. 38. Oil Shale
    39. 39. Oil Shale• Definition• Formation• Fuels of the future• Mining techniques
    40. 40. Mining techniques• Revert to notes
    41. 41. Comparison of Major Types of Fossil Fuel• 1. Carbon content• 2. Heat Content• 3. Efficiency in Producing Electricity• 4. Environmental Concerns
    42. 42. Carbon Content• Oil contains 17% less C/unit energy than coal• Natural gas contains 43% less C/unit energy than coal• Natural gas contains 31% less C/unit energy than oil• Gas<Oil<Coal
    43. 43. Comparison of Major Types of Fossil Fuel• 1. Carbon content• 2. Heat Content• 3. Efficiency in Producing Electricity• 4. Environmental Concerns
    44. 44. Heat content Unit Heat (106 Btu)Coal Short ton 21.266Anthracite Short ton 22.244Natural Gas 1000 ft3 1.029Gasoline gallon 0.125071Heating Oil Gallon 6.49Electricity Kwh 0.003412Wood Cord 21.5
    45. 45. Comparison of Major Types of Fossil Fuel• 1. Carbon content• 2. Heat Content• 3. Efficiency in Producing Electricity• 4. Environmental Concerns
    46. 46. Efficiency in Producing Electricity • From Coal 28% • From Oil 35% • From Natural Gas 40%
    47. 47. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p2.html• US existing power plants http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p2.html
    48. 48. Electric Power USA 2005
    49. 49. Comparison of Major Types of Fossil Fuel• 1. Carbon content• 2. Heat Content• 3. Efficiency in Producing Electricity• 4. Environmental Concerns
    50. 50. US CO2 emissions 2000.0 1500.0Million Metric ton 1000.0 500.0 0.0 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
    51. 51. 2005 CO2 Emissions USA 600.0 500.0million metric ton of carbon 400.0 300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0 Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation

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