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  • 1. Motivation Theories First Year PT-MBA Marketing - Div A
  • 2. 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 3. 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 4. What is Motivation
    • Motivation
    • A process initiated by a physiological or psychological deficiency or need, which triggers a specific behavior or drive in order to achieve a Goal or Incentive.
    05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories Needs Drives Goal/ Incentive Motivation is the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain behaviors.
  • 5. Need for motivation in organizations
    • Higher productivity
      • Working at 80-95% of their ability (compared to poorly-motivated employees who may work at only 20-30% of ability)
    • Better quality work
    • Innovative
      • More feedback and suggestions for improvements
      • More feedback demanded from superiors
    • Enthusiastic
    • Commitment to organization
    05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 6. Work Motivation Theories
    • NEEDS THEORIES- What?
    • Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory
    • Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
    • Alderfer’s ERG Theory
    • PROCESS THEORY- How?
    • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
    05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 7. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 8. Problems with Maslow’s Hierarchy
    • Individual behavior may respond to several needs, rather than just one
      • The same need (e.g. the need to interact socially at work) may cause quite different behavior in different individuals.
      • The model ignores the often-observed behavior of individuals who tolerate suffering (e.g. low pay) for the promise of future benefits.
      • Some critics suggest that Maslow’s model only really relates to the behavior of the middle classes in the UK and the USA (where the research was undertaken)
    05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 9. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 10. Maslow Vs Herzberg 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 11. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
    • ERG stands for Existence, Relatedness & Growth
    • It is expansion of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
    05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories Growth Existence Relatedness Self Actualization Self Esteem & Social Safety & Physiological
  • 12. Maslow Vs ERG
    • ERG proposes that people may be motivated by more than one kind of need at the same time.
    • Maslow proposes that a person will satisfy the lower level needs before he moves up to the next level of needs and will stay at that need until it is satisfied. While n ERG, the person will move back to the lower level needs.
    05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 13. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 14. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
    • It predicts that employees in an organization will be motivated when they believe that:
      • putting in more effort will yield better job performance - Expectancy
      • better job performance will lead to organizational rewards, such as an increase in salary or benefits - Instrumentality
      • these predicted organizational rewards are valued by the employee in question - Valence
    05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 15. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
    • Expectancy:
      • expectations & levels of confidence about what is achievable.
      • to motivate find the prerequisites of individuals qualification, resources, skills, knowledge, abilities & needed development.
    • Instrumentality:
      • individual perceptions if one really gets the desired reward(s).
      • to motivate one must be consistent, observable, and accountable in the reward scheme/system.
    • Valence:
      • attitude people have in respect to rewards.
      • extrinsic factors - recognition, money, promotion, time-off, affiliation or benefits
      • intrinsic factors - increased self-esteem, fulfillment of personal standards etc.
    05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  • 16. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories How Expectancy Theory Works?
  • 17. Motivation Theories First Year PT-MBA Marketing - Div A