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Planing and decision making in Managerial process






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Planing and decision making in Managerial process Planing and decision making in Managerial process Presentation Transcript

    • Planning
    • &
    • Decision making
    • In managerial process
    • by:
    • MAAZ
    • MBA (3 rd Semester: Fall-2010)
    • ID# 9702
    Iqra University Peshawar Campus Subject : Principles Of Management
  • Topic of Presentation:
    • Planning
    • &
    • Decision making
    • In managerial process
  • Management: The attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources Organization: A formally structured collection of individuals working toward common (shared) goals.
  • Management Skills
    • Conceptual Skills : cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationship among its parts
    • Human Skills : ability to work with and through other people and to work effectively as a group member
    • Technical Skills : understanding of and proficiency in the performance of specific tasks.
  • How Do You Learn to Manage? 50% from job experience 30% from other persons 20% from education & training
  • Managerial Function;PLANING
    • What is Planning?
    • Planning involves in defining the organization goal (what to be done) and establishing strategies (how to be done) to achieve sited goal.
    • Some time it is also called primary managerial function.
  • Why Planning Is Necessary ?
    • 1 ) Provide Direction:
    • What the organization want to accomplish and how to reach the establish /sited goals.
    • By planning a clear direction comes that to be follow, in order to reach and achieve goal.
  • Contin..
    • 2) Reduce Uncertainty:
    • Planning reduce uncertainty by look ahead to anticipate changes
    • manager can estimate their consider impact of changes and then they can develop response to these changes.
  • Continu..
    • 3) Minimizes waste and redundancy:
    • When work activities are coordinated around established plans redundancy can be minimized.
    • 4) Provide ability in controlling:
    • Planning helps in controlling and monitoring the work that either this works is on its right path or not.
  • The Decision Making Process.
      • What is decision?
    • Decision means “choosing among alternative”
    • “Choosing among alternatives “ is done through a proper procedure Which is called “decision making process”.
  • Who make the decisions?
    • Managers are responsible to makes the decisions.
    • They include all the three levels of managers:
        • Top level managers
        • Middle level managers
        • lower level/1 st line Managers.
  • Contin…
    • Top level manager:
    • Take decisions like product type, manufacturing location etc
    • Middle & lower level manager:
    • Decisions include quality problems pay rising etc.
  • MANAGEMENT LEVELS AND TIME SPENT ON FUNCTIONS Planning & decision. Organ. Lead. Control. Top 28% 36% 22% 14% Middle 18% 33% 36% 13% Lower 15% 24% 51% 10%
  • Decision Situations
    • Programmed decision:
      • A decision made in response to a situation that is routine or recurring.
      • Example: starting your automobile
    • Nonprogrammed decision:
      • A decision made in response to a situation that is unique, unstructured, or poorly defined.
      • Example: deciding to get latest machinery for organization
  • Steps for Decision making process
    • Step1: Identifying and defining the situation:
    • Stimulus indicates that decision must be made. stimulus may be positive or negative
    • Example: Plant manager see that employee turnover is increasing by 5%
  • Contin..
    • 2 nd step: Identifying alternatives:
    • More important the situation more alternatives should be generated.
    • Example: Manager can increase wages, increase benefits or change hiring standards.
  • Contin..
    • 3 rd step: Evaluating alternatives :
    • Alternatives are evaluated to find out feasibility, satisfaction and affordability of alternative.
    • Example: increasing benefits may not be feasible. Increasing wages and changing hiring standards may satisfy the conditions.
  • Contin..
    • 4 th step: Selecting best alternative :
    • Considering all the situational factors choose the best alternative that fits the situation.
    • Example: Increase in wages is the best one because changing hiring standard will take longer period to cut turn over
  • Contin..
    • 5 th step: Implementing the chosen alternative:
    • The chosen alternative is implemented in organizational system.
    • Implementation includes planning organizing, leading& Controlling
    • Example: Now the human resource deport establishes a new wage structure.
  • Contin..
    • 6 th step: Evaluating the result:
    • Evaluating the result makes Sure that problem has been solved.
    • Example: Plant manger notes that after six months turnover drops to its previous level.
  • References
    • “Management” by Griffin.
    • “Management” by Stepen P. Robbin.
    • www.wikipedia.org